Biodiversity loss

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Biodiversity loss


  • Impact on Biodiversity
  • Conservation of Biodiversity and
  • Global Initiative for Biodiversity Conservation


Increasing human and livestock population has resulted in increased demand for fuel, fodder, timber and non-timber forest produce, increasing the pressure on existing natural forests. On the other hand forest land is being used for developmental activities like agriculture, industry, power and irrigation projects, housing and urban development. These developmental activities along with unsustainable human activities in the form of shifting cultivation and over-exploitation of natural resources have led to deforestation, reduction of forest cover and loss of replaceable biological resources. Thus an international approach and environmental audit of all developmental activities is necessary to ensure a balance between sustainable development and conservation of biodiversity for the benefit of mankind.


The existence, survival and progress of humanity depends on the quality of the environment. Today, the fragile environment is facing the threat of destruction on such a scale as never before in the history of mankind. Advances in science and technology created a competitive world, making man the selfish owner of the result of his knowledge. According to Maloney and Ward (1973), environmental crisis is the result of the maladaptive behavior of man, which is the root cause of environmental problems. Humanity’s struggle for a better life and higher standard of living through ruthless exploitation of natural resources thus results in serious environmental problems. Population explosion along with rapid industrialization, urbanization, indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and fossil fuels and construction of barrages and dams has led to reduction in forest cover, pollution, waste accumulation, soil erosion, floods and above all global warming. Has come The effects of all these problems have resulted in a global catastrophe. There is an urgent need to preserve and improve the environment not only for the present but also for the future generations. One would be surprised to know that 99 percent of all the species of plants and animals that once existed on this planet are extinct today. This mass extinction of species can be attributed to the five mass extinctions that occurred since the planet existed. the last o


These mass extinctions – the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction, occurred 65 million years ago, and led to the extinction of the dinosaurs – one of the most amazing species of creatures on the planet. Recently, species extinction has become a much more prominent phenomenon, and this phenomenon is directly related to the increase in human activities.


While a significant number of animal and plant species have already been wiped off the planet, many species are fighting for their survival. According to estimates, a quarter of plant and animal species on the planet have already been pushed to the brink of extinction as a result of human exploitation.

Even though we have come a long way from the rough jungles to the sky


Scraping by in concrete jungles, we can’t really claim to be one step ahead in competition with nature. We have made some serious changes to our natural environment to suit our basic needs, and some of these changes have taken a heavy toll on us. From flash floods to landslides, we’ve got some lessons to learn.


But we seem more comfortable turning a blind eye to them. Those who ask what difference it would make to the extinction of one or two species simply do not understand the importance of biodiversity in an ecosystem. The fact is that all species of flora and fauna, including humans, are dependent on each other, and the extinction of any one of these species can have a domino effect on other species that directly or indirectly depend on it.


For example, the extinction of the apex predator of a particular biome is bound to result in a severe loss of vegetation cover because the number of herbivores will increase due to the lack of predators to inhibit their growth. When we talk about the importance of biodiversity, even those micro-organisms that we cannot see with our naked eyes are essential for the smooth functioning of the ecosystem.

Play an important role in operations. For example, nitrogen, a basic requirement for plant growth, is produced by nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the soil. If these bacterial species became extinct, plants would not have nitrogen to grow, and this would result in the devastation of the agricultural sector. Wildlife encroaches on human habitat due to habitat loss and lack of food, both of which result from human encroachment into their natural habitat.

At the end of the day, biological diversity is undoubtedly one of the most important components of an ecosystem. That being said, the onus is on us to understand the importance of biodiversity conservation and implement wildlife conservation measures to save our ecosystem.

Biodiversity is made up of two words ‘biological’ and diversity. In a literal sense it is the number, variety and variability of all living forms on Earth. These include the millions of plants, animals and microbes, the genes they contain and the complex ecosystems of which they are a part. From the driest deserts to the densest tropical rainforests, and from high snow-capped mountain peaks to the deepest ocean trenches, life occurs in an amazing spectrum of forms, shapes, colors and sizes, each with unique ecological interrelationships.

The Convention on Biological Diversity (1992) defines biodiversity as the variability

Living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are a part.


  level of biodiversity

genetic diversity

It is the original source of biodiversity. The diversity of genes within a species passed down over generations is known as genetic biodiversity. Genes found in organisms can form a large number of combinations each of which gives rise to some variability e.g. There are thousands of wild and cultivated varieties of Oryza sativa (rice) that show variation at the genetic level and differ in their colour, shape, size, aroma and nutrient content of the grain.

  species diversity

Species is the unit that is used to classify the millions of life forms on Earth. Each species is different from every other species. Species diversity can be defined as the variability found within a population of a species or between different species of a community.

Horses and donkeys are different species as are lions and tigers. What unites members of a species is that they are genetically identical and can produce fertile offspring. Species diversity is usually measured in terms of the total number of species within a specific area.

It broadly represents the species richness and their abundance in a community. Current estimates place the total number of living species in the range of 10 million to 50 million (Wilson, 1992). So far only about 1.5 million living and 300,000 fossil species have actually been described.







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