Tribal problems

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Tribal problems


 – As we said earlier, the problem of tribes is the problem of their integration from the point of view of the Indian nation.  The tribes have difficulty in integration due to their tribal identity, tribal sensitivity and different independent spirit.  Hence integration has been intensified by other problems:.  These other problems have arisen due to the influence of the British Raj in the tribe, the tribals contacting other Indians, government policies, etc.  like


  The problem of land withdrawal – Tribals or tribes are seriously attached to their land.  A land is more attached to them than to property.  The tribes that live in a badosh or peat such as Chench, Sejo, Bipura etc. also roam in a limited area and the area in which they roam.  The tree, fauna and real estate of that area adds a special relationship.  The tribes did not have the problem of land-grabbing before, but despite this, they did not like to live in their area, buy land by others etc.  According to 2001 statistics, most of the tribes do agricultural work.  In the last two hundred years, the land of tribals is being taken away from them.  When Gujarat Vidyapith studied two blocks of Banaskot district in Gujarat in this context, it was found that 50% of the land was taken away from the hands of the tribals and the same studies were done in Madhya Pradesh and Manipur as well.  B.  a .  The chariot has said that the problem of land degradation is not so serious in India.  Due to land extortion – the land of tribals was snatched from them due to various means and measures.


 (1) The most important reason for land withdrawal is the non-tribal savage sums of the land.  In the tribal areas, the tribals get seduced and get their land written down.

 (2) By the moneylender Mahajan and the traders, the property of the tribals is kept on the mortgage and the loan is taken away and the goods are taken with the land.  After the British took control of the tribal areas, this work was done very fast.  Often the tribals were more against the British than these merchant Mahajans, who were very autocratic in the matter of grabbing.  In the 19th century, there were tribal revolts in Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Bombay etc.

  (3) The rude attitude of the government officials has also deprived the tribals of the land. When the tribals complain against their land being taken, no steps are taken and they themselves seize the land.

 (4) Development programs, dam construction, tomorrow – even the construction of factories, the tribals should leave their land.  It falls.  D.  K.  Ramvarman said that tribals always have to be victims of development programs!  L.  P.  According to the student, due to the formation of heavy industry in Ranchi, the tribals suffered the pain of displacement.  According to Satyadev Dubey, he has suffered due to development programs in north-eastern India as well.

  (5) The new rich farmers and traders have driven the tribal farmers out of their land.  In the state, Tharu farmers have been taken over by Muslim traders, in Andhra Pradesh’s Champaran, Andhra caste farmers have taken tribal land.  According to Kumar Suresh Singh, land extortion is the most serious problem of tribals.  In most cases, this is the reason why dissatisfaction has arisen among the tribals.  The reforms that the government has made in the Land and Revenue Act due to this have also not benefited.


  Debt-plagiarism – The other problem for the tribals associated with land loss is debt-plagiarism.  In general, the problem of debt sufficiency has increased due to linking with the modern economy.  The tribals take loans mainly for drinking harab and due to the money lenders.  The problem of debt-sufficiency also increases due to illiteracy and ignorance of the tribals.  The usurers write more money than most loans.  Liquor contractors and their brokers also lure Umko by giving them liquor in Ziyar.


 Jungle Haran – Tribal communities consider their traditional authority over forests.  His relationship with the forest has been very close.  Since independence, the government’s acquisition of forests has led to the handing over of forests to contractors and the adoption of trade of forest produce like mango, safflower, karanj, tendupatta, etc. The economic condition of the tribes has become extremely pathetic.


 Drinking addiction – Alcoholic beverages are an essential part of the life of tribals.  They themselves made and drank it before the British arrived.  Jharkhand, Handia in Madhya Pradesh, Pong in Assam, Nagaland, J in Mizoram, Kali in Himachal Pradesh are such intoxicating drinks, they get intoxicated by drinking, along with this they get some nutritious ingredients.  In the British era liquor contractors were given entry, which attracted the tribals.  As it is, there are three times more domestic liquor shops in tribal areas than the rest.  Sociologists have studied this problem in detail.  Grogayan said after studying Bastar district that this has shaken his economy.  Nirmal Kumar Bose called liquor contractors an agent of exploitation.  K .  L.  According to Sharma, drinking addiction is increased by contractors, they give liquor in Dhar, arrange to sell alcohol in fairs.  That’s why Jhar Fatah.  That is why the leaders of the Jharkhand movement made selling this problem in place of country liquor a part of the movement.  Many places were made secret.  In many places the paper has been closed, yet it is not finished.



 Unstable farming practice – Many tribes are known for the practice of KhataKhata – Many tribes go to an unstable system of farming, that is, to go to one place and clean the bushes, burn them to ashes, scatter them to ashes and then sprinkle the eagle after digging.  They run the mountain of giving.  For example, Chench, Beejo, etc.  Sir – In eastern India it is called Peedu.  In 1954, the backward technique of farming was banned by the Indian government.


  At the request of Warrior Albin, it was allowed to live in certain areas, but not in certain areas.  It is true that it would have reduced yield.  But it has proved fatal to replace it immediately.  Secondly, change has proved fatal.  M / s.  T.  Chaturvedi J.  P.  Silch etc. said.  That unstable farming is not the problem.  Rather, it is a supplementary bathing of tribals, rather it is the uncle of the tribals.  This needs to be improved.  The tribes of Bharia, Laga etc. have clearly stated that General Taya has clearly stated that they do not have the strength to buy the equipment required in normal farming.  They can only do unstable farming


 The problem of education among the tribals- The tribals are cultural to a great extent, the tribal school of modern education opposes them because the tribals can enrich their culture and the tribal community could.  The reason may be the end of dominance.  In the northeast of India, Christian missionaries preached English education.  The problem of education among tribals is compounded by their economic status.  L: RN  Srivastava adopted his.  The study said that due to economic poverty, tribals do not care for their children.  B.  D.  Shami said that the current education system is designed keeping in mind the urban middle class.  It is not friendly to the tribals.  A.  Sen too did not find it favorable to the tribals.  s .  N.  According to Hath, tribal education.  Not enough resources have been mobilized for.  Among them, the percentage of literacy is very low and among the people who leave education in the middle, the tribals have the place after women.


 Health problem – It is a common belief that the health of tribals is very poor.  Many of these people have long been suffering from fatal diseases.  They do not have the right attitude towards health and they do not get many facilities even if they want to.  Their life expectancy is about 20 years less than even Indians.  U.  N.  Dhebar said that despite governmental arrangements, problems have increased due to lack of proper measures, lack of trained people, lack of communication and lack of medicines.


 Lack of communication – tribal areas are remote inaccessible areas.  Due to this, convenience, knowledge and prosperity could not reach them. Whenever the British or Indian rulers were required to extract minerals, wood or other produce from these areas, then means of transport were developed.  On the contrary, due to the development of means of transport in tribal areas, their cultivation has increased further.   According to NNRath, traffic facilities have further increased the exploitation of tribals.  In his opinion the entry of other people into the areas of tribes would have to be controlled. 






  According to VD Sharma, it would be wrong to reduce traffic facilities due to fear of exploitation.  Traffic facilitates development avenues.


 Tribal specific groups – As a result of development, social inequality and weaponization has developed among the tribals.  Along with this, a small but distinct group has developed in them.  It is equipped with education tools and other facilities.  This leadership keeps its resources more than ordinary tribal development.  a .  According to Sachchidananda, this leadership upholds government facilities and support.  a .  R.  According to Kamath, the problems of tribals increase due to this specific group.  The problem of tribals is basically integration in Indian society.  This problem became more serious than other problems.  Problems have arisen among the tribes due to which the tribal born is defeated.  These movements have been or are being carried out mostly by the expected tribes.  Till now the tribal community of India is a backward and dissatisfied community.  .


  Special characteristics of Indian tribes – The tribal population is spread all over the world but the tribals of India are different in many respects from other tribals of the world.  V.  K.  Rai Varman’s statement is also true that the tribals of India themselves are not (a) similar but have serious economic differences. Despite this Indian sociologists and anthropologists like TM Majumdar, AR Desai, Andrevate,  Aruyapyan etc. has discussed special characteristics in relation to them.


  (1) The economic characteristics of tribals in India differ in the sense that most people in the 2001 census.  Called himself a farmer.  But the reality is that although none of these do the same thing, but most people either hunt, collect blossoms, such as Birhor.  Some people are rearing animals, with toys being the most prominent.  Some people survive on craft such as Badaga, Emergency etc.  Although some people live there is only one place, but where they get farming done.  Like – Kamar, Baiga etc.  Many large tribes are now doing assured farming and as a result Santhal, Mund, Bhil, Tharu have emerged as some developed farmers.  According to Majumdar, none of the tribes in India undertake fishing and none of the tribes in Andaman do the same economic activity.  Before the arrival of the British, there was no currency in them and they used to divide labor between men and women.

 (2) From the point of view of political organization, although all the tribes are now under Indian administration, many tribes still run their own administration and they are administered by the chieftains or chief or hero.  Some tribes of Andaman are not yet ready to join Indian administration.  According to André Bete, before the integration of India, each tribe was a political system in itself and each tribe had its own political boundaries.  .

 (3) From the point of view of social organization, total kinship youth organization etc. is very important in Indian tribes.  As a result of this, although youth organizations have become very weak, but still they exist somewhere which are also the most bizarre and very important in terms of social structure.

 (4) In the field of non-material culture, they are following the practices and primary rules.  Public opinion is very important here.  There is neither a separate organization nor its separate form to follow the religion in which they believe.  Magic is not only distinguished in tribal society, but it can be practiced regularly.  They use magic for almost everything.

 (5) In the context of BARPA, there was no script before among the Indian tribes.  Santhals over the last few decades.  The Aulachiki script has been developed and the Gond people have developed the Gondi script.  Paranti dialects are different from each other of all tribes, on the basis of their character they are divided into four divisions.  One is called Indo – Tibetan which is spoken by tribes like Bhotia, Ryam etc.  The second is Indo-Chinese which is spoken by Mikir, Bodo, Qiang Long etc.  The third is Indo-Siamese who speak the emergency and the Karem people of India.  The fourth is the Austric dialect group which speaks most of India’s tribes like Santhal, Ho, Bhil, Bali etc.  The tribes of South India originally speak the dialect of the Dravidian group.  Such as – Kakamba, Tod, BadgaMalapathanam etc.  From a human point of view, there is some controversy among anthropologists as well.  s .  After studying the cavity, there is some clarity in it.  According to him, there are also Negro species in India and others have proved that most of the tribes of the Andaman Islands belong to the same species as well as some other tribes of South India.  The Dusra ethnic group belongs to the Protostalvites, which are tribes of Central India, such as Santhal, Munda etc.  The Mangolcha species is divided into two parts.  A is called Paleomagolchayt which is a species of tribes of level eastern India and another is called Tivetomangolchayad, which is called Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Palayad, which is a species of most tribes of Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkam.  These symptoms have been given only in the form of comprehensive niches, and it is certain that if we go into detail, then we will get more definite differences from it.  Like other groups and communities, tribal communities are also undergoing changes.  Due to their autopsy and backwardness, these changes have the same Indian character, but in these traditional traditional forests are increasing and modern changes are decreasing.  Answer – The people of western India are more developed in the AndhManala.  Janjatiya of South India and Andaman Deep group still lagged behind Gaekwasht.


   What are the steps taken by the Central Government in Tribal Welfare State?


 About 8 of the entire population in India.  2% and 0 of the entire population in Bihar.  About 91% of tribal 4001 had an Indian tribal number of 84, 326, 000.  These people are facing different types of problems.  Due to urbanization and industrialization, upliftment of Hinduism and Christianity and contact with geographical environment and cultural culture, these tribes are going through transition and are facing various socio-political problems.  The government, public groups, social reformers and anthropologists are all aware of them and are trying to identify these problems and solve them.

Majumdar and Madan say that the problems of tribes can be divided into two classes.  One is the problems that are related only to the tribals.  .

  According to the ax, we can place the problems of the tribe in three bastions

 1 Problems of tribes which have got place in Hindu society like Rajgond etc.

 2 .  The problem of wool castes on which the mental influence of Hindus is increasing.

  1. Tribes that are isolated from these influences and resist change.  For the social welfare of tribes, the government and administration have started various welfare programs at the central and state levels.  Before independence, there was a policy of Isolation or Separation in the British rule.  Therefore, special attention was not given to tribal welfare, rather efforts were made to establish political dominance over them.  Against which, the tribals also revolted but were crushed with impunity.  After independence, a secular welfare state was established and the Indian government started special schemes for the location of tribes and other weaker sections.  There are many types of provisions in the constitution for the welfare and place of tribes.

  First, the schedule of tribes has been prepared in all of India.  Which includes about 212 tribes and they have been given many kinds of rights and facilities for the protection of their interests and general welfare.

  Article 342 of the Constitution provides for the organization of an Advisory Council which formulates various schemes for tribal welfare and for this the appointment of a Special Officer Commissionor for schedule tribe and other auxiliary officers.

  According to Article 16 (a) and Article 35 of the constitution, there is a provision for reservation for tribals in public and government jobs.  According to the schedule of Article 244 (2), there is a provision for the establishment of Autonomous Distinict and Autonomous Areas for the Administrator in the tribal areas which will have District Committees and Central Committees.

 In addition, as per Section 46 of the fourth part of the Constitution, special facilities have been provided for improving the quality of education and economic life of Scheduled Tribes.




In the sixth part of the constitution, keeping in view the problems of the tribals, an order was given to create a Ministry of Tribal welfare in Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa which will look after the welfare of the people at the state level.  After the partition of Jharkhand, there has been talk of ending the Ministry of tribal welfare from Bihar.

  According to the Indian Constitution Article 23, it is illegal to force a person to act forcefully and Article 27 provides for the protection of minority culture.  These streams can also be considered very important from the point of view of tribal welfare and this can also change its political, social, economic etc. conditions.

  Apart from the facilities provided in the constitution itself, several schemes have been implemented by the government for the all-round development of scheduled tribes in India.  In order to bring political awareness among tribals and make them partners in the national mainstream, some places in Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha are reserved for tribals only.

 The Scheduled Tribes reserved 30 seats for the Lok Sabha and about 265 for the Legislative Assemblies.  Locals have been reserved for them in regional councils, local boards and rural panchayats at the local level as well.

  There has been an effort to make certain expenditure in various five-year plans for tribal welfare.  Various committees and commissions have been set up during these schemes.  In which different aspects of the problems of the tribes have been sung clearly and definite and correct steps can be taken to solve them.  In the fifth five-year plans, land transfer, bonded labor, debt sufficiency, supply of essential commodities and sale of land and forest disaster were accepted as a central problem to the tribals.

 Tribal blocks were also opened in various tribal areas of undivided Bihar under the Community Development Scheme.  Under this, many tribes of Choyanagpur were benefited.

 Along with this, various organizations were established in tribal areas in collaboration with the Ministry of Home Affairs and Community Development.  Which were to implement welfare schemes related to various types of problems like agriculture, irrigation, debt sufficiency, house construction etc.

  In the field of education too, several types of schemes have been implemented by the government, including opening new schools for tribals, freeing education, naming and arranging hostels in various schools and colleges.  Important work has also been done by other institutions in this area.

 The problems of tribals are also mainly of economic tendency.  In this area, important works have been done by the government.  At first, there is a reservation for them in various jobs.  Keeping in view the land related problems among the tribals, the government has implemented many such laws that are solving their problems.  The tribals of Chhotanagpur have been provided considerable relief by prohibiting the sale of land in tribal areas.  This act is called tenency act.

  The second major problem of tribals is related to debt sufficiency.  For this, the government has given special attention in the five-year plans.  Land, seed and other facilities have been provided to landless farmers in various five-year plan periods.  Along with this, arrangements have also been made to survey these things so that these schemes can be fully implemented.  The major problem of some people is related to the transferred agriculture.  For them, several measures have been taken in the five-year plans for rehabilitation and sustainable agriculture.  Like – Pilots farms and Agricultural demonstration units have been opened in Andhra Pradesh.

 Special emphasis was laid on land reforms in Assam and cash crops, distribution of funds and rehabilitation schemes for agricultural implements and seeds, land control schemes and development of settlements etc. in Orissa and Tripura.  With this view, improvement of waste land and suitable irrigation systems have been provided in various areas.  Arrangements have also been made for development of cottage industries and training centers.

 Different types of cooperative societies in tribal areas like – MazdoorSamiti, marketing.  Consumer ‘, co-oprative, labor co-oprative etc. have been established.  In this way the schemes of the Indian government are being brought among the Indian tribes through appropriate channels.

 Keeping in mind the tribals’ home problems and health problems, the government has cheated the priests of the car.  Housing scheme has been implemented for the development of tribals.  Government houses were provided for the Pahadia, Kalra, Birhor etc. under GahAwasYojana by the government.  In addition, they have also been provided some financial assistance to build a house.  In the field of health also, the government has included many types of schemes for the welfare of tribals, including free medical arrangements, vaccination, wind, and appointment of doctors in tribal areas.  The Toyo tribe has survived destruction due to government efforts.  In brief, the Government of India has implemented various schemes for the welfare of tribes.  .


  Prof.  A.  R.  Desai has presented the main efforts as follows.  _ _

  1 Establishment of multi purpose blocks for tribal development.

 2 .  Development and training of cottage and rural industries, opening of production centers for their employment.  And grant.  .

  1. Construction of settlements for tribes, especially for khadabadosh and shifty cultivators.  Implementation of rehabilitation plan.  .
  2. To provide educational facilities and scholarships etc.
  3. Reservation in jobs etc.
  4. Prohibition on taking arbitrary interest on Mahajans for diagnosis of debt disorder.
  5. Establishment of Tribal culture institution to influence cultural life.
  6. Implementation of various health related schemes.
  7. Tribal walfare institute and various types of committees etc. to implement and evaluate these schemes.  .  Thus, at the present time, the Indian government made every effort for the welfare of the tribes.  Is going .  Due to which their social and economic life is improving and the tribes are also accepting those changes and plans.  One effect of these schemes is that the social distance between the tribal and non-tribal population is getting reduced and they are in the national infrastructure.  Is joining  This process of equation will prove beneficial for both the tribes and the nation.  This is expected.



 Problems Of Scheduled Castes And Schedule Tribes, Constitutional Arrangements And Welfare Schemes



 Generally, scheduled castes are also called untouchable castes.  Untouchability is that system of society, because of which one society cannot touch another society on the basis of tradition, if touched it becomes unholy on its own and has to make some kind of atonement to get rid of this impurity.  Therefore, they are defined on the basis of untouchability.  Scheduled Caste is generally taken to mean those castes mentioned in the Schedule to the Constitution for providing religious, social, economic and political facilities.  They are also called untouchable castes, dalit classes, external castes and Harijans, etc.  Scheduled castes are defined on the basis of castes that earn their livelihood through abusive occupations, but this is not a universally accepted basis for determining untouchability.  Untouchability is primarily concerned with the notion of purity and impurity.  In Hindu society some businesses or works have been considered holy and some are considered impure.  Here the substances emanating from the body of man or animal and bird are considered impure.  In such a situation, castes engaged in business related to these substances were considered impure and were called untouchables.  Untouchability is a system of society under which individuals belonging to castes considered untouchable cannot touch the upper caste Hindus.  – Untouchability implies’ that which is untouchable.  ‘Untouchability is a belief according to which a person becomes impure by touching, seeing and shadowing another person.  Separate arrangements were made for untouchable people to live, to save the upper caste Hindus from being polluted, many disabilities were imposed on them and many measures were taken to avoid their contact.  Under the untouchables are those ethnic groups whose touch makes other people unholy and who have to perform some special rituals to become holy again.  In this regard


  Dr.  K.  N.  Sharma wrote, “Untouchable castes are those whose touch makes a person impure and has to do certain acts to become holy. RN Saxena has written that if such people are considered untouchables  In such a situation, if the Hindus had to be purified by touching, according to an example of Hattan, the Brahmins would also be considered untouchable as the Holia caste people in South India would not let the Brahmin go from the middle of their village and if recognized they would  We purify the village.





 Keeping in view the above difficulties, Hattan has mentioned some such disabilities on the basis of which attempts have been made to determine untouchable castes.  You have considered those untouchables who are (a) ineligible to receive the service of high status Brahmins, (b) are unworthy to serve barbers, kahars and lakis serving the upper caste Hindus, (c) in Hindu temples  Be ineligible to gain entry, (d) be ineligible to use public facilities (school, road and well), and (y) be disqualified from detached profession.  Uniform treatment of untouchables is not found in the whole country, nor is there any equality in social status of untouchables in different parts of the country.  Therefore, the above grounds given by Hattan are also not final.


  Dr.  D.  N. Majumdar, “Untouchable castes are those who suffer from various social and political disabilities, out of which many disabilities are traditionally prescribed and socially enforced by the upper castes.  “It is clear that there are many disabilities or problems related to untouchability which are mentioned further.


 “Ram Gopal Singh states that” the attitude of untouchability is not related to caste but to traditional hatred and backwardness. ”  N.  In Majumdar’s words, “Untouchable castes are those who suffer from various social and political disabilities, most of whom are determined by tradition to be enforced by socially upper castes.


  “According to Kailashnath Sharma” Untouchable castes are those whose touch causes a person to be impure and must perform certain acts to become holy. “Clearly, untouchability is related to the general disabilities of the lower castes of society, due to which these  The castes are considered impure and have to be repaid by the higher and touchable castes when they are touched.  However, after attaining independence, the spirit of untouchability has been banned by accepting untouchability as a social crime and ‘Untouchability – Prevention Act – 1955’ has been implemented in this regard.


Problems Or Disabilities Of Scheduled Castes


 Religious Disabilities Temple – Restrictions on entry and use of holy places were considered unholy and many disabilities were imposed on them.  These people were not given the right to enter the temple, use the holy rivers, go to holy places and worship the deities at their own homes.  They were not allowed to study and listen to the Vedas or other religious texts.  They were also not allowed to burn the bodies of their relatives at the public crematorium.

   Religious Pleasures – Denial of Facilities – Untouchables were denied all kinds of religious facilities.  Even upper caste Hindus were ordered to separate untouchables from their religious life.  In Manusmriti, it is said that no opinion should be given to the untouchables, nor should they be given the remaining part of the food, nor should they receive the offerings of Devbhog, nor should the Holy Law be explained before them.  But the burden of penance should be put on austerity.  .  .  .  He, who interprets the sacred law (for the untouchables) or compels him to do penance or atonement, with that (untouchable) himself will be drowned in the inferno called Asvrit.  The untouchables are not given the right to worship, worship, Bhagavatabhajan, kirtan, etc.  Brahmins are not allowed to perform puja, shradh and yajna, etc. here.


  Restrictions on the editing of religious rites – Untouchables have been considered unholy since birth and for this reason – rites have not been arranged for their purification.  Sixteen major rites in religious texts for purification

 Is mentioned.  The right to complete most of these is not given to the untouchables.  They have not been allowed to perform major rituals like Vidyarambha, Upanayana and Chudakaran.


  Social Disabilities There have been many social disabilities of the untouchables, the main ones being:

  Ban on social contact The untouchables were not allowed to have social contact with upper caste Hindus and participate in their conferences, seminars, panchayats, festivals and celebrations.  They have been deprived of food and drink relations with upper caste Hindus.  Even the shadow of the untouchables was considered impure and they were not allowed to use public spaces.  Due to the possibility of the upper caste Hindus being polluted with their vision, the untouchables had to do all their work at night.  In many places in South India, they were not even allowed to walk on the streets.  It has been told in Manusmriti that the marriage and contact of the Chandals or the untouchables should be with those who are equal and they should not be given the right to visit the village or city at night.


  Restrictions on the use of public goods – The untouchables were not allowed to fill water from wells used by other Hindus, were not allowed to study in schools and stay in hostels.  These people were not allowed to use items used by the upper castes.  They could not use brass and bronze utensils, could not wear good clothes and gold jewelery.  The shopkeepers do not give them food, the washermen do not wash their clothes, do not make barber hair and do not fill the water.  He was also not allowed to live in the colony or locality of other upper caste Hindus.  It has been told in the scriptures that the place of residence of the Chandals and Shwapakas will be outside the village, they will be ineligible and the dogs and mules will be their wealth.  In this regard, it has been said in the Manusmriti that the clothes or old rag of the dead person should be their clothes, the broken pieces of clay should be their utensils, these people keep visiting iron and night.  Depriving people of public facilities, not only the untouchables but even the Shudras, the instructions to get education, constitutional arrangements and welfare schemes . They were not given the right to entertain themselves by joining chaupals, fairs and haats.  The result was that a large section of the society remained illiterate.


   Hierarchy even within the untouchables – A surprising thing is that even among the untouchables, the system of storage i.e. differentiation of high and low is found.  These people are divided into more than three hundred upper and lower caste groups, the status of each group is higher or lower than each other.  In this regard  M .  Panikkar states that “the strange thing is that within the untouchables themselves there was a separate organization similar to that of the untouchables… Like the Savarna Hindus, they also had a very high and low status of subcastes, which were superior to each other.  She claimed to be


  Untouchables as a separate society Untouchables have suffered from many disabilities.  About this  Panikkar wrote, “The status of these untouchables (the fifth Varna) was worse than slavery in many ways when the caste-system was active in its youth. The slave was subject to at least one master and therefore his own  The Swami had personal relations, but the family of the untouchables had the burden of slavery throughout the village. Instead of keeping the individuals slaves, some untouchable families were associated with each village as a kind of collective slavery. ‘  No person belonging to the upper castes could have a personal relationship with any untouchables. “


  Economic Disabilities- The untouchables were entrusted with all the tasks which were not done by the upper caste Hindus.  Due to economic disabilities, the economic condition of the untouchables became so pathetic that they were forced to fulfill their needs only with the false food of the Savarnas, torn clothes and old articles.  Their economic disabilities are as follows:


  Professional Disability – The untouchables were entrusted with the task of lifting feces, urine, cleaning dead animals and making items from their leather.  To cultivate them.  The right to conduct business or to get a job after getting education was not given.  These people mostly work as “landless” laborers in the villages. These people have these disabilities.

  It was loaded that they cannot adopt any other profession except their traditional profession.


  Property Disability – In addition to commercial disability, they also suffered from property disability.  They were not given permission to collect land – rights and money.  Manusmriti states, “The untouchable person should never accumulate wealth, even if he is capable of doing so, because a Shudra who stores wealth hurts Brahmins.  Elsewhere, it has also been told that a Brahmin can confiscate the property of his Shudra servant by his own will because he does not have the right to own property.  The untouchables had to serve their masters as slaves, no matter how little they were given as a reward.  Acharya VinobaBhave started the ‘Bhoodan’ movement for untouchables’ property.


 Not enough food facilities (economic exploitation) -Untouchables have been exploited economically.  They were forced to adopt disgusting and disgusting occupations, and were not given enough in return to have enough food.  In return for their important services, the society gave them the remaining false food, discarded items and torn – old clothes.  The Hindus considered all this behavior in the name of religion justified and forced the untouchables to remain content with this system.  He was told that if he does not follow his duties properly in this birth, the next life will be even lower.  Thus the untouchables had to suffer economic exploitation.


   Political Disabilities- The untouchables have been denied all kinds of rights in the field of politics.  They were not given any right to interfere in any form of governance, to make any suggestions, to get jobs for public services or to obtain political security.  Anyone could offend and even beat the untouchables.  They did not have protection against such practices.  for them .  There was also a system of severe punishment for common crime.  The discriminatory policy of punishment is clearly mentioned in Manusmriti.  _ _ _ _ In this book, it is said that while the law for Brahmins, Kshatriyas and Vaishyas was sworn in the name of Truth, Arms and Gau respectively, before giving justice to the untouchables.  In the form of oath, arrangements were made to walk seven steps with eight fingers long – wide hot iron in hand.  The hardness of the substance shows from this that Manu has told that the lower class man (Shudra or untouchable) will be cut off from his limb with which he can hurt the upper class persons.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  He who raises a hand or stick will have his hand cut off.  It is clear that untouchables have had many political disabilities.  The above disabilities of untouchables are particularly related to the medieval social system.


  Currently the problems of untouchables are mainly social and economic and not religious and political.  For so long, being deprived of all rights, illiterate and having zero consciousness, it will take some time to improve their condition.  People’s attitude towards them will change gradually and over time they will be able to flow into the mainstream of social life.  Disabilities of untouchables are getting eliminated in cities, but in rural areas today they are visible.  The main reason for this is that grama – the pace of social change is slow, conservatism still dominates there.






Problems Of Scheduled Tribes



  Inaccessible habitat is a problem. Unapproach able Habitation – A Problem: Almost all the tribes live in mountainous areas, forests, marshes – land and places where there is lack of roads and the current means of transport and communication is not available there yet.  .  As a result, contacting them has become a difficult task.  That is why they are still unfamiliar with the sweet fruits of scientific inventions and their economic, educational, health and political problems have not been solved.  They are also unfamiliar with other cultures.  As a result, they have their own Way of Life which lacks comprehensiveness.  The problem of communication has arisen due to inaccessible habitat.  Road, post office, telegram, telephone, newspaper, radio and cinema facilities have not been reached in these areas, hence their.  Modernization has not been done and there is a hurdle in getting the unity of the country tied.


  Problem of Cultural Contact (Geographical): As a result of inaccessible geographical habitat, they have not been able to contact modern culture and they are very lagging behind in the current progress.  On the other hand, some tribal cultures were exposed to external cultures.  This excessive contact has also created many problems.  Many reasons are responsible for giving rise to the problems of cultural interaction among the tribals. 

The interaction of new cultures gave the innocent tribals their own.  attracted .  But there are differences between primitive and new cultures that they could not adapt to the new.  External selfish groups such as traders, contractors and usurers have settled among these people and have given rise to new family tensions, economic problems and physical diseases among them.  The new administration contacted them with police officers, administration and forest officers, etc., who have seen the tribals with inferiority rather than looking with sympathy.  Presently, many new industries – businesses, mines and tea gardens are being started in the places where the tribal people used to live. 

As a result, they came in contact with the new industrial and urban culture, but they were unable to adapt with this innovation.  As a result new cultural problems were born.  Christian missionaries preached their work in the name of service and took advantage of the ignorance and illiteracy of the tribals.  Due to the influence of Christian missionaries, many tribals abandoned their culture and adopted Western culture.  They began to use English dress, intoxicants, new means of toiletries such as powders, lipsticks, perfumes, oils, etc. and discarded their customs, practices, youth homes, and their ancient fine arts began to decline. 

Tribal law and justice have been replaced by new law and justice, which do not match their traditional values.  Among the external cultural groups that came into contact with the tribals are Hindus.  Due to the contact with the Hindus, the practice of child marriage flourished and language problems arose in these people.  Thus many problems arose due to the contact with the external cultural groups of the tribals, such as the problem of land system, forest problem, economic exploitation and indebtedness, problem of industrial workers, child marriage, prostitution and occult diseases, language problem, tribal fine arts.  Decline of food, problem of food and clothing and problem of education and religion, etc.


  Economic Problems -Tribal people are facing economic problems due to the current cultural connectivity and new government policy.  Due to the new policy of the land government, cutting of the forests was forbidden, in many areas, hunting and brewing were also banned, which caused the Kagatribals to adopt new methods instead of traditional methods of living.  They were prohibited from cutting wood from forests, doing transferred farming and obtaining other items.  They were forced to abandon their original residence and work in tea gardens, mines and factories.  Now they started working as landless agricultural laborers and industrial workers.  Taking advantage of the compulsion of these people, the contractors and industrialists started taking more work from them at lower wages.  The conditions of residence and work of these people are also lamentable. 

They have thus been economically exploited.  Earlier, barter was prevalent in the economy of these people, now they became familiar with the currency economy.  The traders, drug dealers and usurers took advantage of this and the innocent people were duped.  They have become indebted and have either sold or mortgaged their agricultural land to moneylenders.  Out of the tribes which are engaged in agriculture, some of them do transferred agriculture.  They first set fire to the forests and then work on that land.  After a few days, if the land is not cultivable, then in the same place, they also do agriculture.  The result is that the erosion of the land increases, the precious wood is burnt in the forests and the yield is also reduced.  The economic problem of the tribes is linked to the agricultural problem.  They lack agricultural land due to living in hilly areas.  Not only this, they also lack advanced animals, seeds, tools and capital, hence agriculture is not beneficial for them.


   Social Problems- Due to the interaction of urban and civilized societies, many social problems have also arisen in the tribals.  Earlier, marriage among these people used to take place at a young age, but now child marriages have started, which is the result of contact with Hindus.  Due to the entry of money economy, now the girl price is also being taken in them.  The people of civilized society look down upon the childish youth – houses prevalent among the tribes.  The youth was home to the tribals for recreation, social training, providing means to fulfill their economic interests and was the center of education, but now this institution is ending, which has many harmful effects.  Taking advantage of the poverty of tribes, contractors, moneylenders, businessmen and employees establish inappropriate sexual relations with their women, causing problems of prostitution and extra-marital sex relations.


  Problems related to health Most of the tribes live in dense forests, hilly areas and lowland areas.  Many diseases are found in these parts.  Many skin diseases occur due to wearing wet and dirty clothes.  Malaria jaundice, smallpox, Rohe, indigestion and genitals are also found in these people.  There is a lack of hospitals for treatment of diseases, no facilities for doctors and modern medicines.  These people are using wild herbs, chandeliers and witchcraft.  Most tribals are unaware of the laws of health.  They do not even get nutritious food.  These people have been using liquor of mahua, rice, palm, jaggery, etc.  many Tribes are destroying the population.  The main reason for the decrease in the population of the Andaman and Nicobar tribes is the prevalent disease among them.


  Problems related to education – Tribes lack education and they are growing up in the darkness of ignorance.  Due to illiteracy, they are surrounded by many superstitions, evils and misgivings.  The tribal people are indifferent to the present education because this education is unproductive for them.  Those who have taken modern education get away from their tribal culture and view their original culture with hatred.  Education today does not provide a definite means of subsistence.  Hence educated people have to face unemployment.  Christian missionaries have done the work of spreading education among the tribes, but their purpose behind this has been to propagate Christianity and convert the tribals.  Most of the tribals are able to take primary education only, they are not much interested in higher technical and science education.


  Problem of Political Awakening: After independence, all citizens of the country have been given democratic rights and made them partners in governance by the Constitution.  Today, representatives from Panchayat to Parliament are elected by the general public.  Political parties play an important role in democracy.  The traditional political system of tribes was of its own kind, in which mostly hereditary chiefs worked in administration.  The rights and kinship conferred in their entire political system had special significance, but today they are familiar with the new political system.  They are also aware of their socio-economic problems, they have started exercising their political rights in the context of solving their problems.  Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh.  His political awareness has yielded bitter results in Assam, Bihar, West Bengal and Tamil Nadu.  Their relations with administrators, owners and strangers are strained.  Political tension and rebellion has arisen in many places.  They have demanded an autonomous state.  Today they understand that their small number of compulsions have been taken advantage of by exploited groups and exploited by them.  There is intense resentment towards this exploitation which continues to flare up occasionally.  This political awakening should not take a violent form in future, it worries politicians.


 To find out the weakest link (To Find out the Weakest Link) The Commissioner of Scheduled Castes and Tribes has stated in his 1967 – 68 annual report that the problem of tribes is to find the weakest link.  The country’s scheduled tribes are poverty-stricken, but there are some tribes that are relatively poor.  Similarly, tribes have been neglected, but some tribes have been the most neglected.  Therefore, the biggest problem is to find the poorest and the neglected tribe, which is the weakest link among the tribes.  Special needs for the development and progress of this weak link should be met and their needs met.  The Tribal Commissioner has detected such a weak link in various states.  The Baran, Lean, NaiKada and Barli tribes in Gujarat;  Baiga, Gound, Maria, Bhumiya, Kamar and Mwasi tribes in Madhya Pradesh;  Bhotia, Jansari, Tharu tribes in Uttar Pradesh;  The Bhil, Dabhor and Hariya tribes fall under the weakest link in Rajasthan.  The problem of weak link tribes is more severe than other tribes.


   Problem of Integration – Many differences are found in Indian tribes on the basis of economy, social system, constitutional arrangements and welfare schemes 431 3 Culture, religion and political system.  They are different from other people in the country.  Today it is necessary that collective efforts should be made by all the citizens to get rid of the specific problems of the country and the tribes.  The tribes should consider themselves as separate from other people and connect with the main life stream of the country, only then we will be able to tackle the problems of poverty, exploitation, ignorance, illiteracy, disease, unemployment and inferior health.  To deal with these problems, cooperation of various people groups and flow and integration in the mainstream of national life is necessary.  For this, minority groups have to be made partners in the economic and political economy of the country and will have to take them along in development plans.  Thus the integration of tribes is also a very big problem.


 Problems of Frontier Tribes Problems of Frontier Tribes – The problems of tribes residing in the North-Eastern Border provinces are somewhat different from the problems in different parts of the country.  China, Myanmar and Bangladesh are close to the northeastern provinces of the country.  Our relations with China have not been cordial for the last few years.  Bangladesh, formerly known as East Pakistan, has been a bitter enemy of India.  China and Pakistan have instigated a spirit of rebellion among the tribes of the border provinces, assisted them with weapons and given shelter to rebel Nagas and other tribes leaders to go underground. 

Due to education and political awakening, the tribes of the region have demanded an autonomous state.  For this, they have organized movements and struggles.  Hence the biggest problem today is to deal with the demand for autonomy of the tribes residing in the border areas.  – From time to time efforts have been made by the Government of India to solve the problems of the tribes.  We will mention them here.



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