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Various scholars have analyzed the present changes arising in rural life in the context of many conditions.

Doctor . A . R . Desai has divided the factors of rural change into two major parts, the conscious and the unconscious. For example, different types of natural conditions, different conditions resulting from mechanization and cultural elements etc. are unconscious factors which create a situation of change as a process.

Under the conscious factors,

Dr. Desai has mentioned many such methods by which change is produced in a systematic manner. Six methods are important in these – 1. Persuasive Method, 2. Demonstration Method, 3. Compulsory Method, 4. Method of Social Pressure, 5. Educational Method, and 6. Contact Method.

All these methods explain such efforts by which villagers are trained in a particular method to bring changes in their lives and adopt new types of ideas and behaviours. If we want to analyze rural changes on a coordinated basis of all these conscious and unconscious factors, then they can be understood mainly in the context of the following factors:


In the present era, the process of urbanization has brought about massive changes in rural life. The process of urbanization has not only increased the connectivity between villages and cities, but urban features are spreading rapidly in the villages. Urban behavior in the villages adjacent to the cities is the reference behavior for the villagers, which they consider necessary to imitate in order to strengthen their position. In urban industries, after returning to their respective villages after working as laborers in urban industries, those characteristics are spread which are basically the characteristics of urban way of life. As a result of this also the traditional way of life, behavior patterns and values ​​of the village start changing.

New Means of Communication –

Traditional rural communities were self-sufficient and simple because the needs of the villagers were fulfilled within their own village. In the absence of contact with other communities, the villagers considered their way of life and beliefs to be the best. After independence, roads were constructed extensively to connect all the major villages and cities in India and due to the increase in the means of communication, the villagers are familiar with the latest information and development programs. New ideas, behaviours, habits and attitudes are entering the villages as a result of the contacts established with outside groups. As a result, the self-reliance of the village has definitely decreased but now the attitude of the villagers has become more liberal and prudent.

Modern Education –

Modern education system has also produced many important changes in rural life. On the one hand, the youth who return to the village after getting education in the cities, they quickly become an attraction for the villagers due to their progressive ideas and behaviour. With the establishment of many educational institutions in the villages themselves, the thoughts and beliefs of the new generation have started changing. As a result of this situation, such a process of social, cultural and political changes has started in the villages. Which could not have been imagined till some time ago.

Democratic Leadership –

An important factor in rural social change is the current democratic leadership. In the village today, the same person is able to take the leadership, who makes maximum efforts for the welfare of the entire rural community. This concept of collective welfare is not so much related to adherence to traditional values ​​as to secular values.

Apart from the local leadership, political parties at the national level also try to bring changes in rural life through their activities. These teams make the villagers aware of the happenings of the outside world and inspire them to change their behavior according to the demand of the times. Thus, as the influence of democratic leadership is increasing in villages, the process of social change is also accelerating.

Land Reforms –

New land reforms in India have had a huge impact on rural life. Here after the abolition of zamindari, when the villagers got land ownership

When they got independent rights, naturally their economic condition started improving rapidly. With the improvement in the economic condition, the life of the villagers started getting free from those traditions, superstitions and rituals, which till some time ago they considered the only basis of their helpless life. From this point of view, land reform has proved to be an indirect but important factor of rural social change.


New Techniques of Agriculture –

With the development of technology, today efforts are being made to produce more and more in the village through new methods of agriculture. Tractors, new fertilizers, improved seeds, insecticides, medicines, sowing and cutting machines, tube wells and other modern equipment are such means in the village, with the help of which more production can be done on less land. As a result of this, today the purpose of agricultural production has become more and more profit rather than just consumption. Although these changes appear to be normal externally but internally they have brought about vast changes in rural attitudes, nature of interpersonal relationships, attitude towards life and social norms. Perhaps this is the reason why rural life is also becoming a formal life today.

  Social Legislations –

The social laws that were adopted after independence in India have also produced many changes in rural life. Among such Acts, Hindu Marriage Act, Untouchability Offense Act, Dowry Prevention Act and Hindu Succession Act etc. have brought about vast changes in rural life. With the effect of these Acts, even in villages, early marriage has been considered better than child marriage, the practice of polygamy has been completely abolished, the condition of scheduled castes has improved and women have got better status in the family and community than before. Getting more respect. These are all changes that are changing the rural social structure very rapidly.

 Development Schemes –

Various development schemes implemented after independence in India are the most important and fundamental factor of rural social change. When Panchayati Raj cooperative and community development programs were spread in the villages, all the villagers got the opportunity to change their socio-economic life anew. As a result of these schemes, not only did the traditional chieftains, moneylenders and zamindars lose their power in the villages, but the small and marginal farmers got special opportunities to improve their conditions. It was natural that this would result in changes in the social class structure and traditional values ​​of the village.



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