Comparison between Rural and Urban Community 

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Comparison between Rural and Urban Community 


Rural and urban communities are different in principle, but in practice they are so mixed. that it is difficult to pinpoint their isolation. There is hardly any community that is completely “rural” or urban. The reason for this is that many elements of the Indian urban community are found in the rural community and many features of the rural community are also found in the gay community. On the one hand, business, superstition, exorcist and rural dress are seen in the cities, on the other hand, urban clothing, food, language and individualism are seen in the villages etc. In fact this situation is of ‘Rural Urban Continuum’ which is called ‘Rural Urban Continuum’. It is said that the signs of cities are found in the village and the signs of the village are visible in the cities too. These two are not opposite communities but two separate lines of a continuum.

Kaiver and Page’ (Maclver & Page) in their book ‘Society’ Rural and Urban Communities. In comparison three difficulties are discussed.


Rural and urban difference is a Matter of Degree – In fact there is only language difference between village and town. No clear line of distinction can be drawn between them. MacIver and Page have written in this context, “But there is not such a clear difference between the two that it can be told where the city ends and where the village begins”. There is no fixed criterion.


The Manifold Environment within the city – One of the difficulties in comparing rural and urban communities is that different environments are found in the city. Different characteristics are found in different places. People belonging to different caste, race, language, religion, sect, class and occupation are found in the cities. As a result, different environments arise in the city.


The charging character of city and village: Rural and urban communities are not of permanent character but are of a changing nature. The process of urbanization and industrialization, the culture, ethics, behavior and business of the cities have influenced and changed the villages adjoining the city. They are constantly being found in the urban area. On the other hand, when the villagers come to the cities to work, they carry the urban features with them to the village. Due to this, urban characteristics are spreading in the rural community. The exchange between the two also goes on. Due to these difficulties, comparison between urban and rural communities becomes difficult. Here some of the major differences are discussed. Following are the main basis of difference between rural and urban community –




Distinction between Rural and Urban Community 


Different sociologists have discussed different bases of difference between rural and urban community. Let us first discuss the differences pointed out by Sorokin and Zimmerman. These people have discussed eight bases of difference between rural and urban community.


. On the basis of Occupation – Most of the people in the rural community are engaged in non-agricultural activities. On the contrary, people in urban community are engaged in mechanical work, commercial business and government jobs. Under government rules or administratively friendly jobs are done in the city.


. Environment (On the basis of Environment) – The nature of the people in the villages. These people depend more on the natural environment. People depend more on the man-made environment in the direct time of sunlight, rain and storm etc. For example, traveling in air-conditioned trains, using fruits and food items kept in a chemically preserved solution, etc.


On the bais of size of community – Rural community is Kama whereas the size of urban communities is very large.


. Density of population (On the basis of densitvof population) – The density of rural community is low whereas the density of population in urban community is relatively high. That is, a positive relationship is found between the township and the density.


. Homogeneity and heterogeneity in population ( On the basis of homogeneity and heterogeneity of population ) – homogeneity is found in rural community . That is, there are people of the same race, language, dress and ethics. Their lifestyle is similar. On the other hand, heterogeneity is found in the urban community, that is, there are people of different race, language, religion, dress and customs.


On the basis of Social differentiation and Stratification Rural communities have very few grounds for social differentiation and stratification. Stratification is found on the basis of caste in Indian village. The Brahmins, Vaishyas and Shudras are in this hierarchy respectively. There are different bases of social stratification and differentiation in the urban community. Stratification in cities is found in the form of class system. The basis of stratification in class is wealth, education, occupation and position etc. On the basis of these, upper class, middle class and lower class are formed. Just as sub-castes are found under each caste, in the same way there are three classes in each class (like upper-high, upper middle and upper-lower in upper class).


Mobility (On the basis of Mobility) – Local and social mobility is found less in rural community than in urban community. Often people are associated with their caste – occupation or traditional – occupation. For example, washermen do laundry, carpenters do wood work, Brahmins do worship work. These occupations give rise to the jajmani system. Through this system, each caste serves the other caste through its profession and receives service. But this is not the case in cities. Here people can change their business whenever they want. They go where they get a good opportunity. There are many forms of mobility in cities; For example, regional and local mobility, business mobility, cultural mobility, etc.


Arrangement of interaction (On the basis of interaction) – In a rural community, a person has contact with fewer people, as a result of which the area of ​​their interaction is often limited. The relations between the people in the villages are personal and permanent relations. Spontaneity, simplicity and loyalty are found in these relationships. In contrast, the contact of a person in an urban community is very wide. That is, the scope of their interaction is wide. There is a predominance of secondary relations between them. Complexity, artificiality and selfishness are found in these relationships. The relations between people in cities are superficial and temporary.


Shri Desai A. R. Desai) also discussed nine bases of difference between rural and urban community.

1. business distinction

2 . environmental differences

3. size differences of communities

4. Population Density Distinction

5. homogeneity and heterogeneity of population

6. social mobility differences

7. Distinctions related to the direction of migration

8. Social differentiation and stratification.

9. Differences in the method of social interaction.


Richard Dewev has clarified the difference between urban and rural communities on five grounds.

1. Status unknown

2 . Work division

3. social and economic difference

4. impersonal and formal social relations

5. Desire and effort to get independent position in personal background.



Apart from the views of the above scholars, the difference between rural and urban community can be clarified in the following way.


. Contraston the basis of environment – On the basis of environment, rural community is very close to nature. They enjoy clean air and clear water. They also tolerate harsh sunlight and rain. On the contrary, people in urban community live in artificial environment away from nature. live. They are victims of various types of pollution (water, pollution, air, noise, pollution etc.). The people of the village eat fresh vegetables and fruits, while in the cities people eat stale, kept in cold houses and sealed in the box.


. Anonymity – There is a dominant trait in an urban community – a sense of familiarity. People living in the same locality of cities, people living in a big and high-rise houses do not know each other. Everyone in the village knows the other person. Not only this, everyone gets acquainted with each other’s life discussions and relatives.


. One for all and all for one – Unlimited cooperation between individuals is found in rural community. All the people help each other and when anything happens to any one, all the people participate in it. There is a lack of participation among the people in the cities. In an urban community, a person interacts with only those people who are members of his functional group. They don’t care what they don’t need.


. Contrast on the basis of social stratification There is a difference in the basis of social stratification in rural and urban community. Stratification in village is based on birth, age, sex and caste stratification whereas in urban there is education, occupation, wealth and position etc. The status once attained in the village does not change whereas in the cities it is possible to change the status of the people. People bring change in their situation through their efforts and efforts. Class disparities are found in cities. There is social distance between the rich and the poor. In the village this type of manner is not there among the people.


. Contrast on the basis of economic life – Agriculture is the main occupation of the people in the rural community. Along with this small cottage industries are also there. It lacks division and specialization. Most of the people are aware of everything related to their business. For example, he knows what kind of manure he will apply in which season the animal is sick, so what is its treatment? And so on . In contrast, there are different types of occupations in cities and there is also division of labor and specialization. There are experts in everything who have a lot of knowledge about their field. They take advice from people who need them. Class struggle is seen in the cities. Such a thing does not happen in the village. There is no big gap between the rich and the rich.


. Contrast on the basis of population – The size and density of population in villages is less as compared to cities. People of different races, religions, and cultures live together in cities, while villages have similar language, culture and ethics. Life style of all people is same in villages whereas in cities their own way of life goes


. Contrast on the basis of social relations. False relations are found in cities whereas secondary relations prevail. In villages, people have ostentatious, formal and artificial relations. Their life is simple and simple. There are formal relations between people. They create and end relationships driven by personal interests and motives. According to Gist and Halbert, “The city encourages more impersonal relations than personal ones.”


. Contrast on the basis of cultural life – People in the village lead a religious life. Tradition and customs have more importance in their life. In contrast, people in the city do not take much interest in religious activities. The influence of education and science is more in cities. The culture here is variable. The culture of the village is of a stable nature.


. Contrast on the basis of social control – Village | Social control is done through informal means. Through family, religion, ethos and tradition, the behavior of people is regular and formed. But due to the high population in cities, secondary means of social control are used. People’s behavior is controlled by law, public opinion, court, army and police. In spite of the force possessed by the formal means, they are not as effective as the informal means. There is no external pressure or force to get religion, custom, tradition etc., but people cannot easily ignore them.


. Contraston the basis of socialmobility – Mobility is found more in urban community than in rural community.






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