Factors affecting high and low birth rates

Spread the love

Factors affecting high and low birth rates.

Economic factors determining fertility In the modern era, the importance of money is increasing continuously. Reproduction is closely related to economic factors. Therefore, the importance of economic factors in influencing the fertility rate cannot be forgotten. The following economic factors are helpful in affecting the fertility rate.
The birth rate is found to be high in the people of low income group, while the birth rate is found to be low in the rich class. As a result of increasing income, a person tries to increase his income to raise the standard of living more high. Due to which the number of children starts decreasing gradually. In the U.S.A. too, according to the census, the number of children in low-income families has been recorded.

propensity for fertility

Occupation – Occupation affects a person’s status in society, standard of living, family status, number of children, income. As more people are needed in agricultural work, so children are considered as property in farming families. Along with this, industry influences the thoughts, habits, beliefs of a person. The fertility rate is found to be high in the workers who do more labor, as well as due to the lack of other means of entertainment.

Industrialization and Urbanization-
Industrialization has directly or indirectly affected all aspects of our lives. Due to industrialization, there is centralization of population at one place. The impact of industrialization on the occupations of many landless castes in the village like potter, teller, barber, washerman, weaver etc. is to such an extent that they are leaving their traditional occupations and going to industrial cities. Whose religious practices begin to weaken, whose effect on the birth rate is less clearly confirmed by these facts. Give examples of countries like Japan, England etc. Urbanization has also affected our lives.

Due to the loss of self-sufficiency of the village and the growth of new employment opportunities in the cities, the rural people are fleeing to the cities. Gradually the joint family is changing into nuclear family. The size of nuclear family is small. Thus industrialization and urbanization affect the birth rate.


Expenditure on children – Along with income, expenditure on children also affects the fertility rate, as extra expenditure has to be incurred on each additional child. Along with this, when the child grows up, he starts helping in agricultural work and also increases the family income. On the contrary, in urban areas, instead of being a source of income, the child becomes a major item of expenditure. Expenditure not only involves the expenditure of money, but also the expenditure of time and energy. Therefore, the decision to have additional children depends on the ability. Thus expenditure like income also affects the fertility rate.

Standard of living in the family and expenditure on life-
The standard of living of the family and the expenditure incurred in the family affects the health, survival and birth of children. A study shows that the greater the difference between the actual standard of living and the desired standard of living or the greater the economic security, the more birth control is done in the families. Similarly, the class with higher social status also wants less children.

Economic freedom of women and working women
The workplace of women is no longer the boundary wall of the house. Now women are going to work outside the home.

Especially in western countries most of the women work outside the family because many such professions are developing. In which only women are being employed in large numbers. Fertility is affected by the employment of women. Women pay more attention to their work than the family and try to raise their social status. Although in underdeveloped countries, women do the work of labor and agriculture, yet their number is increasing in other works. In this way, due to the economic independence of women and working outside the family, it is natural for the fertility rate to decrease.
More about this source textSource text required for additional translation information

Leave a Comment

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.