Sustainable development

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Sustainable development



Sustainable development is defined as development that takes place over a long period of time in intelligent and conservative ways. This is a point of conflict between environmentalists and economists. Economists consider sustainable development as development through which material benefits are obtained despite the harm caused to the environment, while environmentalists consider sustainable development as development that does not affect the quality of the environment.


To maintain means to maintain; keep in existence; keep growing; Long If applied only in this sense, sustainability does not mean much to human society. Human society cannot be kept in a single state, whatever it may be. Human society is a complex adaptive system embedded in another complex system, the natural environment, on which it depends for support. The environment is always changing and developing and this capacity for change and development must be maintained if the system is to remain viable (able to cope with its changing system environment) and durable.

The concept of sustainability is very old. The concept was first seen among the Greeks. It was so popular that provincial governors were rewarded or punished accordingly. Consistency can also be traced to Aristotle, according to which people’s preferences are at a particular time, satisfying whatever human welfare is only partially realized; It is also necessary to leave behind enough resources for future generations so that the future generations are not constrained in their priorities (Rao, 2000).



According to Harremeos (1996), mankind has the potential to eventually reach a solution, a sustainable society that can last for generations. He also says that the current growth, however, is not even close to anything like sustainability and is actually reducing the prospects for stability in both developed and developing countries. He also emphasized that sustainable society cannot be achieved without a fundamental change in our basic thinking, moral values, ethical concepts and religious beliefs.

Velinga et al. (1995) defined sustainable development as the maintenance and sustainable use of the functions (goods and services) provided by natural ecosystems and biospheric processes. According to them, in contrast, in a state of instability, where the limits of the biosphere’s carrying capacity are exceeded, all environmental functions can no longer be fully met.

Economic development without environmental considerations can cause serious damage, in turn reducing the quality of life of present and future generations. Sustainable development seeks to strike a balance between the demands of economic growth and the need to protect the environment. It seeks to combine elements of economic efficiency, inter-generational equity, social concerns and environmental protection. Although there are many interpretations of the term sustainable development, it generally refers to a decline in human well-being over time.

The concept of sustainable development aims at maximizing the net benefits of economic activity, maintaining a stock of productive assets (physical, human and environmental) over time and providing a social safety net to meet the basic needs of the poor. is subjected to. Sustainable development therefore seeks to accelerate development in an environmentally responsible manner, taking into account inter-generational equity requirements. The question of intergenerational inequality is at the core of the definition of sustainability and prompts a debate on what are the values of society and how to transfer these values to future generations. Pathways seen as economically optimal routes for development today may not be sustainable for future generations. Economically optimal routes may not be sustainable in the long run if welfare considerations are taken into account. Furthermore, sustainable pathways may not be economically viable.

The challenge is to achieve a balanced approach to development in terms of optimality and sustainability. Jacob, Gardner and Munro Sustainable development demands five broad requirements:



  1. i) integration of conservation and development, i) satisfaction of basic human needs,

iii) Achievement of equity and social justice’

  1. iv) Provision for social self-determination and cultural diversity and
  2. v) Maintenance of ecological integrity.

The concept of sustainability was recognized by the modern world in the 1987 Brundtland Commission Report (WCED, 1987), when it emphasized the need for sustainable development, as Bruntland argued:

“The environment does not exist as an area separate from human actions, ambitions and needs, and

Attempts to defend it in isolation from human concerns have given the term “environment” a connotation of naïveté in some political circles. The term “development”-ment” has also been confined by some to a very narrow focus, along the lines of “what poor countries must do to become rich”, and thus again as a concern of experts. automatically dismissed by many in the international arena. Those involved in questions of “development aid”. But “environment” is where we live; and “development” is what we all do within that habitat. do in an effort to improve their position. The two are inseparable.”

According to the report, sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. There are three major components of sustainable development: economic growth, social equity and protection of the environment. Under the economic component is the principle that through optimum and efficient use of natural resources, the welfare of the society has to be maximized and poverty has to be eradicated. The Commission’s definition emphasizes the concept of “needs”, specifically referring to the basic needs of the world’s poor, which should be given overriding priority. The social component refers to the relationship between nature and human beings, the upliftment of people’s well-being, the improvement of access to basic health and education services, the meeting of minimum standards of safety, and the respect of human rights. It also refers to the development of diverse cultures, diversity, pluralism and effective grassroots participation in decision making. equity issue,



That is, the distribution of benefits and access to resources remain an essential component of both the economic and social dimensions of sustainable development. The environmental component, on the other hand, is concerned with the conservation and enhancement of the physical and biological resource base and eco-system.

Sustainable development is necessary to meet challenges such as the integrity of ecosystems. As the rate of world resource depletion is at its peak and population growth has been very rapid causing economic pressure, the concept of sustainability has to be incorporated in our planning. We need rapid growth but keeping sustainability in mind. Sustainable development (SD) has become a way of expressing the need to move beyond the current dominant models of development around the world, which appear unable to balance the needs of people and the planet in the pursuit of peace and prosperity. Internationally, sustainable development is associated with those directions of development that maintain and mutually reinforce economic, environmental and social conditions.

Applied in practice, this means that just as an economy (or sector) in a prolonged recession is not sustainable, neither is a situation where many people are denied opportunity and face poverty and social exclusion. Is. Equally, development that ignores the essential needs of the poorest or degrades the quality of our environment is not sustainable development.

The Sustainable Development Goals are firmly established in a large number of national, international and non-governmental institutions. At the intergovernmental level, sustainable development is now found as a central theme throughout the United Nations and its specialized agencies. Evidence of this change can be seen in the creation of the Division of Sustainable Development within the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, the establishment of a Vice President for Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development at the World Bank, and the announcement. United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development.



involved in sustainable development

Sustainable development is thinking broadly about objectives and impacts (i.e. about costs and benefits in a broad sense) and not just separating things into economic, environmental and social compartments. It seeks to promote mutual reinforcement



Objectives of improving the overall quality of life rather than pursuing personal objectives such as maximizing short-term economy

Subtle development or improvement of some element of the environment without regard to other consequences.

At the heart of conducting sustainable development is the challenge of assessing and managing the complex interrelationships between economic, social and environmental objectives. For example, economic development is possible through the creative powers of human beings which enable the transformation of nature into meeting the basic needs and physical amenities of daily life. This transformation process often results in degradation of the natural environment which can result in air pollution, climate change and loss of biodiversity. Policy makers are thus faced with difficult decisions to strike the right balance between economic and environmental goals. Because benefits accrue to different groups at different times, determining the levels and rates of investment in each sector at any particular time involves making difficult choices. There is a need to assess the positive and negative economic, social and environmental consequences of policy changes. Areas of tradeoff, where gains in one or more areas result in losses in another, need to be identified and appropriate mitigation measures taken to reduce the negative impacts.

Today many developed and developing countries have adopted the concept of sustainable development. Similar to this concept

It has evolved over time from the initial focus on the environmental dimension to the current emphasis on sustainable development as a process integrating economic, social and environmental objectives. It is also recognized that achieving sustainable development requires far-reaching policy and institutional reforms and participation of all sectors at all levels. Sustainable development is not only the responsibility of the government or one or two sectors of society.

Sustainable development is incremental and builds on what already exists, and its achievement is as much a process as a definite goal. Sustainable development is not an activity that can be left for the long term. Rather, it is a set of short, medium and long term actions, activities and practices aimed at dealing with immediate concerns as well as long term issues.

Agenda 21 promotes national sustainable development strategies as a mechanism to translate the country’s goals and aspirations for sustainable development into concrete policies and actions. A national sustainable development strategy is one way in which countries


Addressing the challenge of moving towards the Sustainable Development Goals at the national, local and even regional levels.

The 1992 Earth Summit put it simply that any human activity is sustainable if it can continue indefinitely without harm to people or the planet. Any activity that harms people or the planet is the opposite – unsustainable. At the Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, world leaders agreed that human activity was seriously damaging the environment and that issues of development, i.e. global wealth/poverty, affected the lives of people in both poor and rich countries. seriously harming life chances. , Thus the issues of welfare, environment and development of people and planet are now seen as two sides of the same coin. The term sustainable development emerged as shorthand to embrace these twin concerns.

Davison (2001) points out that the Industrial Revolution and subsequent technologies are what some people call ‘progress’. The triumphant history of industrialization is overshadowed by a history of social oppression and ecological degradation. The vast, unprecedented prosperity concentrated in highly technological societies is overshadowed by poverty and pollution, the extent of which is also vast and unprecedented. This is because much of our technology lacks the capacity to sustain sustainable ecological flourishing and social well-being.

Sustainable development is necessary to meet challenges such as the integrity of ecosystems. As the rate of world resource depletion is at its peak and population growth has been very rapid causing economic pressure, the concept of sustainability has to be incorporated in our planning. We need rapid growth but keeping sustainability in mind.

Sustainable development is necessary to meet challenges such as the integrity of ecosystems. As the rate of world resource depletion is at its peak and population growth has been very rapid causing economic pressure, the concept of sustainability has to be incorporated in our planning. We need rapid growth but keeping sustainability in mind.

According to WCED the operational objectives of sustainable development are

  1. i) revive growth



  1. i) Change in the quality of development

iii) Meeting the essential needs for jobs, food, energy, water and sanitation,

  1. iv) Ensuring a sustainable l

population level,

  1. v) Conservation and Augmentation of the resource base’
  2. vi) Technology reconfiguration and risk management

vii) Merging of environment and economics in decision making

viii) Reshaping international economic relations, and

  1. ix) Making development more participatory




The time has come when economic planning for sustainable development should go hand in hand with environmental protection. The alternative before us is a sustainable or earthmanship society that aims at recycling and reusing materials, conserving energy, controlling population and pollution, and reducing the rate of consumption of materials including forests and energy so that resources are not depleted And don’t destroy the environment. Does not deteriorate due to overloading with debris and loss of vegetative cover.






Around the world, throughout history, most modern human institutions have developed in ways that are at best oblivious and, at worst, positively hostile to the health of the environment.



Economic development, to date, has been based on two erroneous premises: (1) it only considers the needs of mankind, and ignores interdependent ecosystems, and (2) it treats the environment as a commodity. . Man constantly strives for monetary gain and is enslaved and obsessed by technological advancement and achieving higher GNP. This obsession has degraded the environment and is poised to destroy the carrying capacity (i.e. the capacity of the ecosystem to support life) of Mother Earth. Land erosion and erosion have occurred; The water of rivers, lakes and oceans is so polluted with industrial waste that it is almost unfit either for industrial use or for human consumption. The air is full of gaseous and particulate pollutants that are toxic to life. Pesticides used to boost agricultural production and public health have seriously poisoned the environment. The environment should still be treated as common property.

Considered as such, each agent acts as if it owns it. Each agent of production and consumption considers the waste disposal cost to be zero and uses the environmental sector as long as it allows him to improve his welfare. He doesn’t have to pay anything to anyone. Careless use continues without any harm, and causes degradation of environmental standards, which is unhealthy and harmful to all.



  the challenges we face

We believe that eradicating poverty, changing patterns of consumption and production, and protecting and managing the natural resource base for economic and social development are important objectives and essential requirements of sustainable development. The deep fault line dividing human society between rich and poor and the ever-widening gap between the developed and developing world pose a major threat to global prosperity, security and stability.

Globalization has added a new dimension to these challenges. The rapid integration of markets around the world, capital mobility and significant increases in investment flows have opened up new challenges and opportunities for the pursuit of sustainable development. But the benefits and costs of globalization are unevenly distributed, with developing countries facing particular difficulties in meeting this challenge.

In other words we can say that economic development is possible through the creative powers of human beings which enable the transformation of nature into meeting the basic needs and physical amenities of daily life and in turn the often lacking natural environment which may result. Air pollution, climate change and biodiversity loss.



Policy makers are thus faced with difficult decisions to strike the right balance between economic and environmental goals.

A just, environmentally and materially sustainable society that exploits the environment at the maximum sustainable rate would still be psychologically and culturally unstable. The sustainable development of human society has environmental, physical, ecological, social, economic, legal, cultural, political and psychological dimensions that require attention. Some forms of sustainable development can be expected to be more acceptable to humans and so this has led to the development of new concepts including sustainable development as a basis for overcoming the environment.

Mental Challenges.

One of the most cited definitions emphasizes the economic aspects by defining sustainable development as “economic development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” Another takes a broader view, defining sustainable development as “the type of human activity that nourishes and perpetuates the historical fulfillment of the entire community of life on Earth.”



























History of Sustainability and Sustainable Development

concept development


The report, Our Common Future, published by WCED, is taken as the starting point for most current discussions on the concept of sustainable development. The comprehensive report, prepared through a global partnership, constituted a major political turning point for the concept of sustainable development. But it is neither the starting point nor the possible end of the conceptual development process. As with any conceptual process governed by general evolutionary theory, there are some important conceptual precursors that have led to WCED’s definition of sustainable development, which has been followed by other conceptual efforts. This section focuses on the historical and ideological precursors to the concept of sustainable development and is divided into three distinct historical periods: pre-Stockholm, the period leading up to the Stockholm Conference on Environment and Development (before 1972) covering; WCED from Stockholm (1972–1987); and post-WCED (1987 onwards).





Nature has successfully demonstrated sustainable evolution for a few billion years, with indiscriminate disregard for the fate of individuals and even species. The principle of survival of the fittest, with its effectiveness and dynamism, but also its brutality and hardship, would not be accepted by the majority of mankind as a principle of sustainable development.

Few human societies have been sustainable in their environment over long periods of time by institutionalizing systems of exploitation, injustice, and class privilege that would be equally unacceptable to most of mankind today. Historically religious beliefs and traditions have taught us to view and act on non-human nature in the context of particular human interests, beliefs and social structures. Through religious beliefs and laws, we have socialized nature, humanized it. To a large extent, we have done this to satisfy human needs, abilities and power relations. Yet, at the same time, “religion has also represented the voice of nature to humanity” (Gottlieb 1996). Spiritual teachings celebrate and sanctify our relationship with the non-human world, reminding us of our fragile and inescapable partnership with air, land, water, earth, fire (the five elements in Hinduism) and other living beings .

Several authors have interpreted the Judeo-Christian writings about the “right of man to rule over the earth” (Genesis 1:28) as being used by Western societies.

but is found to be an essential source of destruction. Other religious environmentalists have discovered environmentally positive passages in classic texts, and they claim that Judaism and Christianity are more environmentally conscious than they might appear at first glance (Kinsley 1996). A critical review of writings from both sides leads to the conclusion that religions have been neither simple agents of environmental degradation nor pure repositories of ecological knowledge (Gottlieb, 1996). Although they have different contexts and structures, the core element of all indigenous traditions and beliefs is the importance of living in harmony with nature and society, which is one of the fundamental principles of the concept of sustainability.

Thomas Robert Malthus (1766–1834) is considered the first economist to predict the limits to development due to the scarcity of resources. By 1798, many bad effects of the Industrial Revolution had come to the fore. Unemployment, poverty, and disease were already problems that required remedial measures. In contrast to the views of William Goldwyn (1756–1836) and the Marquis de Condorcet (1743–1794), Malthus held that “wickedness and misery




that plague society is not due to evil human institutions, but due to the fertility of the human race. This led to his theory of population. According to Malthus’ theory, uncontrolled population grows geometrically, while subsistence grows best arithmetically (Oser and Blanchfield, 1997). With David Ricardo (1772–1823), who originally derived from his population theory Agreed, Malthus expressed his “ideology of environmental limits” in terms of limits to the supply of good quality agricultural land and the resulting diminishing returns to agricultural production (Pierce and Turner 1990). The Malthusian theory of “environmental limits” can be considered a precursor to the concept of sustainable development.

Some experts believe that the concept of appropriate technology (D

as fines that take into account skills, population levels, availability of natural resources) and pressing social needs are immediate precursors to the concept of sustainable development.

The term sustainable comes from foresters in Europe in the 18th and 19th centuries, when deforestation was taking place across much of Europe and foresters became increasingly concerned, as timber was one of the driving forces in the European economy. Deforestation was, from an economic point of view, being done using clear-cutting techniques, meaning that loggers went through an area of forest and removed all the trees in the path. The forests that grew back after being cut down did not provide the wood fiber needed for the European economy. In response to this crisis, foresters, and especially German foresters, developed scientific or sustainable forestry. The idea at that time was simple i.e. if enough trees were planted every year to replace the wood provided by the trees that were cut down, and the growth rate of the entire forest was scientifically monitored to ensure that, So the forest will be sustainable. It will always grow enough wood fiber to replace the wood fiber lost during harvesting. Thus, in this basic idea, sustainable means that as a resource is used, it is replaced by growing additional amounts of the resource. In the modern context of the term sustainable, it is a difficult context because there are many resources, such as oil or iron ore, that cannot be grown. Yet, these resources, like the trees in Europe’s forests, are finite. If all the oil is taken out, there will be no more oil left.

In 1968, the Club of Rome was an international non-governmental organization (NGO) dedicated to the study of “world problems”, a term coined to describe global, multifaceted political, social, cultural, environmental and technological problems .


and long term perspective. It brought together scientists, researchers, businessmen and heads of state from all continents, including former USSR President Mikhail Gorbachev and Nobel Peace Prize winner Rigoberta Menchu Tum. Over the years, the Club of Rome produced “The Limits to Growth”, a report published in 1972 that brought ecological limits to economic and demographic growth to the doorstep of world public opinion. “Limits to Growth” is one of the first papers of importance to be published about ecological limits to economic and demographic growth. It highlights the results of mathematical simulations carried out on demographic and economic growth related to the exploitation of natural resources. Beyond the controversy raised by the findings of The Limits to Growth which left no one indifferent – the report to date makes the first push towards the definition of the foundations of a growth mode that we consider sustainable today.

According to DuBose et al. (1995), “Sustainable development can be traced back at least to the mid-1960s, when appropriate technology was promoted as a way to develop less developed countries.” By the early 1970s, many organizations and individuals promoted technology suitable for the developed world as well.



  Stockholm to WCED

The United Nations Conference on the Human Environment took place in the summer of 1972 in Stockholm, Sweden. The relationship between economic growth and environmental degradation was first put on the international agenda when 113 nations met at the Stockholm Convention on the Human Environment.

gathered for the first global environmental meeting. It recognized “the importance of environmental management and the use of environmental assessment as a management tool” (DuBose et al. 1995), representing a major step in the development of the concept of sustainable development. Following the conference, governments established the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), which continues to serve as a global catalyst for protecting the environment today. Even if the link between environmental and developmental issues did not emerge strongly, there were indications that the nature of economic development would have to change.

Environment and development cannot remain in a state of conflict for long, became clear after the Stockholm Conference and in subsequent years the terminology



Evolved into terms such as “environment and development,” “development without destruction,” and “environmentally sound development,” and finally, the term “eco-development” appeared in a review of the United Nations Environment Program in 1978. . However, according to Tryzna (1995), the first major breakthrough in conceptual insight came from the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Working closely with the World Wildlife Fund and the United Nations Environment Program for Nature, the IUCN formulated the World Conservation Strategy, which was launched internationally in 1980, providing a precursor to the Co.

Concept of sustainable development. The strategy stressed that conservation of nature cannot be achieved without development to reduce the poverty and suffering of millions of people and stressed the interdependence of conservation and development in that development depends on caring for the earth. Unless the fertility and productivity of the planet is protected, the human future is at risk. It was a major attempt to integrate environmental and development concerns into the umbrella concept of “conservation”. Although the term “sustainable development” did not appear in the text, the strategy’s subtitle, “Living Resource Conservation for Sustainable Development,” certainly highlights the concept of sustainability (Khosla 1995).

In 1984, the United Nations Assembly mandated Gro Harlem Brundtland, then Prime Minister of Norway, to form and chair the World Commission on Environment and Development, which is recognized today for promoting the values and principles of sustainable development.

The commission’s mandate was to suggest means to the international community to preserve the environment through better cooperation between developing countries and so-called developed nations, mainly considering the existing relationship between people, resources, environment and development. The purpose of the commission’s work was to create an outline of environmental issues and, ultimately, to develop an action plan defining the objectives of the international community in matters related to development and environmental protection.

An important footnote is that the work of the World Commission on Environment and Development was marked by two major environmental and human disasters that are part of our history today: the Bhopal, India catastrophe (1984), caused by a toxic gas leak from pesticides plants and as a result thousands of people die and get injured



thousands of others, as well as the explosion of four reactors at the Chernobyl nuclear plant in Ukraine (1986). Radioactive effects from this accident have had and will continue to have a negative impact on the health of affected populations and ecosystems.

The commission’s work led to the release in 1987 of the report Our Common Future, also known as the Brundtland Report, which contained the key statement of sustainable development, which defined it as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the abilities of future generations”. defined as “fulfils”. meet your own needs” (WCED 1987). This definition marks the advent of the political age of the concept and establishes the content and structure of the current debate (Kirkby 1995). The Brundtland Commission’s conceptual definition includes two key concepts :

  • the concept of “needs”, especially the urgent needs of the world’s poor, which should be given paramount priority; And
  • Consideration of the limits imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the capacity of the environment to meet present and future needs.

By doing so, the Commission underlines the strong link between poverty alleviation, environmental improvement and social equity through sustainable economic growth. Not surprisingly, since it can be interpreted in many different ways, the Brundtland Commission’s definition of sustainable development has gained wide acceptance. As noted by Pierce et al. (1989), it fits well into the political soundbite compared to the “eco-development” of its predecessor; It’s something everyone can agree on, like motherhood and apple pie.




  after WCED

The other major obstacle after the WCED is the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the “Rio Conference” or “Earth Summit”. Preparation for the conference held in June 1992. Bringing together nearly 200 government representatives and a large number of non-governmental organizations, the Earth Summit gave rise to the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, a key document reaffirming an international commitment to the principles of sustainable development. ,

UNCED produced key international documents at this meeting:

  • Convention on Biological Diversity;
  • Framework Convention on Climate Change (and its corollary, the Kyoto Protocol);
  • Agreement to combat desertification;
  • Statement of principles on management, conservation and sustainable development of forests.

Although much importance was given to the documents and declarations signed at the end of the conference, the most important legacy of UNCED was the nature of the preparatory process, which involved the participation of key stakeholders in most countries. ground level. This process took the concept of sustainable development to every corner of the world, exposing it to questions such as: What does it really mean for each community? How can we move beyond generalities and put them into practice? How do we know we are moving towards a standstill


Under the Rio Declaration, signatory countries agreed that the protection of the environment and social and economic development are fundamental to reaching sustainable development. This declaration is an important step in establishing sustainable development priorities at the international level.

Considering the institutional foundation of the WCED and the global realities in the mid-1980s, the definition of sustainable development provided by the WCED makes a lot of practical sense. It has been extremely helpful in developing the new world view emerging today. Consensus on a vague concept rather than disagreement on a clearly defined one was a “good political strategy” (Daly 1996). However, by 1995, “this initial ambiguity was no longer the basis of consensus, but rather a breeding ground for disagreement” (Daley 1996). The acceptance of a largely undefined term as a basis sets the stage for a situation where whoever dictates his definition to the term will win a major political battle for influence in the future.





  World Summit on Sustainable Development (2002)

In 2002, the World Summit on Sustainable Development, held in Johannesburg, South Africa, was an opportunity for participants to renew their commitment to and make progress in the principles defined in the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21 objectives.



Consider prioritizing some goals. These include poverty alleviation, change in consumption patterns and non-viable production, and conservation and management of natural resources. The participants also discussed the topic of globalization and the relationship that links health and development issues. Government representatives in attendance resolved to develop national sustainable development strategies to be implemented before 2005. Since 2002, some governments, international organizations and communities have adopted and implemented strategies, action plans and programs stemming from the directives outlined in the meeting.

The principles of sustainable development underpinned the agenda of the Rio Earth Summit where the Agenda 21 document outlining the ‘Global Partnership for Sustainable Development’ was approved. This massive document addresses a wide range of environmental and development issues and aims to provide a strategy for implementing sustainable development around the world. The United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) was created to monitor and promote the implementation of Agenda 21 in each country. By the mid-1990s most industrialized countries had published national sustainable-development strategies, and many local authorities launched local Agenda 21 strategies.

On 24 December 2009, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution (A/RES/64/236) agreeing to hold the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD) in 2012 – known as ‘Rio+20’ or ‘Rio 20’. Also called , The conference seeks three objectives: to achieve renewed political commitment to sustainable development, to assess progress and implementation gaps in meeting previously agreed commitments, and to address new and emerging challenges. The member states have agreed on the following two themes for the conference: the green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty alleviation, and the institutional framework for sustainable development

Sustainable development has become part of the international vocabulary since UNCED. The concept has been included in many UN declarations and its implementation, while the complex has been at the forefront of the world’s institutions and organizations working in the economic, social and environmental fields. However, they all acknowledge how difficult it has proved to be to give the environment pillar the same recognition as the other two pillars received, with many calls by scientists and civil society indicating vulnerabilities.



and the uncertainty of the Earth since the 1960s.

The reach of sustainable development extends beyond government to the world of business and civil society. The World Bank has tried to overcome its bad reputation with environmentalists by publishing environmental reports, holding regular seminars, and sponsoring research on a wide range of environmental issues. The World Bank is also host to the Global Environment Facility, an institution responsible for financing the sustainable development of countries from north to south. The World Business Council for Sustainable Development, formed in 1995, is a coalition of 125 international companies from 30 countries and more than 20 industrial sectors, which

The overarching objective is to develop closer co-operation between business, government and all other organizations concerned with the environment. To encourage high standards of environmental management in sustainable development and business’. Several trade associations have also declared their support for sustainable development.

NT; For example, the insurance industry (which could potentially lose a lot if climate change caused sea level rise, floods and storms) took part in the March 1995 environmental commitment signed by more than 50 major insurers. issued a statement. These international efforts have been widely replicated nationally, where state-sponsored roundtables have brought together representatives from all sections of society – politicians, businesses, trade unions, churches, environmental groups, consumer groups – to discuss how sustainable To do development can be implemented. Despite this widespread enthusiasm, the precise meaning of sustainable development remains elusive.




If the IUCN takes credit for first introducing the phrase “sustainable development” into an international forum, the Brundtland Commission, through its report Our Common Future (1987), was the major political turning point that gave the concept of great geopolitical importance. The coined and catch phrase it has become today (Holmberg 1994). Since the publication of this report, sustainable development has become increasingly

The very essence of environmental dialogue leads to very wide acceptance, with very diverse interpretations. According to Holmberg (1994), by 1994 there were over 80 different definitions and interpretations basically sharing the core concept of the WCED definition. Four decades ago, in Stockholm, we agreed on the urgent need



The answer to the problem of deteriorating environment. Ten years ago, at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro, we agreed that the protection of the environment and social and economic development are fundamental to sustainable development based on the Rio Principles. To achieve such development, we adopted the global program called Agenda 21 and the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, to which we reaffirm our commitment. The Rio Conference was an important milestone that set a new agenda for sustainable development.

Between Rio and Johannesburg, the countries of the world have met in several major conferences under the auspices of the United Nations, including the International Conference on Financing for Development, as well as the Doha Ministerial Conference. These conferences define a comprehensive vision for the future of humanity for the world.

At the Johannesburg Summit, we have accomplished much in bringing together a rich tapestry of people and ideas in creative search for a common path toward a world that respects and implements a vision of sustainable development. The Johannesburg Summit also confirmed that significant progress has been made in achieving global consensus and partnership among all the peoples of our planet.





There is some degree of concern about the deterioration of environmental standards around the world. Increases in economic well-being are rapidly being accompanied by substantial degradation of environmental quality and loss of ecological stability. Various groups of environmentalists have pessimistic and optimistic view about this but the fact remains that acid rain, global warming, greenhouse effect, soil erosion and infertility, land degradation, environmental pollution and depletion of ozone layer. Industrialization and globalization have changed the world. These trends have introduced complex economic systems, and they are often at the expense of biological and cultural diversity.

Development is a progressive change of economy and society. A development path that is sustainable in a material sense can theoretically be adopted even in a harsh social and political setting. But material stability cannot be secured unless development policies take into account considerations such as access to resources and changes in the distribution of costs and benefits. Even the narrow notion of material sustainability implies a concern for social equity between generations, a concern that should logically be extended to equity within each generation. Thus the goals of the economy

C and social development should be defined in terms of sustainability in all countries, developed or developing, market-oriented or centrally planned.

Over the past few decades, several definitions of sustainable development have been suggested and debated. When the World Commission on Environment and Development presented its 1987 report, Our Common Future, it sought to resolve the problem of conflict between environmental and development goals by formulating a definition of sustainable development: “development that meets the present without compromise”. meets the needs of future generations”, which has become the accepted standard definition. The United Nations attempted to reconcile these views by convening the first Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. It was here that for the first time the international community agreed on a comprehensive strategy to address development and environmental challenges through a global partnership. The framework of this partnership was Agenda 21, which included key aspects of sustainability i.e. economic



development, environmental protection, social justice, and democratic and effective governance.

when stability in our world

When it comes to describing, we should be concerned with three interrelated areas of sustainability that describe the relationship between the environmental, economic and social aspects of our world.



components of sustainable development

The definition of sustainable development given by the Brundtland Commission Report, Our Common Future, and further, Principle 1 of the Rio Declaration, states that humans are at the center of concerns for sustainable development. They are entitled to a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature. In the wider discussions and use of the concept since then, three major components of sustainable development have generally been identified, namely economic, environmental and social, to be more specific, economic growth, social equity and protection of the environment 

Sustainable development depends on the relationship between the economy, environment and society. Understanding the three parts and their links is key to understanding sustainability, because sustainability is about much more than quality of life. It is about understanding the relationship and achieving a balance between social, economic and environmental components.


  Economic stability


From the point of view of neoclassical economic theory, sustainability can be defined in terms of maximizing welfare over time. Most economists simplify this further by identifying welfare maximization with the maximization of utility derived from consumption. An economically stable system must be able to produce goods and services on an ongoing basis, while maintaining manageable levels of government and external debt and avoiding excessive regional imbalances.

Economic sustainability involves creating economic value from the decisions we are making. It is a balancing act. The profitability and cost of a decision must be balanced with the environmental and social impacts of its consequences. Sustainable development improves the economy without reducing social or environmental imperatives. A sustainable community does not consume resources, energy and raw materials faster than the regenerative capacity of natural systems. A sustainable community interacts with four types of capital: natural, human, social and built capital. All four types of capital need to be looked after.

To a large extent environmental degradation is the result of market failure, that is, non-existent contexts or poorly functioning market services for environmental goods. In this context, environmental degradation is a special case of consumption or production externalities, reflected by the divergence between private and social costs (or benefits). What is usually regarded as an economic externality must be internalized i.e. many natural resources are shared and the true value of many environmental goods and services is not paid by those who use them. We do. For example, airlines don’t pay for the carbon dioxide they put into the atmosphere. Similarly, the cost of food does not reflect the cost of cleaning water bodies that have been polluted by runoff of agricultural chemicals from the land. Tobacco consumption highlights how areas of land are used to produce a product that is costly to the environment, to people’s personal health, and to society’s resources.



Health care.

Economic and political decisions ultimately have a huge impact on determining how the world’s resources are used (and wasted). More fundamentally, our main economic measure, gross domestic product (GDP), generally fails to measure environmental impacts because they are “external costs” borne by society.

If the cost of production includes the environmental impact, the cost of the safe disposal of many products and their waste, etc., it may help businesses to think more about environmental factors in their products and services. In market-based economies as well as in mixed economies, this will be important. When only the economic aspects of something are considered, it does not necessarily lead to true sustainability.




  environmental sustainability

From an ecological perspective, sustainable development provides the integrity of both natural biological and physical systems and ensures their viability. The global stability of the biosphere depends on it. Particular importance is attached to the ability of such systems to self-reproduce and adapt to various changes, as opposed to being preserved in a stable state within a vacuum or deteriorating and losing their biological diversity.

Development has had major negative impacts on the environment and existing social structures. Many traditional societies have been ravaged by development. Urban areas in developing countries usually suffer from excessive pollution and inadequate transport, water and sewer infrastructure. Environmental damage, if unchecked, can undermine development achievements and even lead to the collapse of essential ecosystems.

The deep and widespread concern for environmental degradation arises from two major sources i.e. 1) Increase in material production, waste and use of synthetic materials 2) Increasing demand for environmental goods. The first refers to the problems of environmental externality and the second to the depletion of natural resources. In addition to the increased supply of economic goods, there has also been an increase in demand for environmental goods. environmental

These objects reflect any external environmental conditions that affect human well-being.

The environmental component of sustainable development includes the following requirements:


  • A healthy person in the center of attention should have the right to lead

life in harmony with nature;

  • equal opportunities for the development and protection of the environment for present and future generations;
  • Sustainable use of renewable resources (eg fresh water, aquifers, soil, biomass);
  • reducing the use of non-renewable resources (fossil fuels, minerals and loss of biodiversity);
  • meeting human needs, including access to natural resources, an adequate healthy environment and access to basic services;
  • Environmental protection should be an integral part of the overall socio-economic process and cannot be considered in isolation from it;
  • In contrast to traditional nature conservation practices, the emphasis should be on eco-awareness-raising activities related to the economy, above all, to eliminate the causes, not the effects;
  • Socio-economic development should be given a clear direction towards improving the standard of living of people within the acceptable limits of the economic potential of the ecosystem; And
  • To bring into focus the perceptions of ecology and the world about people and their systems of education.

The main focus in environmental sustainability is on natural resources used in specific projects or broad programs of human activities. The assumption is that economic growth is necessary to create assets for socio-economic development and thus improve the quality of life of citizens. Natural resources are essential for economic development but there are limits to their supply. In this sense, development should proceed but always at a rate which ensures sustainable use of resources.

Uncontrolled use of resources can lead to environmental degradation, which can result in the following:


  • Reduction in the quantity and quality of resources available for further consumption

and production.

  • Excessive use of the waste-absorbing capacity of the environment.
  • Loss of biodiversity.
  • Decreased environmental resilience has led to an increase in the incidence of hazards.
  • Increasing pressure on land for the built environment of the future.

There are many things that are directly related to environmental sustainability. One of the concepts that is of utmost importance is the proper management of our natural resources. Unlike economists, whose models provide no upper limit on economic growth, physical scientists and ecologists are accustomed to the idea of limits. Natural resource degradation, pollution, and biodiversity loss are harmful because they increase vulnerability, undermine system health, and reduce resilience, which is often critical to avoid catastrophic ecosystem collapse.

Unlike traditional societies, modern economies have only recently recognized the need to judiciously manage scarce natural resources because human well-being ultimately depends on ecological services. Ignoring safe ecological limits will increase the risk of undermining the long-term prospects for development. Many researchers argue that environment and geography

factors have been the major drivers of past growth and development.



  social stability

In the social sector, the primary objectives are to achieve scientifically based standards of living standards, to increase life expectancy, to improve the living environment of the people, to develop their social activities, family planning, to improve the scale and pattern of personal consumption. rationalization, education, medical aid and equal access. Health recovery; Social security of the elderly, physically challenged and other vulnerable target groups etc. The social component of sustainable development refers to the relationship between nature and humans and is also oriented towards maintaining the stability of public and cultural systems, cultural diversity, pluralism, effective Grassroots participation in decision making and reduction in the amount of social conflict.


Living standards that go beyond the basic minimum are sustainable only if long-term stability in consumption standards is respected everywhere. Yet many of us live beyond the ecological means of the world, for example in our patterns of energy use. Perceived needs are socially and culturally determined, and sustainable development requires the promotion of values that encourage consumption standards that are within the limits of the ecologically possible and to which all can reasonably aspire.

Social sustainability parallels ideas about environmental sustainability. Reducing vulnerability and maintaining the health (i.e., resilience, strength and organization) of social and cultural systems and their ability to withstand shocks is critical. Increasing human capital (through education) and strengthening social values, institutions and equity improves the resilience of social systems and governance.

Social development generally refers to improvements in both individual well-being and overall social well-being that result from an increase in social capital—generally, the ability of individuals and groups of people to work together to achieve shared objectives. accumulation of potential. Social capital is the resource that people

are drawn upon in the pursuit of their aspirations and are developed through networks and affiliations, membership of more formal groups and relationships of trust, reciprocity and reciprocity. The institutional component of social capital refers primarily to formal laws as well as traditional or informal understandings that govern behavior, while the organizational component is embodied in the institutions (both individuals and social groups) that exist within these institutional arrangements. Let’s work We can assume that human capital (eg, education, skills, etc.), and cultural capital (eg, social relationships and customs) are also included within social capital – although fine distinctions exist. A socially sustainable system must achieve distributive equity, adequate provision of social services including health and education, gender equality, and political accountability and participation.

Social sustainability is based on the concept that a decision promotes the betterment of society. In general, future generations should enjoy the same or greater quality of life as current generations do. The concept includes many things such as human rights, environmental law and public participation and involvement. Failure to emphasize the social part of the decision or action may result in stability and even a gradual collapse of areas of society. a great example of social stability




Passage of the Clean Water Act in 1972 (and amendments in 1977) and the Safe Drinking Water Act in 1974. Overall, these sets of laws were great pieces of legislation that set minimum water quality standards for both surface and drinking water. The Clean Water Act also served to protect our nation’s water supply by essentially making it illegal to discharge pollutants into adjacent rivers, lakes, and streams.



component target

Ecological limits and uniform standards encourage consumption that is ecologically feasible for all economic activity and equitable resource allocation ensures economic development that allows all people to meet their needs. The basic goals of sustainable development can be achieved as mentioned below:

Population control prevents the population from exceeding the productive capacity of the ecosystem.

Resource conservation protects the carrying capacity of all natural systems and identifies the productive potential of sustainable production ecosystems.

Resource retention reduces the rate of depletion for non-renewable resources. Species diversification conserves and protects plant and animal species.

Adverse impact mitigation Prevents damage to ecosystems due to pollution Community control Prevents exploitation and degradation of ecosystems

Comprehensive national/international framework jointly manages the biosphere pursues economic viability economic well-being

environmental quality makes environment q

Reality is a corporate goal, and environmental auditing tracks the progress of environmental management systems.

In the light of the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, the most essential socio-economic criteria of sustainable development are:

  • sustainable livelihoods and quality of life;
  • poor elimination;



  • Changes in consumption and production patterns;
  • health care and improvement;
  • improving the demographic situation;
  • Crime retribution in the life of society.

Expansion in population can increase pressure on resources and slow the rise in living standards in areas where scarcity is widespread. However the issue is not just one i.e. size of population but distribution of resources. Sustainable development can be pursued only when demographic developments are commensurate with the changing productive capacity of the ecosystem.




indicators of sustainable development

Since sustainable development goes beyond economic issues, linking the economy, environment and society, there exists no single macroeconomic theory related to sustainable development. However, progress towards sustainable development is often measured by a variety of indicators, which may be used at the local, regional, national or international level. It is widely accepted that indicators of sustainable development are important tools to focus attention on sustainable development and assist decision makers at all levels to adopt sound national sustainable development policies. The 1992 Earth Summit recognized its importance and called on countries and the international community to develop such indicators. In response, the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) approved the Indicators on Sustainable Development in 1995 and culminated in a set of 58 indicators based on a theme/sub-theme framework. The set of indicators was adopted by the CSD in 2001 after extensive consultation and national testing programmes. The World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002 and subsequent sessions of the CSD encouraged further work on indicators of sustainable development by countries in line with national circumstances and priorities, and called upon the international community to support the efforts of developing countries in this regard. invited.

Several reasons for the need to find indicators of sustainable development





  • Indicators of sustainable development are needed to guide policies and decisions



At all levels of society: village, town, city, county, state, region, nation, state

Island and the World.

  • These indicators represent all significant concerns: an ad hoc collection of indicators that merely appear to be relevant is not sufficient. A more systematic approach should look at the interactions of systems and their environment.
  • The number of indicators should be as few as possible, but not less than necessary. That is, the indicator set should be comprehensive and compact, covering all relevant aspects.
  • The process of finding an indicator set should be participatory to ensure that the set captures the attitudes and values of the community or region for which it is developed.
  • Indicators should be clearly defined, reproducible, clear, understandable and practical. They should reflect the interests and views of various stakeholders.
  • With a glance at these indicators, it should be possible to deduce the feasibility and sustainability of current development and compare it with alternative development paths.
  • There is a need for a framework, a process and criteria for finding an adequate set of indicators of sustainable development.

Sustainable development indicators are more in the nature of indices that reflect the status of overall concepts or social goals such as human development, sustainable development, quality of life, or socioeconomic well-being. The indicators provide early warnings about unsustainable trends in economic activity and environmental degradation.

Sustainable development includes economic performance, social equity, environmental measures and institutional capacity as its core components. Examples are located in the box on the left. Within the economic performance component, the selected indicators are nationally and internationally well-known and commonly used measures that reflect important issues of economic performance, business and financial condition. Consumption and production patterns are also represented, providing additional coverage of material consumption, energy use, waste generation and management, and transportation.



Economic issues such as international cooperation, consumption and production patterns, financial resources and mechanisms, transfer of technology, etc. have indicators such as real GDP per capita, growth rate (%), exports of goods and services, imports of goods and services. Depletion of mineral resources (of proven reserves), per capita annual energy consumption, ratio of consumption of renewable sources to non-renewable sources

Freshwater Resources, Land Resources Planning and Management, Combating Desertification and Drought, Sustainable Mountain Development, Promoting Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development, Combating Deforestation, Conservation of Biodiversity, Biotechnology for Sustainable Development There are priority areas and various indicators of these environmental components of sustainable development. Development Green house gases are their emissions/concentrations, SOx, NOx emissions, toxic contamination (POC, heavy metals) land conversion; land fragmentation, species abundance, waste generation (municipal/industry/agriculture), water resources and demand/use intensity residential/industrial/agriculture and demand/supply ratio; Forest resources and their intensity of use, degradation of forest cover, protected area forests, fish resources, fishing; Soil degradation – land use change/top soil loss; Ocean/coastal emissions – oil spills; deposition water quality coastal zone management; ocean protection environmental index pressure index, etc.

The quantity and quality of social interactions underpinning human existence, including the level of mutual trust and the extent of shared social norms, help determine the stock of social capital. Thus social capital increases with greater use and is lost with disuse, in contrast to economic and environmental capital which depreciates or diminishes with use. Social components of sustainable development such as poverty, demographic mobility and stability, promotion of education, public awareness and training, protection and promotion of human health, various indicators of human settlements including traffic and transportation, employment rate, total fertility rate, population growth rate Huh. Population density, access to safe drinking water, exposure of urban population to different types of polluting gases, motor vehicles in use, number of megacities, expenditure on low cost housing, per capita infrastructure expenditure, etc.

Equality and poverty alleviation are important. Thus, social goals include protective




Strategies that reduce vulnerability, improve equity and ensure basic needs are met. Future social development will require socio-political institutions that can adapt to meet the challenges of modernization – which often destroy the traditional coping mechanisms that disadvantaged groups have developed in the past.

In its broadest sense, the strategy of sustainable development aims to promote harmony among human beings and between humanity and nature. The pursuit of sustainable development requires:

  • A political system that ensures effective citizen participation in decision making.
  • An economic system that is self-sustaining and capable of generating surplus and technical knowledge on a sustained basis
  • A social system that provides solutions for the tensions arising out of disharmonious development.
  • A production system that has the obligation to preserve the ecological base for development


  • a technical system that can continuously search for new solutions,
  • An international system that promotes sustainable patterns of trade and finance, and
  • An administrative system that is flexible and has the capacity for self-correction.

These requirements are more in the nature of goals that should underlie national and international action on development. What matters is how sincerely these goals are pursued and the effectiveness with which deviations from them are corrected. Here are some general ideas important to sustainable development in our policy:

  • Environment management plans should be integrated into all developmental activities of all regional authorities who have the primary responsibility of environmental protection.
  • A mass education and awareness program for everyone from primary school children to professionals, policy makers, decision makers and everyone in between;
  • The Environment Departments of the Center and the States have to do the following

Keep an eye on the dog’s role and clubbing with other departments is counterproductive;

  • The key to success in the environment lies in cooperation between the central and state governments; Environmental management including impact assessment should be a statutory obligation for all development projects.



Environmental Priorities for Sustainable Development in India

Keeping in view the rapid environmental degradation, the following environmental priorities have been identified for sustainable development in India:

  1. Population Stabilization

As we know that the world population is around 6 billion and India has crossed the 1 billion mark and its population has increased 4 times since last 100 years. The overpopulation of people has led to the depletion of resources and demographic pressures lead to economic pressures.

Due to this increase in population the following tensions have arisen:-

  1. i) Decrease in availability of land: Due to increase in population a disastrous situation has arisen

increase in availability of land

  1. i) Increase in Industrialization: Due to increase in population, the needs of the people are increasing very fast. Therefore, there is an increase in the demand for manufactured goods and in turn there is a need for more and more industries which release more and more gases into the atmosphere and contribute to global warming.

iii) Deterioration of sanitary conditions: Increase in population and paucity of space has led to a decrease in sanitation facilities and a deterioration in sanitary conditions.

  1. iv) Economic loss: Increase in population causes economic loss. This has also reduced the food supply. Thus, stability needs to evolve in a population for stability.
  2. Integrated Land Use Plan

Land is and has been one of the important components of the life support system.


overuse and abuse. Ours is primarily an agricultural country where land comes first. There are many competing demands on the land such as agriculture, forestry, grasslands, urban and industrial development and transportation. Planning is very important for proper use of land otherwise it will lead to wastage and degradation of land so land has to be used wisely.

  1. Healthy crop land and grasslands

India has done well in agriculture over the years and there has been a tremendous increase in production. But with increasing population, there is an urgent need to boost productivity per unit area per unit time. This can be made possible in India by:

  • Reducing the gap between actual and potential yields and thus making agriculture grow vertically rather than horizontally.
  • Introduction of genetics especially genetic engineering in agriculture.
  • With the help of biotechnology it may be possible to free up substantial land from the present agricultural holdings.
  • Strategies to reduce the loss of topsoil.
  • Also, the problem of grasslands and overgrazing has not been given due attention. This has resulted in eco-degradation due to the fact that we have the largest number of livestock in the world with very little in terms of productivity. That’s why collective effort is needed.


  Woodland and Revitation

The reason for the decline in forest cover is the demand for forest based commodities. To meet the demand, forests are being cut down at an alarming rate, leading to ecological disturbances such as floods, CO2 (global warming) by removal of topsoil, etc. Along with these problems there is a wide gap between the demand and supply of timber. Miscellaneous Uses. Therefore, a strategy has to be made to meet the deficiency against the two main objectives of forestry: –

(i) To afford long term ecological security

(ii) Supply of goods and services to people and industry in a deliberate manner



Out of production plan.

To achieve these objectives, there is a need to practice 3 broad types of forestry namely conservation, production and social forestry.

  1. i) Conservation forestry – It will cover natural vegetation in watersheds, fragile ecological zones and biosphere reserves, national parks etc. Where no commercial exploitation can be allowed.
  2. i) Production or Commercial or Industrial Forestry – It aims to meet the raw material demand of all forest based industries.

iii) Social, community or agro-forestry: Basically, it is a multi-purpose forestry for food, timber, fuel and fodder to meet the needs of the village which will reduce the pressure on conservation forests.

  1. Bio

conservation of diversity

The biological wealth of our country is immense but due to large scale human interference the diversity of various species is at a great risk. Our conservation efforts should be primarily directed towards the conservation of flora and fauna including the big cats; large mammals; plants, especially forest vegetation; Micro-organisms and marine biological wealth. To maintain this biological diversity

  1. a) It is important to base conservation efforts on ecosystem and not species basis.
  2. b) All sanctuaries and national parks have to meet the minimum area requirement of the species to be included in them.
  3. c) More and more Biosphere Reserves should be declared.
  4. Control of water and air pollution

All development is accompanied by pollution in some form or the other. The major sources of pollution in our country are domestic waste, thermal power, industry, irrigation, auto-exhaust emissions and misuse of agricultural chemicals. Pollution creates some problems like global warming, deterioration of health, disturbance of ecological balance.


Development of non-polluting renewable energy systems

Energy is a very important input for development and there is a correlation between the level of development and the amount of energy used by a country.

There are two types of energy resources, renewable and non-renewable. Non-renewable forms of energy are considered energy capital. Most of the non-renewable energy resources like coal, petroleum, fuel wood etc. are highly polluting.

There is a need to develop non-polluting renewable energy resources such as micro-hydro, solar, wind, tidal, ocean and geothermal resources.

  1. Recycling of waste and residues

In order to maintain stable economic growth in the future, it is necessary to use resources carefully and develop technologies for recycling wastes and residues. There is a global recognition that a nation that will not be able to recycle materials will not be able to sustain itself as one time use will lead to scarcity.



  Ecologically friendly human settlements and their improvement

Absence of housing in urban, slums and rural areas leads to much human misery along with deterioration in physical health, economic, social and cultural environment. Slums lack water supply and sanitation systems, leading to unhygienic conditions and various health hazards. If we are serious about improving the living conditions of the vulnerable sections of the society, it is important that the lifestyle of urban people is less energy demanding and less consuming. The people of the village should be made self-reliant so that their demands can be fulfilled in the village itself.



Environmental Education and Awareness

Today, one of the major priorities of the Central Government is environmental education. In fact, with the acceptance of the Tiwari Committee Report (1980), the country has accepted the need for environmental education.

The non-formal sector should cater to basic courses to educate adults, rural-youth and non-student youth, tribal and forest dwellers, children, people’s representatives, senior officers and administrators, and probationers of various services including the armed forces.




updating environmental laws

While there are many Central and State laws and Acts that have direct or indirect relevance to the environment, none, except perhaps the Water and Air Acts, take care of the short and long term impacts on the environment. There is an urgent need to update the existing laws. In fact, this should be done as a regular activity so that the laws are able to meet the new environmental challenges and save the country from future environmental damage.






Sustainable development is the concept of meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. The term originally applied to natural resource situations, while today, it is applied to a wide range of topics, including economic development, the environment, food production, energy, and social organization. Sustainable development is usually defined to include three basic components i.e. economic, social and environmental. These three components include: a) Economic activity must serve the common good, be self-renewing, and create local wealth and self-sufficiency.

  1. b) Environment – humans are part of nature, nature has limits, and communities are responsible for protecting and creating natural assets. c) Social – To achieve equality i.e. opportunity for full participation to all in all activities, access, benefits and decision making of the society.

The three areas of sustainability include a range of concepts that explain how decisions and actions can impact the overall sustainability of our world. Sustainable development efforts will also promote the integration of the three components of sustainable development, economic growth, social development and environmental protection, as interdependent and mutually reinforcing pillars. Poverty alleviation, changing unsustainable patterns of production and consumption and protecting and managing the natural resource base for economic and social development are the main objectives and essential requirements of sustainable development. An economic state where people and commerce

The demands placed on the environment can be met without reducing the potential of the environment for future generations. It can also be expressed in the simple words of an economic golden rule for a revitalized economy: leave the world better than you found it, don’t take more than you need, try not to harm the life of the environment,



Using ecosystems and their resources in a way that meets current needs while allowing ecosystems to replenish themselves and to maintain ecological processes and functions, biological diversity and productivity over time At the same time, it protects against pollution that damages biological systems.

Good governance within each country and at the international level is essential for sustainable development. At the domestic level, sound environmental, social and economic policies, democratic institutions responsive to the needs of the people, the rule of law, anti-corruption measures, gender equality and an enabling environment for investment are the basis for sustainable development.

It is widely accepted that indicators of sustainable development are also important

To focus on sustainable development and assist decision makers at all levels to adopt sound national sustainable development policies. Indicators are monitoring tools to assess the sustainability of the social, economic and environmental components of sustainable development.

continuous development

A closer look at the origins of the concept of sustainable development reveals that in 1983, the United Nations General Assembly established the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), consisting of scientists from all walks of life, headed by Crowe Harlem Brundtland. was made.


  The commission submitted its report in 1987, commonly known as the Brundtland Report, titled “Our Common Future”. The report warned that the greedy pattern of development is largely responsible for environmental pollution and degradation of natural resources. The report concludes that the solution to this problem lies in adopting a new pattern of development called ‘sustainable development’.

According to the World Commission on Environment, sustainable development can be defined as “development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (Asthana and Asthana,

2012). The concept of sustainable development is in line with the wise use of resources promoted by conservationists. This means that development processes must guarantee environmental protection not only for today, but also for future generations. It advocates eco-friendly technologies that do not harm the environment, in this regard environmental sustainability is synonymous with the principles of not only resource conservation but also ecological modernization.

Endangering or compromising the environment and resources for the next generation. Thus, how do environmental attitudes affect environmental sustainability? For example, an exploitative attitude is certainly the opposite of environmental sustainability. By the way, the destruction of the environment has always been the result of such lackadaisical attitude. Conservationist and protectionist approaches ensure environmental sustainability. However, conservationists allow some degree of industrial development which the protectionist fights for total protection, so such an attitude would definitely hinder human development to some extent. Overall, both are done through activism through lobbying and passivity of laws and regulations to conserve natural resources.

sustainable development goals

On 25 September 2015, at the United Nations Sustainable Development Summit, world leaders adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which includes 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to end poverty, fight inequality and injustice, and tackle climate change. One set is included. 2030.

The Sustainable Development Goals, otherwise known as the Global Goals, built on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the eight anti-poverty goals and the environmental sustainability goals, which the world committed to achieving by 2015. The MDGs, adopted in 2000, aim for an array of issues including reducing poverty, hunger, disease, gender inequality, access to water, improved sanitation and environmental sustainability. The universal need for development that works for all people


The Sustainable Development Goals include: Goal 1: No poverty; Goal 2: Zero Hunger; Goal 3: Good health and well-being; Goal 4: Quality education; Goal 5: Gender equality; Goal 6: Clean water and sanitation; Goal 7: Affordable and clean energy; Goal 8: Decent work and economic growth; Goal 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure; Goal 10: Reduce inequalities; Goal 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities; Goal 12: Responsible consumption and production; Goal 13: Climate Action; Goal 14: Life under water; Goal 15: Life on Land; Goal 16: Strong institutions of peace and justice; Goal 17: Partnership for the Goals.






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