Subject matter of sociology

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Subject matter of sociology


Generally people understand area (area) and subject matter (subject matter) in the same sense.  It is wrong to think so.  There is a difference between study area and subject matter.  Kshetra means the range within which anyone studies science.

Content refers to certain subjects that any science studies.  The extent to which sociology is studied is its field of study and the definite subjects under which sociology is studied is its subject – object.  Like the field of study of sociology, there is a difference in the views of scholars regarding its subject matter.  Various sociologists have presented their views based on their perspectives.  The views of some prominent scholars are being presented here.

Views of Durkheim –

Durkheim considered ‘social facts’ to be the subject matter of sociology.  He told that social facts are a trick to work or behave.  Which has the ability to exert pressure on the person externally.  Durkheim has expressed the content of sociology in major parts.

In Social Morphology, the impact of geographical environment on human life and its relation with Durkhem with social organization is studied.  For example, the density of population and their distribution in different places etc.  .

(ii) Social Physiology Dukhem Social Physiology, comparing society with the body, said that the creator of social physiology is from religion, policy, language, law, family etc.  its

(iii) General sociology studies are done from the classical point of view.  Its study is necessary in understanding the body of General Sociology.  All these have developed into different branches of sociology.  (iii) General Sociology – Under this, social facts are known.  Such general rules are searched.  Which are important for other social sciences.  They are also necessary for the stability and continuity of social life.

  Ideas of Ginsberg –

Ginsberg presents the subject of sociology by dividing it into four parts.

(i) Social Morphology – Under this, those characteristics are studied which determine the size and shape of the society.  That is, the characteristics that make up the shape and form of society are studied in it.  For example, population size.  Apart from this, the idea of ​​Ginsberg, the groups and institutions that make up the social structure, is also studied under it.  (i) Social format

(ii) Social Processes – Under this, Social Morphology is the study of social processes that occur between individuals and (ii) social processes among groups.  Social relations are expressed between different individuals and groups as social processes.  For example conflict, cooperation, competition, dominance etc.  All these social processes (iii) are social controls that express social relations.  They are all studied in Sociology.  (iv) Social disease

(iii) Social Control – Under this, social pathology is the study of all the topics that society uses to regulate people’s behavior.  Every society has its own rules – laws and methods.  The person has to follow.  Control is required in society for a person not to act in an arbitrary manner.  Sociology studies the society by which the behavior of individuals is controlled.  For example, family, religion, law, state, practice etc.

(iv) Social Pathology – The study of social problem causing and social disintegrating conditions in the society is done under it.  That is, the things that cause problems or problems in society are also studied in sociology.  For example prostitution, poverty, crime, child crime, unemployment, etc.  All these cause problems in the society.

 Cairse’s views – Cairse presents the content of sociology in six parts –


(i) Human Actions – Under this, Cairce has included both physical and mental activities of human beings.  Sociology studies both these types of actions.

(ii) SocialOrganization: Sociology studies the elements that maintain social organization in society.  Elements that maintain social order like family, caste, group etc. are studied under Sociology.

(iii) Social Control Cares have also considered the subject matter of sociology of cultivation to maintain social order.  He said that sociology studies the means by which society controls the behavior of a person.  Thoughts of cairns

(iv) Social Change – According to Cairns, sociology also studies the factors that bring change in society (i) Human actions.  Any society, whether modern or traditional, there are some changes in them.  Various (ii) social organization is the cause of change in society.  Sociology studies these factors.  Such as economic, social organization, cultural, social and biological factors etc.  (iii) Social Control

(v) Social Institutions: Different types of social institutions are found in society.  These institutions individuals

(vi) Social Codes – According to Cairns, the behavior of individuals in modern complex societies is governed by the Social Codes Codes.  That is, these codes do the work of social control.  Hence sociology also studies these social codes.  Apart from these three scholars, Karl Manheim, George Simmel, Utter and Hart have also highlighted the content of sociology.  Society is the main foundation of all the views given in relation to the subject matter of Sociology.  That is, sociology studies society as a whole.  Maciver and Page have said that society is a web of social relations.  This leads to the conclusion that the real subject matter of sociology is social relations.  Regarding the subject matter of sociology, the question has always been arising in the minds of sociologists that what is the subject matter of sociology?  The main thing in this direction is that the nature of society is variable.  Sociology is the science of society, we have already studied it.  Therefore, it is natural for the social object to change.  In the US, there was a meeting of sociologists regarding the subject matter of sociology, which covered various subjects.

 Prof. Inkles has presented his outline as follows.

  1. Sociological analysis

 (i) Human culture and society

(ii) Sociological approach

 (iii) Scientific method in social sciences

 2 .  Primary units of social life

  (i) Social action and social relations

 (II) Human personality

  (iii) Group – species and class is also included

  1. iv) Community – Urban and rural

 (v) Committees and Organizations

 (vi) Population

  (vii) society

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