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 By and large, communalism is a by-product of Indian political bets.  Its birth and upbringing has also taken place at the Indian political theater.  That theater is still nurturing that communalism very much – some openly, perhaps without hesitation.  Who is responsible for this?  This is the second question, but the problem is that this communalism has posed a serious threat to the Indian public welfare, national unity and organization today, which is waiting to take advantage of the enemy of our neighborhood.  How terrible this communalism can be in its fiery form, that split Mother India is showing us every moment with her severed limbs, and expressing her heart-ache in mental words.  Even today, that great loss of partition has not been completed.  Whereas the communal riots of Kashmir Ranchi Benaras and Aligarh, which took place some time ago, have sprinkled even more salt on that wound and also forced every student of sociology to understand communalism in real and this toxic  Introduce some constructive and practical measures to cut the abscess from Indian public life forever. 

The presented chapter is a general effort in this direction.  The term ‘communalism’ is sometimes used in very vague and uncertain meanings, as revealed by the fact that some people try to see the source of its birth and development in Hindu-Renaissance and LalaLajpat Rai, PanditMadanmohan  Nationalist leaders like Malaviya and LokmanyaTilak are called communalists.  In fact, there is a possibility of heavy confusion.  Therefore, we will first try to clarify and define its meaning. 

In fact, under communalism, all those feelings and activities come in which the interests of a particular group on the basis of any religion or language should be emphasized and those interests should be given priority over national interests and segregation in that group.  Feelings should be generated or encouraged.  The Zoroastrian Buddhists and Christians have their own organizations, as well as they engage in cultivation of the interests of their members.  But such organizations would not normally be called communal because they are not motivated by any sense of seclusion.  In contrast, the Muslim League, Hindu Mahasabha, and some other institutions will be called communal because they place the rights and interests of religious or language groups above national interests.  In short, we


  In the words of Smith (W. C. Smith) one can say that “a communal person (or individual group) is one who considers each religious or linguistic group as a separate social and political entity whose interests are from other groups.  Are different and may also have their opponents.  Such persons or Visharadhara would be called communalism or communalism.  “Has an anti-social attitude. It has to be anti-social

  This can be said because it does not hold back from disregarding the interests of other groups and also the entire country to fulfill the narrow interests of its group.  Another important thing in this regard is that the objective of a communal institution is to gain more power, prestige and political rights for its members by putting pressure on the rulers.  More clearly, a communal organization is a coercive group.  These types of groups were born in our country during the English period, and they are still present today, although they have changed a lot in their methodology.



Origin and Development of Communalism


 Mostly, individuals accept that the seeds of communalism were sown by the British government, which adopted a policy of ‘divide and rule’ in India.  Pro .  Abdul – Majid Khan has given many proofs in his book ‘Communalism in India, its origin and growth’. Com (munalism in India, its origin and growth). The growing nationalism of the Indian National Congress established in 1885  To prevent the flood, the British were thinking that it was necessary to create a rift between the main two castes of India – Hindus and Muslims. The partition of Bengal by Lord Curzon, and the adoption of a system of separate electorates of Muslims by its officer Lord Minto –  These two were heinous actions in this direction.

In 1909 this system was also implemented against the will of Lord John Marley, the then Minister of India. So in 1906 Muslim League was also formed and it gave communal attitude and feeling in Indian Muslims.  Played a very important role in generating and intensifying it. The famous Sarvodayi ideologue, Mr. Suresh Ram, wrote in a recent publication published (April 11, 1973) that “the nation’s child-child is aware of the acts of the Muslim League.  This is the basis of communalism, it considers Hindus and Muslims as not only two different religions, but two different nations, in principle, it raised the voice of the Partition of India and consequently Pakistan became one.  In his book (The Communal Triangle in India) Mr. Ashok Mehta has also expressed the view that the problem of communalism was deliberately created by the British rulers in India.  In his creation (The Problem of Minorities)  K.  B.  Krishna also reached the same conclusion


 Communalism – In present India (Communalism – in modern India) From the above description it is clear that communalism in old India or in other words before independence in India was mainly a use of English ‘divide and rule’ policy.  It was the British who instigated him.  Not only this, the British took no effort to spread the bitter poison of communalism all over India.  This fact becomes clear from the fact that the British always encouraged the Muslim League, which was an institution primarily promoting communalism of Muslims, to move forward.  At the same time it always discouraged the Hindu Mahasabha, which on behalf of the Hindus – can be called a communal institution.  And perhaps the terrible result of this, which we got to see in 1947 – was the fragmentation of Akhand Bharat.  India has two parts – ‘Hindustan’ and ‘Pakistan.

  Today there are still some institutions in India that can go communal in some form or the other, in which the Muslim League, JamaayatIslami, Muslim Majlis, Tamire – Milat, Tehad – UlalasilatanihahaduMahasabha etc. can be named.  Some of these institutions are also in the form of political parties, but they have not achieved any special success in the political field.  Therefore, these institutions keep participating in politics indirectly.  In view of the Hindu-Muslim communal riots in places like Srinagar (Kashmir), Ranchi, Aligarh, Banaras, Moradabad, Baroda, Meerut etc., it can be said that even now Sarshi dominance is not less in India.  Recently, in the conference of ‘Majlis-Mushawarat’ held in Rampur, the interests of ‘Muslims’ have been demanded.  Hindu Masasabhas also raise slogans of their demands regarding their objectives. 

Therefore, to say that communalism has decreased in India after independence is not fair.  In fact, his roots are still very strong.  Had it not been so, in November-December 1990, there would never have been major communal riots in Lucknow, Agra, Kanpur, Aligarh, Varanasi and other parts of the country on the question of laying the foundation stone on Ramjanmabhoomi.  Before the general elections in May 1991, communal riots spread in a fierce form in many cities like Varanasi, Kanpur, Meerut, Bulandshahr etc.




Evil Consequences of Communalism


  Mutual malice: Communalism promotes mutual enmity among different classes.  Communalism is not only a boost, but a major cause of mutual hatred.  When Hindus and Muslims fight with the same government for their own interests, it is only natural to become hostile and hostile.  This malice sometimes catches terror in the society;  This malice breaches the peace of society and this malice spreads the members of society.


  Economic loss: There is also serious economic loss due to communalism.  Do not know how many shops are looted, how many national property is destroyed and how many people are unable to work.  Not only this, no amount of money is spent on communal institutions.  If the same money is spent for the betterment of the public, then the public can be more happy and prosperous.


   Death: Perhaps there is no need to clarify the truth that communalism also leads to excessive death.  There is hardly any communalism riot in which some people are not known.  The examples of communal riots of Ranchi (Bihar), Srinagar, Banaras, Aligarh, Baroda, Meerut etc. are in front.  In these riots, many people lost their lives, as well as many people were lying injured to fight life and death.


  Political instability: One of the side effects of communalism is political instability.  Communalism creates the conditions, or helps to create the conditions that cause political instability in the country.  As a result of the communal riots of Ranchi, the opposition parties of the Joint Legislature Party were trying to placate the people in their own way, and the public was also beginning to suspect a one-time government.  This fact is also confirmed by looking at the communal conflicts in Kashmir.  In the recently held session of Majlis-Mashawarat of Rampur, Dr.  Abdul JalilFaridi has demanded from the government the correct representation of Muslims.  In fact, all these things, directly or indirectly, encourage communal political instability.


  Constraint in national unity: Communalism is a serious enemy of national unity.  These two are conflicting.  National unity means, all people should be united among themselves, consider everyone’s interest as their own interest.  While the communalists are totally against it – their aim is that the people of different communities fight for their own interests!  And when this struggle exists, then national unity.  How?  Threats to National Security: India is a multi-sectarian country.  Many people live in it.  And if we try among these minorities and majorities, nationalism 186 communal conflicts or tensions arise from Indian nationalism by spreading self-harm.  VinobaBhave has said that the Muslims, Christians, etc., who are in minority, should be well protected.  They should be protected from love.  If this attitude will not be there, then if you try a million, you will write down your freedom.  “Some of our own neighboring countries continue to try to create a divide among Indians, especially Hindus and Muslims, by spreading the spirit of communalism in India. It is clear that communalism poses a serious threat to national security. Apart from the above side effects, many other  There can be indirect consequences. For example, communalism also hinders economic growth and industrial development in the country. Communalism also has a strong impact on India’s relations with other nations. Communalism, however, is a fierce enemy of humanity.


Suggestions for eradicating communalism


 As it  is clear from the above description, communalism is a serious curse for humanity and in a country like India it is even more deadly.  We have to end it at any cost.  The dreadful communal communalism of humanity has to be eradicated.  A resolution was also passed in the Congress General Assembly to remove communalism.  Apart from this, Gandhiji, Acharya VinobaBhave and BabuJayaprakash Narayan have also presented many suggestions.  Following are some suggestions in this regard by Acharya Vinoba Bhave

  1. Everywhere the spirit should be encouraged that people of all religions meet and pray silently every day.  Such an atmosphere should be created in public or personal places where prayers etc. are held.


  2 .  Spiritual values ​​should be included in the teaching.  Communal or religious action – Karma is a benign thing.


  1. No trend should be created on the basis of majority in any public sector.  The whole work should be done in such a way that the minorities should not believe that they are in the minority.


  1. Everybody should cooperate together in secular, personal and public festivities – events not related to particular religion.


  1. People of all religions should be included in various religious and cultural festivals.  Ideas should be exchanged among themselves and thus the atmosphere of fear towards each other should be removed.


  1. People of different religions, thinkers and especially Muslims should run study-boards or seminars, and they should study the principles (principles) of different religions.


  1. The three-day program related to Gramdan, Shanti Sena and Khadi should be spread across the country for REDMIN.


 Apart from the above suggestions, some other suggestions can be given in this way.

  1. The government should always keep in mind that any such action can be done by it, which encourages communalism.

 2 .  The government should always enact such laws, which are equally applicable to every person.  There should not be any discrimination related to caste, gender, religion, language and community in the implementation of the law.  3.  The government will also have to campaign in this regard.  It means to say that there are different communalists in India, but if the Government of India wants to eliminate their differences, then the people have to be convinced that we are all one.

  1. Many communities in India demand their special representation in government at different times.  The government will have to reject this proposal only on the basis of communalism and they will have to ‘teach the lesson of one nation’ because they also promote communalism.
  2. Regarding language also, the Government of India has to fix its policy.  This is also a major cause of communalism in India.

  In fact, the future of mankind is in unity.  This is the sign of both science and humanity.  Everything that will come as a hindrance in this path, whether it is a nation, caste, language, religion or community, must be removed.  India has to play its special part in this regard, because cosmopolitanism and humanity have a special tradition here.  In India, people of many castes, many religions, many languages ​​and communities live.  Therefore, creating unity here is even more important, and the recent communal riots have made us even more conscious about this.




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