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  Industrialization can be both a cause and a result of urbanization. It is often seen that where industries flourish and machines are produced in big mills and factories, the process of urbanization is active there, many cities in India have developed in the same way. In this sense, industrialization is the cause of urbanization. But it also happens that due to some other reason, the process of urbanization is activated first and now when the community takes the full form of the city, there is a gradual industrialization of the industry.


Concept: The process of execution of production works on a large scale by machines and development of industries in one place is called industrialization. Some authors say that “Industrialization refers to the introduction of large-scale new industries and the conversion of small industries into large-scale industries. ,


In real sense, industrialization is a process of development of industries on a large scale. Wilbert Moore (W.E.Moore in his book Social Change, P-91) defines industrialization as follows: “Industrialization is the term used to describe the widespread use of non-living sources of power in the production of economic goods and services (Industrialization in its strict sense of the term, entails the extensive use of inanimate sources of power in the production of economic goods and services.) Thus, according to Wilbert Moore, the main goal of the process of industrialization is to maximize profits. Also, industrialization is related to both goods and services.



  Reasons for industrialization in India: Major five-year plans have contributed to the reasons for industrialization in an agricultural country like India. During the Second Five Year Plan (1956-61), industrialization began on a large scale. Also, many other reasons can be understood from the following points


  1. New technology of production: The rate of industrialization has increased considerably due to the invention of new methods of production. Green revolution became possible only because of new hybrid seeds and mechanization in agriculture. The invention of new textile mills gave a new shape to industrialization. Today, in the information revolution, with the advent of computer, internet, it is taking only a few seconds to send and receive information anywhere in the world.


  1. Natural resources: The biggest requirement of industrialization is natural resources. If there is no abundance of natural resources in the country then

With the end of industrialization,


Will go India has huge reserves of mineral wealth like iron, coal, mica etc. Petroleum is also satisfactory. India is one of the richest countries in the world in the field of water power. There are forests here where herbs are available for various diseases of the world.


  1. Means of Transport: Means of transport cannot be neglected in the process of industrialization. One has to accept the importance of means of transport in transporting raw materials, machines and laborers to the production centers, in taking finished goods to the markets of the country and abroad and in maintaining relations related to industry and business. Therefore, there is no importance of industrialization without traffic.


  1. Abundance of labor force: Compared to developed countries, our country has more labor force. There are crores of landless laborers in the village who remain unemployed for most of the year, they get ready to work as laborers in industries for low wages. The cost of industrial production done by them is also less. This is such a condition as a result of which industrial development was easily possible here.


  1. Economic Policies: One of the main reasons for industrialization in our country is more and more industrial policies of the government. A mixed economy was encouraged in India from the time of independence. In this, basic industries were developed in the public sector, while the development of other industries was left to the private sector. Many such laws were made for labor welfare and labor protection so that exploitation of laborers can be prevented and their work efficiency can be increased. This condition also proved helpful in the development of industrialization.


  1. International Competition: Another reason for the growth of industrialization in India is the participation of India in international competition. In the present era, any country can strengthen its economic position only when it can import goods from other countries as well as produce various goods in large quantities and export them to other countries. Our economy becomes strong only by the balance of import and export. After independence, as India started participating in international competition in the economic field, industrialization increased here.


  1. Educational Institutions: Educational institutions have a very important role in the causes of industrialization in India. There are crores of students who are pursuing various courses related to modern production through educational institutions. Therefore, along with the above conditions, new inventions, process of urbanization and expansion of banking facility and service sector etc. are the auxiliary conditions which contributed significantly to the development of industrialization.


Socio-economic changes as a result of industrialization: Even today India is basically a country of villages. But today the process of industrialization is also rapidly expanding its influence. The process of industrialization has brought changes in our entire social structure and our social, economic, mental, political, cultural, religious and moral life is taking a new turn. These effects of industrialization are healthy as well as unhealthy. We will now briefly discuss both types of effects here. ,


  1. Wide range of socio-cultural contacts: One notable effect of industrialization is that as a result of this, the range of socio-cultural contacts automatically increases. It is easy to establish contact with other provinces or countries through newspapers-magazines, books, radio, only network, internet, telephone, mobile etc. of cities. All these elements prove to be helpful in expanding the area of socio-cultural contact.


  1. More facilities related to education and training: There is more inclination towards giving proper education to their children, so along with industrialization, facilities related to education and training also expand. In some cities, facilities related to education and training are also expanded to encourage the process of urbanization. In some cities, education and training related facilities contribute more in encouraging the process of urbanization. By doing computer and many other technical courses, the chances of employment in the cities increase. Due to these facilities the importance of the city increases day by day.


  1. Expansion of trade and commerce: Along with the development of cities, trade and commerce also progress in a definite way because along with industrialization, population increases and with the increase in population, the requirements increase and trade to meet those requirements. And expansion of commerce becomes necessary. Therefore, along with industrialization, new markets, haats, shop sets, cinemas, restaurants etc. also emerge.


  1. Increase in the facilities of transport and communication: Along with the development of the city, the facilities of transport and communication also spread because without it the life of the residents cannot be comfortable. Civil conditions demand it. That the means of transport and communication should be expanded. That’s why along with the development of the city post office, telephone, railway station, career service, internet, cyber cafe etc.

Bus and taxi service, auto rickshaw etc are available inside. All these facilities can be expensive and soon become an essential part of civic life.

  1. Political Education: Along with the process of industrialization, the activity of political parties also increases. In fact, the city is the arena of political parties and they not only try very hard to spread their ideals and principles, but one political party also tries its best to humiliate the other party. As a result, the opportunity to learn political tactics is never available in the villages as much as in the cities. This is also possible because the means of transport and communication in the city are at an advanced level and participation in international political life through books, magazines, newspapers, radio, TV, posters, banners, speakers, etc. is less or less. At least it is possible for us to get information about him. This proves helpful in bringing political education to a practical level.
  2. Social tolerance: One notable effect of industrialization is that social tolerance flourishes in city dwellers to a considerable extent. The reason for this is also clear. Along with urbanization, people from different religions, sects, castes, classes, races, provinces and countries come and settle, and everyone has the opportunity to mix with each other and to protect each other.

One gets the opportunity to see more closely. In this type of snake, tolerance towards each other develops.


  1. Changes in family values and resources: Along with urbanization, there is a rapid change in family values and structure. Today, children in the cities are not respecting their parents completely, consider their stubbornness as paramount, marry the wood or boy of their choice, romance is seen in the name of going to college. Affair of working girls has become a common thing in the cities. Increase in the number of love marriages and increase in divorce is also seen more in the cities. The media and communication revolution has greatly influenced the youth. He aspires to be like his role model (at her Social Economic Effects of Urbanization). He does not pay attention to family duties. After marriage, the girl forces her husband to live in a separate house. Increase in the number of nuclear families and disintegration of joint families is continuously increasing here.


  1. Development of Slums: Along with industrialization, when the process of industrialization continues, the population of the city goes on increasing at a very rapid pace. But new houses are not constructed in the same proportion as the population increases. Therefore, one effect of urbanization is the development of slums.


  1. Changes in social values and relations: Along with industrialization, the individualistic ideal flourishes. Due to the importance of money and personal qualities in the cities, every person only cares about himself and spends his life to protect his interests. His effort is to develop his own individuality and to collect more and more wealth because his social prestige depends on these. Therefore, one effect of urbanization is to sacrifice community interest at the altar of personal interest. In the same way, with urbanization, personal relations turn into impersonal social relations. In big cities like Delhi, Calcutta, Mumbai, there is complete lack of personal relations among people living in the same building of eight-ten floors. In the same way, on the basis of caste and creed, untouchability etc. Along with urbanization, they become weak and the social values related to them change. The phenomenon of social distance can be said to be a remarkable effect of urbanization. One political party starts humiliating the other party.


  1. Commercialization of entertainment: Another notable effect of industrialization is commercialization of means of entertainment ie cinema, theatre, disco club, sports, only network, mobile, internet etc. All means of entertainment are organized by business organizations. That’s why they don’t take care of modesty or healthy effect as much as they are conscious of taking money from them by making them more and more attractive to the audience.


  1. Accident, disease and filth: Accidents are more in cities. Diseases are also more due to more pollution. Different diseases related to different industries flourish. Not only this, due to the dense population in the cities, the filth is also high. Due to filth also many types of diseases surround the residents of the city. Even after trying a million, the problems of accident, disease and filth cannot be avoided as a result of industrialization.


  1. Uncertainty in community life: This is one of the major problems of the cities and the problem is that due to this uncertainty, the sense of community or ‘we’ of the cities does not flourish. Because of which uniformity does not flourish in the life of the city. Here someone sleeps at night, someone during the day, someone is busy today, tomorrow is idle. This uncertainty is there every moment at every moment. There is no certainty whether the person who left home in the morning will return home in the evening or not. This uncertainty gives rise to elements that disintegrate community life.
  2. Social Disorganization: Uncertainty or more variability in the status and functions of individuals and institutions generates social disorganization. The pace of social change is also faster in cities, due to which social disorganization arises. Bank failure, rebellion, revolution or war are also more likely to break out in cities, due to which a situation of social disintegration arises, which proves to be fatal for a healthy social life.


  1. Family Disruption: In the cities, the mutual relation between the members of the families is not very close, because most of the members of the house either have separate ways to read, write, get training, get jobs, get entertainment etc. Have to spend more time outside the family. Because of this, the family members have little control over each other, which often proves helpful in disintegrating the family.


  1. Personal disintegration: This is another notable problem of cities. The following five forms of personal disorganization are seen in cities, each of which is a serious problem in itself (a) Crime and juvenile delinquency: poverty in cities, housing problem, unemployment, gender disparity, drug addiction, commercial Entertainment, business cycles, competition, loose control of the family, exist, due to which crime and juvenile delinquency are seen more in the cities. (b) Suicide: Poverty in cities, unemployment, unhappy family life, severe disappointment in relation to life after failure in competition, failure in romance or love, failure in business, etc. are more likely to demoralize one political party to another. And in any of these situations, a person can get trapped in such an intolerable mental confusion that he chooses suicide to get out of it. This is the reason why there are more suicides in cities than in villages. (c) Prostitution: There are more working classes in the cities, who are forced to live alone without living with their wives and children due to the problem of houses in the cities and inflation. For this brothel is a good place of entertainment. Poverty and unemployment found in the cities also force many women to prostitution. (d) Drug abuse: Alcoholism etc. is a manifestation of personal disintegration. This problem is particularly acute in cities. The extreme form of this problem is seen when the cities

  .. is morally neutral. In India, drinking has been accepted as a symbol of social status and as a common courtesy, in large parties, ‘diners’ where high level ‘gentlemen’ of the society congregate. There is no dearth of such people in the cities who have failed in their life. This becomes more clear to us from the crowd at the liquor shops. (e) Beggary: People in the cities not only beg after being fed up with poverty, hunger and unemployment of the cities, but also give a commercial form to begging. In big cities there are owners of beggars whose work is to make beggars, to teach beggars how to beg, to mutilate or dilapidate their bodies in such a way that people automatically feel compassion. 17. Other socio-economic effects of industrialization: development of capitalist economy, unequal distribution of national wealth, economic crisis, unemployment, industrial disputes, mental anxiety and disease, conflict and competition, increase in social mobility, division of labor and specialization ‘we’ The effect of the feeling of belonging etc. are other effects of industrialization which are seen in India.






Mass factory production has profoundly changed the course of human history. Its influence has been so great that we now recognize a “type” of society that bears the stamp of industrial society. The major division in the world is between industrializing and industrialized societies. Industrialized societies are desperately trying to catch up with industrialized societies. Industrialization appears to be inevitable. Society has no choice now.


Industrialization is the by-product (result) of a long and complex historical development. Today the concepts of industrialization and industrial society have become part of every day vocabulary. They represent a new phase of social organization in which human life is dominated by industrial production. In fact, industrialization has fundamentally changed the character of human society.


Industrialization has a system of production characterized by the steady development, study and application of scientific knowledge. Industrialization refers to the process of change in the technology used to produce goods and services. It has been a way of organizing economic life. Its primary goal was to reduce the real cost per unit of production of goods and services. Industrialization as a world wide process has swept away all

Society in rapid organizational change. Industrialization is to be understood as the transformation of society through the development of modern industry and technology and which is accompanied by far-reaching political and social changes.


According to Ms. Gorey, “Industrialization refers to a process where the production of goods using hand tools is replaced by the use of power-driven machines”. It is the technology of agriculture, transport and communication.

Brings about corresponding changes in business and also changes in the organization of trade and finance.


According to the Concise Oxford Dictionary of Sociology, the terms industrialism and industrialization refer to a transition in methods of production that vastly increases the wealth-creating capacity of modern societies compared to traditional systems.


Industrialization in the strict sense of the word entails the widespread use of living sources of power in the production of economic goods and services. The process of development of industries and related technology is called industrialization. Industrialization primarily depends on the scientific use of man and machines, technological advances and techniques of specialization



and discrimination of labor. It required infra-structural facilities in term of industrialization road, power, transport and communication. This includes the use of technology, automation, mass production, and mass consumerism. It is also marked by free labor, fixed capital, and management of men, material, money, and machines. Industrialization is scientific in spirit.


According to Wilbert Moose, “The formation of materials into finished goods by means of mechanical power is now called industry and the growth of this industry is what we call industrialization.” This means that the development of propensity to use technology is a configuration of technology, economy and business values. No modern institution has escaped the influence of the economic organization of society. Schools, churches, homes, entertainment institutions, etc. are built on human values that emanate from the material structures of modern civilization. Industrializing society refers to more than machines and markets. It refers to the individual and institution connected by a network of relationships dominated by industrial ideas and business values.


The essential requirements of the pre-conditions of industrialization are as follows:



Availability of basic raw materials:- This is not a critical requirement as these can be imported. Japan has emerged as the world’s leading producer of steel automobiles and heavy machinery, with practically no reserves of iron, oil or other basic raw materials.


Availability of Impersonal Credit:- All productive enterprises are built on borrowed capital. Credit and financial institutions that can extract capital from those who have surplus and make it available to investors. Forms of impersonal credit are important for industrialization development. Availability of Impersonal Credit Industrialization presupposes the existence of a legal system that would ensure that debtors and creditors honor their obligations to each other.




  A committed labor force:- Industrialization requires a committed labor force, commitment reflects the acceptance of the values of the industrial society and their expression. Industrialization behavior requires workers to accept industrial work as a desirable occupation. Commitment demands acceptance of machine pacing hierarchies, supervision, highly specialized forms of authority and dynamism. Labor needed to be geographically mobile and industrialization required skills. A workforce that is tied to a single location, craft or skill due to traditional considerations cannot meet the demands of the industry. Since industrial technology is constantly changing, the labor force must be able to adapt to new technology.




Large Expanded Market:- For an industry to flourish there must be a market for its products. There must be a demand for mass productions for an impersonal market and such a market must first be available.


  Political stability :- Industry can flourish only when there is political stability. Unstable political conditions create uncertainty for business ventures and Hind

This is development. Stable politics is the key to successful industrialization. Firm government policies support the industries.


  Mobility of Basic Resources:- Mobility of basic resources especially labor and capital is the key to successful industrialization. If resources are locked due to traditional considerations and therefore not available to meet needs, rapid industrialization becomes difficult.



Entrepreneurial Capacity:- Entrepreneurship is the most important requirement for industrialization. David McClelland has argued that any kind of material development requires a desire for economic development. It is the entrepreneur who tests the venture. It is considered so important that it is often counted as a factor of production along with land, labor and capital.



Economic Activity:- For any type of economic activity to be prosperous, it must be recognized as legitimate by the wider society. Industrialization can establish itself only when there is a basic consensus in society on the ideas, beliefs and values that underlie modern factory production.



  Differentiation and Specialization of Labour:- New technology which entails the division of the total production process into a number of simple steps, for each of which a specialized group of workers is involved Industrialization is the most important technological condition of industrial development. it should happen



Institutional Structures:- Transfer of power and accountability for the content of production is essential. Labor should also be transferable. It means setting up a labor market and moving workers from one employer to another, a

A system of financial and other rewards to motivate them to move from one skill level to another.


The contractual system must be fair and legally binding. There should be restrictions on monopolies or other competitive strategies. system of credit, stabilization of the currency and its exchange rate and some credibility or the fiscal policies of the state thus required.



  Availability of capital for investment:- Industrialization cannot be started manufacturing factories, equipment, machines and labor unless there is sufficient capital or funds for investment, capital formation can happen only when pre-industrial economic activity and industrialization Specialized agriculture can give a surplus yield. After proving consumption. Subsistence economic activity is not conducive to the creation of surplus. Commercial agriculture that makes efficient use of land and labor and aims at creating a marketable surplus best suited for the development of industry.


  Objectives and Values:- The value which is most important for this form of economic organization is rationalization. Rationalization means the application of rational and logical thought to the problems of daily life. Industrializing religion is progressively declining and being replaced by secular values derived from science and reason. Society is organized around the principle of rational and efficient maximization of profit and minimization of cost. Raymond Aaron considers rigorous economic calculation to be the hallmark of the new society.


According to McClelland, achievement orientation is the main motive behind economic prosperity. Once the potential for economic betterment becomes widespread, the discontent with poverty also becomes widespread. Then the person himself will work hard. Entrepreneurship is another important value i.e. risk taking which drives industrial development values like rationality; Individualization and personalization are necessary for the growth of industries. Rational or scientific approach is the first requirement, religious values or blind faith should be replaced by secular values derived from rational science. Rationality and impersonality are the foundations on which industrial organization is built.


The desire to maximize current returns is also likely to stimulate industrial growth which requires substantial savings and capital accumulation.


The acquisition of education and skills to achieve personal betterment in the economic sphere must exist in groups and individuals if sustainable development is to be accomplished.


Max Weber was of the view that capitalist enterprise could not have come about in Western Europe without impersonal credit, formally free wage labor, a rational legal system, and a value system that regarded successful economic activity as pleasing to God.



Nationalism is another value that serves a correlative function in providing a sense of identity and meaning to the economically backward.












MS Gox calculates the following need for industrialization:


  1. ‘This worldly’ mortification that would combine personal frugality with an almost impersonal but intense preoccupation with the production of material goods.
  2. A secularization of beliefs that would break with magical-rituals and traditional patterns of behaviour. It will help in promoting the notion of cause-effect relationship which is based on empirical knowledge and will also facilitate the acceptance of efficient practices.
  3. A universalist who would break the exclusive set of clan and kinship and provide norms of behavior that are more suited to the secondary relations of an industrial society.
  4. A value system that would emphasize individual initiative and responsibility and enable individual work without restrictive family controls
  5. Based on a stratification system

on achievement criteria that allow professional mobility

  1. Wide-spread education system with relatively more open access and wider coverage of subjects.
  2. A strong and centralized political structure. This can lead to the collapse of authoritarian systems and can be replaced by non-ideological mass political parties.
  3. Movement of population from rural to urban areas.






Wilbert E. Moore has enumerated the following stages of industrialization:-

1) Price:- Price change is the most basic condition for economic change. Values provide the rationale for particular norms or rules of organization and conduct.

2) Institutions:- It refers to the complexes of norms relating to the major aspects of the social structure. marriage or economic exchange. The most prominent of the institutions in which labor and exchange can be properly identified is the economic institution.

3) Organisation:- There should be some systematic structure for decision making and also there should be administrative organisation.



4) Motivation: Unless there is some degree of achievement orientation, ambition for personal betterment, it is difficult to achieve sustained growth.




Consequences of Industrialization:


There is an essential continuity between the preconditions and consequences of industrialization. It is in the work sector that the impact of industry is felt most immediately. Industrial employment has given rise to a specific pattern of relationships with machines, fellow workers and superiors.


The effects of industrialization are many and wide. It would be appropriate to begin with those structural features of society that are primarily economic in form and function, then the demography of populations rearranged by economic development.

Let us proceed to the key and ecological features and finally discuss some of the outstanding features of social organization.


Economic Structure:


1) A monetary basis of exchange is a major pre-condition for any substantial industrialization. Goods have to be marked. Workers should be paid. Services are to be rewarded financially. In this context, financial transactions have become very common.


2) Change in occupational structure:- Skilled labor is in high demand in most of the areas of factory production. As labor is finely differentiated and many types of occupations have come into existence for each of them, there is a demand for skilled and educated workers.


A labor force becomes technical by assigning a monetary value to productive performance.


Transfer of creative effort from a less productive to a more productive economic sector. There is a demand for new skills associated with changes in product and process technology.


Traditional artisans have been reduced to workers in industries. This transfer has resulted in loss of creative skills. Mechanization replaced human labor with monotony and boredom. The worker finds himself performing repetitive, short cycle operations at speeds set by the machine and management. The displacement of man by machine is in stark contrast to the pre-industrial relationship between man and his tools. Man’s mastery over his tools is replaced by a need to respond to an inanimate machine.




The bulk of the workforce is concentrated in the middle range of skills. There is a small segment of highly skilled workers at the top and a relatively small number of unskilled people at the bottom. Modernization has led to better growth for highly trained professionals of all categories. The early rise of physicians and industrial engineers never completely disappears, but their relative status diminishes as never professional types. In particular, the specialists of the organization and in various relations from the low to the general public get prominence.


Managing occupational structure requires a high degree of labor mobility, both within careers and between generations. A final process of occupational change is that of bureaucratization, that is, the placement of specialized workers in a large administrative organization that provides coordination through hierarchical authority rather than through contractual exchange in a market.


3) Demographic and Ecological Effects:- The initial effect of industrialization has been to produce a dramatic increase in population, when a society industrializes, there is a first reduction in death rates, leading to a rapid increase in population. Over time, however, the fertility rate also falls to match the death rate. This is due to the development of contraceptive technology to a greater extent, although there is a desire and awareness to limit family size that is within the ability to do so. High fertility is incompatible with such urban industrial values as individualism, mobility and economic rationality. In any event, the immediate effect of rapid population growth can be damaging economic growth. seems pr

There are new developing areas to be noted, with fertility declining as a result of official concern and new contraceptive techniques.


Industrial development provides the major inputs for urbanisation. Both the number and population of cities increase. The better opportunities offered by industrialization caused many rural people to move from the land to the cities. Since urban infrastructural facilities are well developed, industries are concentrated in urban areas even though these are removed from sources of labor supply. This resulted in a huge influx of job seekers into the city.


However, the urbanization effect of industrial development occurs even when factories are located in rural areas close to sources of raw materials. Jamshedpur was only a tribal hamlet when the Tatas decided to set up their steel plant there. It’s now a bustling city, with a heterogeneous population immersed in practically every park in the country.




Socio-structural Changes:


1) The impact of industry on kinship and family is far-reaching. Extended kinship groups and obligations hinder economic maximisation. Mobility is a central value in industrial society and by extension. Kinship obligations hinder mobility. The basic kinship group should be small enough to be optimally mobile. Tacot individuals have argued that the structurally isolated nuclear family is best suited to industrial society. Moore argues that the existence of the joint family in India is one of the factors responsible for the low commitment to industrial work for many who migrate even after its members migrate in search of employment, between the immediate family and the family. There is very little social structure. native family. Then there is a feeling of loneliness, apathy, isolation and criminal conduct. As a result, there has been an increase in the number of voluntary associations to which these displaced members prefer to belong.


2) Institutionalization of rationality i.e. problem solving and emphasis on impersonal relationships often lead to a kind of instrumentalism and lack of fundamental value orientation. Under these circumstances the family retains its importance as an affectionate and personal relationship.


3) Industrialization also affects differentiation and stratification. manager

And the managed capitalist and labor represent two extreme types of positions with differences in income education and power. Due to further growth in professionalism i.e. specialized knowledge, the middle class has also emerged. The gap between rich and poor has also increased through the huge increase in production and many social, industrial and humanitarian problems have arisen. Due to the intervention of the government, the suffering of the workers has reduced and the struggle has also reduced.


4) Environment :- Exploitation due to industrialization adversely affects nature. Smoke, noise air pollution, water pollution are the inevitable harmful consequences of industrialization. The continuous extraction of mineral and oil resources also poses a serious risk of exhausting them too quickly. Bad air and polluted water also give rise to many diseases which are incurable.


5) Impact on the community: Industrialization resulted in drastic changes in the community. Its closely knit character disappeared either generally or suddenly. The growth of industries requires the workforce to be mobile, this has resulted in a socially and geographically mobile population. Industrial work does not give as much protection as agricultural work because of its land




thoroughly. The laborer completely depends on the factories for his sources of livelihood.


6) Family Disorganization: There has been a tremendous increase in divorce and separation in industrialized societies, resulting in family disorganization. The growth of individualism has affected the institution of marriage and the parent-child relationship.


7) Status of women Industrialization has increased the status of women. Due to more opportunities for education and employment outside. Women get more power and higher status. The income of the family increases and its role in economic activities as a consumer unit is continuously increasing.


8) Impact on Education:- There is a greater demand for higher skills and education. Due to this the rate of literacy has increased. High technical skills are also required.


9) Democracy:- Politically, there is an increase of democratic government. Democratic government makes people literate and aware about their rights, people become more responsible towards government and government making processes. The theory of industrialization lays great emphasis on the fact that whatever changes have been brought about by this process and which are based on the western experience, should also take place in the developing societies.


Industrialization is a collective, worldwide phenomenon. It is based on the continuous development and application of scientific knowledge. industrial revolution h

As this led to differentiation and specialization of labor, massive mass production and expense market use of machines led to calculated profits and huge investments of money. The pre-conditions are: availability of impersonal credit, a committed labor force, large expanding market and political, stability, mobility of basic resources, entrepreneurial ability, differentiation and specialization, objectives and values of labor institutional structure.


The results are: rapid urbanization, population growth, international trade, migration of labor. Values like rationality, materialism, this worldly outlook have replaced the earlier immaterialistic philosophy. Achievement orientation has become more important.


Industry impact- When complex machines are used there is an impact on human beings in factory and office.

1) As the programming of operations became integral to the machine, machine speed work became widely used. It took away the time and speed of work from the hands of the worker




And gave rise to the image of the worker as a ‘cog’ in the machine.

2) To achieve high speed production, highly specialized machines were built. So that the number of different tasks that can be performed by each machine becomes increasingly limited. This had the effect of reducing the amount of training as well as the amount of knowledge required for each worker. The general process is known as “job simplification” or job reduction and is permanently distasteful to workers because of the repetitive character it generates and the resulting lack of technical challenge.

3) Serial stage manufacturing:- Line production and line assembly become integral features of most industrial processes. It was the separation of any given work operation from the finished product as the major human result, in that men no longer saw the finished product as their own work and there they knew their own work and knew that their Where did your work get involved in this? This probably destroyed the spirit of craftsmanship and pride in production.

4) The design and production management of machine processes and products become specialized activities of the engineer’s technical staff and line managers. Technical and complex industrial knowledge became concentrated in an elite specialist class where training and operational tasks effectively closed access to most industrial workers.


Impact of industry on workers and social relations: –

1) A large middle class has developed due to various skilled occupations in the industry. Many individuals with specialized knowledge started working in industries and rose to higher levels.

2) Pattern of consumption:- Society becomes market oriented. As most of the goods were available in the market, people started buying them. materialism in practice

They become

3) Family System:- Since individuals could move to cities only to work in factories, joint families disintegrated into nuclear families of single persons.

4) Values:- Rationality and secularism became more popular people criticized their traditional beliefs and adopted new patterns easily.

5) Education System:- The educational institution adjusts easily to the requirement of the industry. The individual was provided with the necessary skills to enable them to work in industries.




6) Social Stratification and Mobility:- With industrial jobs many people who were earlier at lower levels rose to higher positions and thus moved to higher status.

7) Readiness for Change:- Exposure to mass media and new information has made the individual adopt new technology and expressed willingness to change their traditional way of life.


But in the 1960s, this era entered another stage of development which we call the post industrial society or “programmable machinery era of automation”. This has implications that are truly revolutionary in the human machine relationship. Both are incorporated into the machine complex through automation to understand and respond to the two unique contributions of workers to production efficiency for operations and the control single required from electronic memory to complete the detailed and electronic feed back devices It is now possible to program a machine to memorize instructions that take information from a running process and use it to modify and monitor operations by feeding corrective signals into the process. Machines can also do what Man is not able to do because of his physical limitations.


The basic features of the Second Industrial Revolution are thus its introduction of the great and awe-inspiring possibility that people can be largely eliminated from the production of many goods and services. This is already a problem in most industrially advanced countries, including the United States.


Workers:- Workers are those persons who produce or transform goods and services for their own consumption and for others. Paying money for work does not always correlate with its performance, although t

It is common in advanced counties.


A laborer is a hired worker contracted by a capitalist. He sells his energy to work with factories and machines. He works for a certain period of time, carrying out the instructions given to him for a certain period of time. carries out the instructions given to him and receives wages for his time devoted to industrial production, he has a formal relationship with the capitalist who employs him.


The laborers are given daily wages. They work till the contract is over. After the contract is over, the capitalist is not responsible for the workers. Thus he is a temporary employee. Earlier worker used to work continuously for 10-12 hours without any break. Later due to the efforts of the trade union, the workload, working hours were reduced, holidays were introduced, weekly off was given, wages were increased. Salary is also given to the employee and it is increased.




The worker is also given good working conditions and safety at work. They are also given social security under the welfare schemes of the government.


Workers can be classified on the basis of their skill- unskilled, semi-skilled and skilled. Skilled workers take longer periods of training and are therefore the highest paid, they can also be classified as permanent or temporary workers, with permanent workers receiving some additional benefits from regular increased pay. They are also given social security.


Workers can also be casual, contract or seasonal, because labor is a worker who works temporarily in place of some permanent workers.


A contract worker is a worker who works and has to leave the job at the end of the contract period.


Seasonal workers work only during the season or when there is demand.


The wages of workers depend on their demand, skill, nature of job and industry.


They work in organized sector in unorganized sector, organized sector can give them higher wages than unorganized sector, organized sector can also give them more security.


Workers can also work in traditional industries like textile railways jute mills etc where the technology is very simple and most of the workers used to migrate from rural areas. But today they are working in modern packaging chemical or plastic factories where new machines are being used and which also require higher skills from the workers in modern industries. or is required to act as a data processor.


A new group of employees also work with computers. There has been an increase in the demand for skilled workers in specific sectors. The modern worker can speak English to climb up. He is career conscious. He gets the job on the basis of his personal merit. Modern industrial workers are thus generally younger, more literate, better educated, more skilled and better paid.


Workers are also divided according to gender and age.

Can be won. i.e. Male workers of both male and female workers as well as adult and child workers are paid more, given more challenging jobs and their jobs are transferable while female workers are not paid well, no security or No skilled jobs are offered. Most women workers are employed in jobs that are related to their primary occupations, such as




Jobs like cooking, nursing, caring for children, etc. require the operation of machines or workers. There is always a gender bias in job selection.


Child laborers are always given the lowest wages. They are also not given safe working conditions and their jobs require extremely long working hours, children are not treated well.







         Secularization or secularization is the process as a result of which discrimination in social behavior on the basis of religion is eliminated in a society. Secularization which is based on rationalism is necessary for modernization, since every society now wants to be modernized, therefore it is giving shelter to secularization. After independence, whatever state was not a secular state in India, even today there is talk of secularization. Reinterpretation of religion, rationalism and liberalism have a direct relation in secularization. Dr. Srinivas has done a detailed analysis of this process.


The process of secularization has become a fundamental feature of the society. A few decades ago in India, the acts which were considered religious and pious are today seen as useless conservative irrational behavior, the special effect of a religion and caste which has been accepted, is now effective in that way. Has not been Various thinkers are of the opinion that the British rule is responsible for speeding up the process of secularization in India. The British rule also brought with it the process of secularization of Indian social life and culture. This trend became stronger gradually with the development of means of communication and increased spatial mobility of cities and with the spread of education. Both the world wars and the civil disobedience movement of Mahatma Gandhi not only activated the masses from the political and social point of view, but also contributed to the growth of secularisation. The effort made to achieve secularization in India after 1947 is really remarkable.


It is written in the constitution of independent India that ‘India will be a secular state’. Even in the eyes of law, there will be no discrimination among citizens on the basis of religion, caste, gender etc. Elections to the Parliament and Legislative Assemblies will be on the basis of adult suffrage and the development of Indian territories will be done on the basis of objectively planned programs.




Meaning of secularization: From the point of view of literal meaning, it is the process in which the existence, importance, identity or development of a person is not related to religion. Secularization is directly related to logical approach. Under this, the interpretation of the world is presented in the form of pure thinking. Secularization is the process by which logical knowledge emerges in place of traditional beliefs and concepts. Prof. Srinivas has clearly written that ‘secularization’ implies that what was earlier considered religious is no longer considered so. Explaining this, he has written that it also involves a process of differentiation which results in Various economic, political, legal and moral aspects of society are becoming more and more wary of each other. Thus Srinivasa did not understand secularization in the sense of mere secularism. According to them two main features of secularization are


  1. Firstly, this process is related to the feeling that what we used to consider religious earlier, we no longer keep it in the category of religion.
  2. The second feature is that under this process we try to see and understand each and every fact with logic. Traditionally, there was a complete lack of both these characteristics in our social life. One could not reason about the significance of the social system because the whole system was mixed with religion. There are several definitions of secularization in the Concise Oxford Dictionaries. These definitions have been described as populism, skepticism towards religious beliefs and contradiction towards religious education. The following definition of secularism has been given in the Third International Dictionary. “(secularism) is a system of social ethics that is based on the principle that ethical standards and behavior should be based on current life and social well-being apart from religion in particular.” Batter House has defined “secularism as such an ideology” which presents a theory of life and conduct, which is against the theory propounded by religion. Its essence is materialistic. Its belief is that human welfare can be achieved only through national efforts. But Baker refuses to believe that secularism is a heretical concept.


They say that “lokik” “unholy”

and is not synonymous with “or” or similar words.


Blackshield has supported Baker’s view. He has told that “secularism does not oppose religious institutions. No, it is against religious inspirations in legal, political and educational processes. In this only the functional division of attitudes is emphasized, that is, the distribution of powers in different types of social activities.” Social division.” Blackshield says that religion, education and law should not enter into each other’s field, nor should they go beyond their field boundaries. To the extent that religion remains within its own limits, the concept of secularism can be considered as religious neutral.


It neither supports nor opposes religiosity. In this way secularism is that situation in the field of social problems in which law and education are independent of religious institutions and religious inspirations. Secularism is a stage of historical development in which law and education not based on religion is established. In this way, if various definitions of secularism are considered, then a list of many such subjects can be made which are considered under it. Such as: scientific humanism, naturalism and materialism, invincibility and positivism, intellectualism, democracy and communism, optimism and progressivism, moral relativism and nihilism etc.



Essential elements of secularization:


  1. Rationality: Secularization is directly related to the rational approach. Under this, the number of occurrences is done in pure form. Whatever behavior is irrational in the society, it is rejected by this process. For this reason, in this process, rational knowledge emerges in place of conservative, irrational, traditional beliefs and concepts. It also involves a process of differentiation as a result of which various economic, political, legal, moral and social parts of society become more and more independent from each other.


  1. Cause-effect relationship: Another essential element in secularization is the demonstration of ’cause-effect’ relationships, which is also addressed by rationalism. According to Prof. Srinivas, establishment of modern knowledge in place of traditional beliefs and concepts is included in this. The specialty of the process of secularization is that it tries to destroy mutual beliefs and irrational beliefs as much as possible. Such ideas which are reciprocal and which cannot be put to the test of cause-effect relationship, are automatically eliminated by this process. Even if their existence remains somehow, they do not get the support of proper public opinion.


  1. Concept of purity – impurity: The concept of purity and impurity has been prominent in Hindu religious practice. On this basis, the distance between different castes is fixed. On this basis, touch, marriage and food have been prohibited in castes. Every Hindu has concepts and actions of purity and impurity in normal life. For example: shaving was an unholy act for Brahmins. Over the years these notions have waned as the laws of purity have been replaced by the laws of health and hygiene. Educated Brahmins and fanatics have gradually given importance to rational interpretation in place of strict rules and have called purity as another form of health rules. Srinivasa gives the example of the Brahmin women of Mysore and says that the educated women are not much concerned about impurity, but are giving importance to the rules of health. On separation from the joint family, they leave this stereotyped form of rituals. In the process of secularization, many rituals have been abandoned. Namkaran and other rituals such as shaving of the widow are no longer prevalent, along with the process of omitting and shortening the rituals, the rituals are also mixed so that the lack of time in the expressed life can be reduced. As with the marriage, two days before the Upanayana Sanskar is also done. ,

84 Social Changes in India: Condition and Direction Marriage rituals are also becoming brief. Brahmin marriages with all rituals, which used to take 5 to 7 days earlier, are now settled in a day or a few hours. Only close relatives are present at the time of marriage, other guests only attend the reception. Sitting the bride and groom on a high seat, listening to music, playing band, serving refreshments to the guests, etc. have become important. In the traditional system like Saptavadi, it used to take 7-8-9 hours. Now very soon the bride and groom are retired from these works.




Objectives of Secularization:


  1. The aim of secularization is to achieve secularism. Secularism refers to a certain pattern of behavior while secularization is a process that helps in achieving that behavior pattern. Secularism will be called that condition of behavior where there is no unnecessary influence of religion on state, morality and education etc. Secularization in America means that the state and the church should maintain their respective existence in the society without affecting each other. This is the reason why the state government does not give grants to the educational institutions run by the Church there.

The meaning of secularism in India is somewhat different from the meaning taken in the West. Here secularism means that the state does not give shelter to any religion, but it does not mean that if a religious institution runs an educational institution, then the state government will not give grants to it.

  If necessary for cultural development and co-existence of different communities, the state government can direct different religious institutions. For example: There is a ban on cow slaughter by the central government, while some religions consider such a ban to be undesirable. There is a system in India that the defects of religion are removed through law and persuasion. Like: Various defects of Hindu religion were removed. The defects of Islam religion should also be removed in this way. Now there has been a change in the traditional attitude towards religion in India. Although the ‘personal law’ of Muslims is yet to be modernised, the Indian society itself has been an obstacle in the path of secularism in India. Both Hindu and Muslim communities have been fulfilling their respective objectives through religion. After the attainment of independence, now various political parties are fulfilling political objectives through religion, which is an obstacle in the path of secularism.


None of the government and opposition parties seems to be active for complete secularism. Jawaharlal Nehru had said at the time of getting power on August 14, 1947, that at this midnight when the whole world is sleeping, India will wake up for a free life. Secularism will be the basis of this independent life. A nation which is based on communalism and religion cannot survive for long. India will only be a secular and democratic state where every citizen, irrespective of religion, will have equal rights.


  1. The second objective of secularization is the attainment of a secular state. A secular state is one where every citizen has equal opportunities on the basis of equality and where the society does not interfere with the activities of the citizens on the basis of religion. DE Smith, while explaining the secular state, wrote that the state which guarantees freedom of religion to the people, recognizes every religion follower as a citizen, it should not be related to any particular religion only constitutionally, nor Only he can progress any particular religion.

Processes of social change 85 – Be related to decadence. The literal meaning of secular state is that state which does not believe in any particular religion. Thus a secular state views an individual as a citizen and not as a member of a particular religious group. In a secular state, the rights and duties of the people are not defined on the basis of religion. Clause 1 of Article 15 of the Constitution of India declares that the State shall not discriminate against people on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex and place of birth. Thus we see that due to secularization India has emerged as a secular state where there is religious discrimination. By the way, now the place of religion in the society is not what it was five decades ago.




Features of Secularization:


  1. Development of rationalism: Due to secularization, the matter of depending on religion for every event ends. Primitive man used to consider every social phenomenon as a gift of religion and supernatural power, but as rationalism developed, the explanation of cause-effect relationships increased and due to the knowledge of the real reasons, the importance of religion decreased. Now everyone considers rational behavior to be appropriate.


  1. Decline in religiosity: Due to secularization, the importance of religious institutions has decreased now. The reason for this is that high or low status is no longer determined in the name of religion. Earlier, the more religious rituals a person performed, the more respect was given to him. But now the same person is called a backward person who finds the success or failure of his actions in religion. So it is clear that as the process of secularization progresses, the importance of religion decreases, and thus religiosity declines.


  1. Increasing differentiation: Earlier, religion was considered to be the dominant factor behind every incident and every incident was explained on the basis of religion, whether it is crime or disease, death or natural calamity, but now every incident is explained on the basis of religion. Different and real reasons are searched for, in which the influence of religious and spiritual power is generally accepted at least. Due to this situation the degree of differentiation increases. There are different people doing specific types of work. So the distance between them is natural.


  1. Helpful in the attainment of modernization: At present the wave of modernization was in full swing. Every society now wants to call itself modern, for which it becomes necessary to bring changes in traditional practices. Secularization also changes traditional practices. For example, before independence, the spirit of different religions and theism was flourishing in India. But the natural wave of secularization that arose from the freedom struggle itself reduced this effort to a great extent. On attaining independence, as soon as India considered itself

Declared a secular state, there were radical changes in the traditional behavior patterns here. At present such changes are taking place in the country which are essential for social development and modernization. Therefore, it can be said that secularization is helpful in modernization.


  1. Development of Equality: In ancient times, many types of social differences were found in India, wide discrimination was done on the basis of religion, caste, gender etc. in India. Different religions had different punishments for committing the same type of crime. But due to secularization, this type of discrimination automatically becomes universal and equal opportunities are available to all people. ,
  2. A Scientific Concept: Secularization is a scientific concept. Due to the influence of religion, the performance of work-relationship is not proper. So people become irrational. Secularization lays stress on rationality and calls only that which has a demonstration of cause-effect relationships.


  1. Humanistic and neutral concept: Secularization is such a concept in which it has been said to treat human beings as human beings. It is not that you talk about inhuman treatment of humans on the basis of any imaginary caste. This process encourages humanistic behavior. Along with this, there is a neutral concept in which on the one hand no discrimination is found on the basis of religion, on the other hand complete freedom to accept any religion has also been given.


  1. Types of Secularization Factors: Secularization of India started at a time when religion was strongly influencing the society. This was the period of advent of British rule in India. As a result of the efforts made by the British to establish and deepen the foundation of their empire in India, the process of secularization also started automatically along with processes like urbanization, industrialization, sanskritization. The efforts made by the British to establish their foothold and increase trade encouraged the process of secularisation. For example: The British developed big industries, ports, cities and means of transport, which automatically hurt secularism, caste restrictions started loosening and the process of secularization started parallel to the process of sanskritization.



The following were the reasons for the spread of secularization in India:


  1. Westernization: The credit goes to Westernization for starting the process of secularization in India and taking it forward. Western culture has promoted materialism and individualism so much that because of that the decline in religion and its related practices is natural. India has been known as a traditional country. Tradition has a direct relation with religion. The process of westernization emphasized on adopting those practices which are logical, practical and beneficial by violating the tradition. This is the reason which has given a boost to the process of secularisation.


  1. Urbanization and Industrialization: The people living in the cities get separated from religious superstitions due to being in contact with various types of industrial inventions. As various types of industrial institutions are being established in the cities, the density of population is increasing. It is no longer necessary that one religion predominates at one place and followers of that religion live there in large numbers, in cities and industrial centers followers of different religions work together and exchange ideas. Huh . Due to this situation, the fanaticism of a particular religion ends and the feeling of co-existence develops. Therefore, it can be said that urbanization and industrialization are helpful factors in the process of secularization.


  1. Developed means of transport and communication: When the means of transport were not developed, people could not go to distant places even if they wanted to. Due to staying at one place, they used to behave according to their religious sentiments. Due to lack of development in the means of communication, people could not get information about what is happening in other places and societies. This was also one of the reasons why people maintained religious fanaticism. But as changes are taking place in religious practices and rituals, now discrimination of untouchability on the basis of religion or discrimination in food and harshness in it is no more possible.


  If followers of different religions are traveling together in a train or bus, they cannot maintain untouchability even if they want to because they do not even know the caste, religion of all the passengers. If a society gives any exemption in the traditional behavior pattern of a particular religion, then its information becomes known to other societies through means of communication, hence the matter of change starts there also. Now the villagers go towards the city for small works. They are impressed by the living conditions there and get ready to leave their traditional behavior pattern (on which religion is dominant). Now the rural people are also ready to accept all those things which are beneficial for them. Even if it is related to any other religion.


  1. Current Education System: In ancient education, religious foundations were taught to the students. Education was also the medium of propaganda. The format of education was such that even a little bit of religious practice

May there not be loss. There was no arrangement for education for those who could not make themselves religious. Only religiously pious people could get education. The attainment of knowledge was prohibited for impure people like Shudras and Touchables. Religion used to be the focal point of education. Brahmins whose main work was to give education: used to lay more emphasis on religious rituals and rituals. But religion did not have that important place in the new education system. Arrangements have been made for special education for those who are considered impure. They are being taught by giving encouragement. Followers of different castes and religions study, write, eat and drink together.


Due to this situation the religious complexity has ended. Now religious institutions and educational institutions run by special castes are being asked to change their names, as now there is no discrimination on the basis of religion in educational institutions. Similarly, discrimination based on gender is also coming to an end. Now women have also become logical and they are getting all kinds of education. His outlook has also become evolutionary and libertarian. They have started trying to recognize their existence, they have started assessing their importance as an essential part of the society. It is a well-known fact that the practice of traditional practices in India in which religious practices are prominent, women were not allowed to go outside the house. Hence his approach was traditional. They have also been given equal rights in modern education, due to which their attitude is changing towards traditional practices and their behavior is now moving more towards secularism. In this way, we see that the process of secularization is intensifying due to the present education system.


  1. Religious and Social Reform Movement: Various religious and social reformers wrongly told religion and caste discrimination and religious hypocrisies dependent on it. Due to this situation, people’s perception towards religious rituals became somewhat neutral. Followers of different religions were asked to live and work together. The Bhakti movement of the medieval period also made a significant contribution in this field. The efforts of Rajaram Mohan Roy, Syed Ahmed Khan, Ranade, Swami Dayanand, Gandhi etc. also proved helpful in the process of secularization. The efforts of Brahmo Samaj, Arya Samaj, Prarthana Sabha, Ramakrishna Mission and Theosophical Society also proved helpful in removing religious complexity. Therefore, it can be said that social and religious movements have also helped in secularisation.


  1. Social Legislation: Various social legislations were also helpful in increasing secularization. Hindu marriage is no longer considered a religious rite or a religious act because the concept of prescribed religious duties behind it is becoming secondary. Now it is becoming a social bond or agreement. Therefore, now inter-caste marriages are also being justified because scientific inventions have made it clear that there are equal groups in all castes, whose objective is to achieve gender satisfaction in a society-accepted way and to cooperate economically. Therefore, the matter of scheme purity has also started to be considered as religious and therefore to be avoided.


It is not necessary for different castes to follow the same religion. The law also considers such marriages to be proper. Similarly, the Untouchability Prevention Act of 1955 emphasizes that those who have been called untouchables till now also have the same relationship with various institutions as other upper castes. There shall be no discrimination between people on the grounds of untouchability or religion. Since Indian constitution has declared India as a secular state, therefore every effort of the government will be towards furthering secularisation. In a democratic state, the selection of representatives to run the government is adult suffrage, in which no discrimination has been done on the basis of religion and caste, but to bring all the people (historically backward persons) to the same level, additional facilities to those people are being given. Various types of social welfare programs are also being run by the government so that secularism can be furthered.


  1. Political parties: Various political parties have also proved helpful in the process of secularization like Congress, Samajwadi Party and Communist Party etc. At the time of the formation of the Congress (1885 AD), there were some leaders in it who were in favor of accepting secularization as a social policy. As the number of educated and westernized people in this party increased, the demand for secularization also became stronger. Pandit Nehru, whom the Congress elected as its leader after independence, was a strong supporter of secularisation. Dr. Radhakrishnan said at the time of Pandit Nehru’s death that “Pt. Nehru’s main objective was to remove the irrational elements of religion from the minds of the people so that the social upliftment of the people could be done.




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