Scope of sociology

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After knowing the definition of sociology, it is necessary to know what is the field of study of sociology?  To what extent does sociology study?  Field of study means the study of a particular subject within a boundary area.  It is very difficult to determine the area of ​​any subject.  This seems even more difficult, especially in relation to sociology.  The main reason for this is that sociology is a new science.  It has already been told to you that the history of this science is about 169 years old, yet sociologists have tried to clarify its field of study.  With regard to the field of sociology, we have two views of sociologists.

  1. Formal School
  2. Synthetic school



  1. Formal School

According to the Sutra sect, sociology is a specialized science.  As a specialized science, it studies particular types of social relations, that is, in the field of sociology – only six.  Only special types of social relationships should be included.  People in this community have tried to limit the field of study of sociology.  According to the supporters of this community, the field of social relations is so wide that it is not possible to study all kinds of social relations under sociology.  In this situation, not studying all kinds of social relations under it, studying specific forms of these relationships.  That is, in sociology only external forms of social relations’.  Let’s study it.  In order to make sociology a special science, this necessary right field must be decided.  Notable supporters of this community include George Simmel, Max Weber and Von Wiese.  Now we have to consider each one


   (1) George Simmel

George Simmel’s name is prominent among those who consider sociology to be a separate science.  George Simmel wanted to make sociology a specialized science in the field of sociology.  According to him, sociology studies the forms of social relations.  According to George Simmel, each object has a ‘form’ and its contents.  Similarly, there are two main aspects of social relations – the ‘nature’ of social relations and its ‘content’.  Simel states that sociology is concerned only with the external shape and not with the content.  Simmel also said that ‘form’ and ‘material’ are completely different from each other, Dukam, Sorokin, Hob House and they can also be studied separately.  That is, forms of social relations can be distinguished from its content.  For example, milk, water and sorbet were kept in the same glass of glass.  These three glasses have three types of liquid, it does not matter in the form of glass.  Similarly, in a glass of three types of form, the same thing should be filled or different things should be filled, it does not matter in the form of glass.  Therefore, it is clear that his inner self has no influence on nature.  They can be distinguished from each other.  Therefore, the nature of social relations can also be distinguished from its content.  Therefore, only forms of social relations should be studied in sociology.



   (ii) Max Weber – He has also given sociology a special science status.  According to him, sociology is the study of ‘social activities’.  Max Weber thought it appropriate to limit the field of sociology and put forth his ideas.  Before knowing Max Weber’s thoughts, it is necessary to know their meaning of ‘social action’.  According to him social action is that which is meaningful and which is influenced by the behavior of other persons.  Thus we see that two features are evident from Max Weber’s social action – (a) First, social action is the action that affects each other’s behavior and (b) second, social action is meaningful.  With this, Max Weber also stated that social action occurs only when it has a predetermined purpose and reacts after the action has taken place.  Thus Max Weber stated that only sociological studies should be studied under sociology.

   (iii) Veerakand – Veerakant also recognized sociology as a distinct science.  He said, as a special science, sociology should study the forms of mental relations.  That is, the form of mental relationship that binds individuals to each other or group.  Therefore, under sociology one should study the forms of mental and emotional relationships.

   (iv) Tonnese – Sociology is a pure science, recognizing sociology as a distinct science.  This pure science should not contain a mixture of material from other social sciences.  Along with this, the law of sociology should also be completely independent from the rules of other sciences.  In this way we find that – Tony wanted to make sociology as ‘pure sociology’ a special science.

  (v) Von Wiese Like other sociologists, Vonwies accepted sociology as a specialized science.  He has written that sociology as a specific social science is the study of the nature of relationships in society.  VonVies mentions 650 forms of social relations and states that sociology must study these forms.  It is clear from appropriate views that sociology is a specific science according to the supporters of the sutra community.  As a specialized science, it studies the forms of social relations.  These scholars have attempted to limit the field of sociology to a very limited extent.  Other sociologists have highlighted the shortcomings and shortcomings of this community.



Criticism of formal school –

Critics of the formative community present their views in the following way (i) It is wrong for people in the formative community to say that only sociology studies forms of social relations.  For example, in politics, the study of relationships such as dominance, power, power is also studied.  Thus, it would be unfair to say that sociology would become an independent science by studying forms of social relations.

(ii) According to formal community thinkers, since sociology is a new science, its field of study should be limited.  But such recognition of them is not good.  Influenced by the ideas of this community, accepting sociology as a study of forms of social relations would leave other aspects of social life.  In such a situation the field of sociology will be very limited.  This is not good for the development of any subject.

(iii) It is wrong for George Simmel to say that social relations, like physical objects, are two sides – first its external nature and second its content.  These two can be separated from each other.  But the forms of social relations cannot be separated from each other.  Therefore, it is not possible to study only forms of social relations under sociology.

(iv) Scholars of formal denomination want to make sociology an independent and pure science (pure. But it is difficult to be so. The main reason for this is that mutual dependence is found in all social sciences. Sorokin has said this)  That there is hardly any science which is not related to other sciences in some way or other, that is, there is interconnection and interdependence in all sciences.

It is clear from the above criticisms that the approach of formal community is fixed and their beliefs are also not correct.  The need under sociology is to study various aspects or elements of social life in a holistic manner.



  1. Synthetic school

According to synagogue scholars, sociology is a ‘general science’.  That is, all kinds of social relations are studied under it.  The names of Durkheim, Sorokin, Hob House etc. are particularly notable among the prominent sociologists of this community.  These people tried to make sociology a general science rather than a specific science.  According to these scholars, the field of sociology cannot be limited only to forms of social beliefs.  For the completeness of social knowledge, it is very important to have a general science for the whole society.  Scholars of synonymism have two arguments.  Both these arguments are considered the basis of this community.

(i) The first argument is that according to the scholars of Samarth Sampradaya, the form of society is similar to our anatomy.  Just as one part of the body affects another, so does society.


Any change in the body also affects other organs.  That is, just as body parts – suffixes are closely linked to each other, so are cross-linkages between different units of society or the Aga Kabach.

(ii) The second argument is that the entire social life of a person is not the subject of any particular social science.  Every social science studied any part or aspect of society.  Forms of ethics, economics, history or all other social sciences are specifically related to one aspect of our life.  There is no science that thoroughly studies all aspects of social life.  Therefore, sociology as a general science must present the general picture of the assembly of social life.  Only then can the nature of sociology be understood.  Here are the views of some prominent sociologists.

 (i) Durkheim – He has considered sociology as a science.  According to him, social facts should be studied first in sociology, due to which collective representation is done.  Durkheim’s collective representations refer to the thoughts, feelings, perceptions and characteristics found in each group or society, which are adopted by most of the society.  Durkheim said that there are two characteristics of collective representations (a) Collective representations explain the general characteristics of the whole society.  Therefore, they get the acceptance of most of the people of the society.  (b) The person has no existence in front of collective representatives.  It is above one’s power.  Therefore it inevitably affects every person in the society.  Darkam has said that if collective representatives are studied, then a general picture of society will become clear.  Therefore, under sociology, these collective representations must be studied.  Since collective representations present general characteristics of society, sociology is a general science.

   ii Sorokin – He described sociology as a general science.  According to him, no social science is completely independent.  Every social science must be a machine in one form or another.  Each social science has its own subjects which are common elements that are studied in all social sciences.  For example, economics, political science, history, etc. are some common elements in social science.  These mangoes are over


  (iii) Hob House – According to him the function of sociology is to coordinate the results of all social sciences.  Through this coordination, we have to draw a result from which the entire social life was studied.

Sociology as a general science can be coordinated among all social sciences.  Sociology can perform the task of coordination between different social sciences in three ways

(a) by knowing the general elements of the major ideas of all social sciences.

(b) By finding out the factors that make society sustainable and change.

(c) By tracing the trends and conditions of social development.  It is to say that sociology should act as an intermediary.






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