Technology and employment

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 Technology and employment


Considered rapid growth and new technologies, especially those based on micro electronic, have brought about radical changes in people’s lives, they have also changed production conditions, organizational structures, behavior and employment trends While there are many studies of the impact of new technologies in developed nations, the problem faced by countries such as India and Brazil in the same context has so far been given separate attention.

It is essential that the environment and the macroeconomic balance are conducive to growth and development. In a competitive environment, established production patterns will always be objects created uncertainly by unpredictable macroeconomic magnitudes (such as GDP growth and investment technology), so that there is greater room for society to cope better with new technologies. Assurance can be promised.


Public sector enterprises have played an important role in the development of the industrial sector of the economy. The level of profit of the enterprises there remained very low in the plan period. In fact, many public sector enterprises have registered substantial losses in some years. Globalization has become the order of the day as nations have taken the path of liberalisation, India could not separate itself from this friend and an Indian government could not invest enough in infrastructure development. We see vast opportunities for expansion of industry, trade, production and employment.


Even cotton textile governments, leather goods, gems and jewelery are only a small part of the total global experts. India has lost its status as the world’s 10th largest industrial power during the last decade. It was foreshadowed that the joint venture would be good as it would be in high-tech German technology and would labor together to produce goods and services matching the standards of the Indian market at low costs.


  work and technology

As industrialization has progressed, technology has assured a greater role in the workplace, from factory automation to the computerization of office work. The current information technology revolution has attracted renewed interest in this question. Technology can lead to greater efficiency and productivity but how does it affect the way work is done by the people who discover it. For the sociologist, moving from one of the main questions to a more complex system is influenced by the nature of the work and the institution in which it is performed. New technology like automation computerization (IT) has revolutionized the production power and business scenarios.




Traditionally, automation has been understood as the replacement of much labor with machines. This notion has prevailed, today automation projects are undertaken not only for labor cost savings but also for improving product quality, faster production and delivery of products and increased product flexibility . Simply put, automation refers to the technology of controlling a productive process by electronic devices and operating with a minimum of human intervention. Human contribution to production includes two types of physical and mental effort. The physical aspect i.e. labor was taken over by the machines which came to be used increasingly after the industrial revolution. Mental contribution output is now taken over by electronic devices, primarily computers, which are often referred to as giant brains. With the advent of automation, the second industrial revolution has begun.


The term “rationalization” originates from the German phrase “rationalization”, which refers to a new industrial philosophy. This has also been called by Walter Meakin as the ‘New Industrial Revolution’. The term rationalization means the use of logic or reason- it is a part of scientific management. The idea is to secure minimum wastage of effort or material. Thus it includes scientific organization of labour, standardization of both material transport, simplification of processes and improvements in labor




Transport and Marketing System. It was also confirmed that the objectives of rationalization should be

(i) To secure maximum efficiency of labor with minimum effort.

(ii) to facilitate standardization by reducing the variety of patterns, designs, manufactures;

(iii) to avoid raw marshalling and wastage of power;

(iv) to facilitate delivery of the goods;

(v) To avoid unnecessary middlemen.


A part of Ra to efficiently defuse automation

Rationalization was adopted. Automation is a continuation of the labor-intensive production process initiated by the Industrial Revolution. It is something that replaces direct manpower by self-regulating machines for mental or physical work or both. In its current state, automation involves the application of mechanisms. Different types of remote controls are also used. This brings accuracy and efficiency in production. But automated machines require skilled hands to operate, thus substituting unskilled or semi-skilled labor. The savings of labor and standardization of product are the results of automation. It also ensures simplicity and convenience of administration and accuracy in the result. Goods and services would be products at a lower unit cost, promoting greater consumption and convenience of administration and accuracy in outcome. Goods and services would be produced at a lower unit cost, promoting greater consumption and a better standard of living.


Automatic introduction of semi-automatic machines has been carried out in many textile factories, petroleum refineries, chemical plants and steel processing plants. Some large firms are using computers for sales and payroll accounting, inventory control; Challan etc. computers have been installed in Indian Railways. Chittaranjan Works is equipped with computers. Some universities and commercial banks have also installed computers.



Automation has many advantages:

  1. i) The workplace is close and clean: It is free from pollution and air-conditioned. A central mechanism controls all production, thus saving labor.
  2. ii) Employees need to have some skill to monitor the system. They should also know the complete system of machinery.

iii) New level of skill – workers need to be more alert and responsible towards their work.




The Bombay Textile Labor Inquiry Committee laid down three objectives of rationalisation.

  1. i) To increase production.
  2. ii) To improve the efficiency of workers and their working conditions.

iii) Financial and industrial restructuring.


The object of general rationalization is:-

  1. i) To achieve maximum efficiency of labor with minimum effort.
  2. ii) Eliminating wastage of raw material and power.

iii) of goods

Simplify Distribution

  1. a) Eliminating unnecessary transportation, excessive financial burden and wasteful multiplication of middlemen.
  2. b) reducing the varieties of patterns.
  3. c) Convenience of reserve in methods of construction.
  4. d) Using standardized parts
  5. iv) Greater stability and higher standard of living.
  6. v) Lower cost of goods to the customer.
  7. vi) Fee and more fixed remuneration to be distributed fairly among different categories.


Elimination of wastage efficiently through a co-ordinated, well-integrated and all-round approach of industry and rationalization in its application is the main objective of Modernization, it is a process which brings together the advantages of planned production, pooling research of and centralized regulation of scientific and technical knowledge finance, modernization of productive processes and sales and optimum utilization of manpower.





Advantages of Computerization Automation in India:


1) Automation requires less number of departments working under “one control system”. Thus many working units can be pressed to other places which may not require modernization e.g. in railways many reservation counters are set up at different centers using only computers. Now it is not necessary to have reservation office at only one centre. Today through computer one can know the status about ticket availability anywhere in India. This is the result of “decentralization”.


2) Decentralization: It means shifting of main operating units to various other places to avoid overcrowding, overcrowding or overloading of signal office. Transfer of time to the public who need to use the services. It also saves wastage of human energy by scientific selection, proper placement of workers.



Appropriate training and judicious allocation of work. It also eliminates appropriate training and I weed out inefficient units or parts of operations and focus only on those that are truly useful.


Decentralization also facilitates the decision making process. The authority is delegated to other qualified and responsible personnel and thus the work gets done quickly without any delay thus unnecessary stoppage of production or delay in services can be easily avoided.


3) Use of modern technology: Many textile units like jute, cotton, or sugar use old and complete machinery for production, their maintenance cost is very high, quality of production is also low with old machines. Traditional with old machines require labor with quality education so they cannot increase efficiency in production. Such mills have high operating cost and low productivity per unit per worker.


need seen places

Urgent replacement and modernization of production.


Modern result machines speed up production and eliminate wastage of raw material, also require less labor. This saves cost, modernization is the need of the hour.


4) To increase competitive exports: To fulfill orders countries, successfully India also needs to introduce latter technology. Without this, it is not possible to increase the quality or quantity of production.


5) Need for more skill: Modern machines require specialized and skilled hands to operate, this improves the skill level of the workers. Workers need to quality themselves, elevate their status and become storks with more confidence and security. They are no longer workers but ‘operators’ who have more control over their jobs. they become more responsible


6) Elimination of inefficiency or unskilled work: Ordinary and low level workers need to be fired from jobs elsewhere, this is called retrenchment of workers but the government took care that due to the introduction of new technology only junior Or new people should be trimmed. , Otherwise, as far as possible, the workers were given the facility to learn the new technology. Officers and Clearers in Banks were required to learn computers, initially the banking sector was reluctant to introduce computerization fearing unemployment, they also opposed the idea as it would increase their burden and removed many redundant employees from the world Will go But now bank people use computers to check the person’s balance, verify signature or complete other formalities. they also prepare




Monthly transaction details of each account holder’s account. Thus manual workers saved time, energy and increased efficiency on the job.


7) Reduction in cost of production: Using modern automatic machines, hands can be made healthier to a great extent. This of course reduces the need for multiple workers. Unskilled or redundant workers may be allowed to leave with proper planning. They may well be consulted before automation. Surplus employees may be given a satisfactory, lump sum amount after discussion if they accept voluntary retirement. Thus there will be no complaint from the worker side. But before modernization of textile industry the management has to think about the problems of surplus labour. But once automation is partially in place there is a higher production cost per unit per worker and lower quality.

There is an increase. This step i.e. gradual adoption of modernization or automation is absolutely necessary to increase exports. Many silk industries have recently been modernised. They are using the latest machines.


Rationalization in India:


Government. Realizing the importance of the need for modernization in major industries like jute, cotton, silk, whose technology has become obsolete, it is suggested to take some care for proper rationalization and adopt the following measures.


1) Rationalization should be undertaken with special care to avoid retrenchment of employees in Indian industries and if it is to be kept to a minimum. This was to be achieved:

  1. a) Non-filling of vacancies caused by death, retirement etc.
  2. b) Removal of surplus employees to other departments without breaking the continuity of services and without reducing their net earning.
  3. c) payment of gratuity for voluntary retirement and
  4. d) Deploying machinery wherever possible to absorb some of the displaced workers.


2) The workload should be standardized and disputes, if any, should be examined and standards set by experts should be chosen by both the parties.


3) The government should prepare a plan for the replacement or rehabilitation of the retrenched employees.


4) Equal shame should be given to the laborers in the benefit of rationalization.



It is also advocated that the effect of automation on employment is only temporary as production becomes more mechanized, quality and quantity increased and controlled, there will be more demand for these products, expanding markets. This would of course require further expansion in production centres. Then more workers will be needed. But now only qualified and skilled labor will be in demand, this has led to an awakening among students that technical training is absolutely essential for jobs today and they are helpless to prepare themselves for tomorrow. Thus ultimately automation increases the level of skill, mental ability, general abilities and also promotes the desire to improve.


The largest publishing house, Times of India Group has recently started automation factory at Kandivali (E), where printing collecting dispatches etc. are done automatically, workers are required only to monitor the system and rectify the defects of the machines. Requires manual checking. The workers are known as ‘controllers’ or ‘supervisors’. Their grade goes up and naturally the remuneration also goes up.



Today it is especially practiced in large industrial centers of both the private and public sectors. The private sector introduces automation much faster and is thus in a position to increase production, control, improve its quality and compete with foreign companies with more confidence.


In fully automated plants all aspects of manufacturing such as the good, production, information and control are done by computer, supervised only by a few men who occasionally glance at the control room or clear the cutting. However, the extent of automation varies from plant to plant and depends on the capacity of the milling and management, the cooperation of the workers and their trade unions, and the general economic conditions of the country. According to Rudel Reed automation is nothing more than an extension of the principles of mechanization to the integration of machines with each other in such a way that the group operates as an individual processing and control unit. At the other extreme, automation is the application of electronic digital computer control systems, which read individual measuring instruments but also analyze the data received from the instruments, arrive at a decision, and adjust the control values or meters to the proper settings for optimum results. does. In between these extremes there are many levels of application of automation techniques and principles.


There are some problems that can be created by automation:

Automation involves high capital outlay, and hence increases the cost of capital, also depreciation, power consumption etc.



Increased automation is therefore a luxury form of small firms. Despite assurances to the contrary automation results even after employee replacement and management replacement. Workers with minimal concern resist the move to automation. Due to displacement of workers, the benefit of the suggestions of the employees has ended. Machines are not as flexible as humans. Defects in design or product cannot be collected by machines. Increasing automation will therefore require suppliers to adhere more rigorously to specifications. Unemployment is very high in developing countries. With the advent of machines, unemployment will increase further. Paucity of foreign exchange, paucity of highly skilled manpower and paucity of capital may not allow the country to move towards 100% computerization.


Information Technology

Blauner and Brave Man’s opposing views on the impact of information technology in the workplace. Certainly a small quarter compared to the Internet, email, teleconferencing and e-commerce have more say in how companies do business. But they are also affecting the way employees work on a daily basis. Those who take an optimistic view, as Blauner argued, believe that information technology can work.

will revolutionize the world of work by allowing new, more flexible ways to emerge. These opportunities will allow us to move beyond the routine and alienating aspects of industrial work to a more free informational age, giving workers more control and input into the work process. Enthusiastic advocates of technological progress have sometimes been turned back because technocrats had become deterministic, believing in the power of technology itself to determine the nature and size of work.


Others do not believe that information technology will bring about an entirely positive change as per the work of Shobhana Zuboff (1988) in her research into the use of IT. Firms, management may choose to use IT for very different ends. When adopted as a creative decentralizing force, information technology can help break down rigid hierarchies, involve more employees in decision making, and involve employees more closely in a company’s day-to-day affairs. On the other hand it can just as easily be used as a way to reinforce hierarchy and monitoring practices. The adoption of IT in the workplace can cut face-to-face interaction block channels of accountability and an office into a network of self-contained and isolated modules. Such an approach looks at the impact of information technology on the people for whom it is placed and the way those who use the technology perceive its role.




The spread of information technology will certainly create exciting and increased opportunities for certain sectors of the labor force. In the fields of media advertising and design, for example, it enhances creativity in professional relationships and introduces flexibility into individual working styles. It is responsible positivity qualified valuable employees for whom the vision of wired workers and telecommuting is being realized. Yet there are thousands of low paid unskilled people working in call centers and data entry companies. There positivity which is a product of the massive telecom explosion in recent years is characterized by degree



Conditions of location and isolation that rival those of brave man’s desk workers at call centers that process travel bookings and financial transactions according to strictly standardized formats with little or no room for employee discretion or creative input Not there. Employees are so closely monitored that their interactions with customers are tape recorded for quality assurance. Information reappraisal suggests that the production of a large number of regular, unskilled jobs equates to an industrial economy.






  Coping with Technological Change in Emerging Perspectives



Most human experience with technological change in the modern world is full of contradictions, with new technologies invented in laboratories, laid out in design books and promoted in newspapers, on television and in audio-visual production in firms. Governments and laboratories are finding it difficult to cope. The apparently constant flow of technological change. Threats have arisen in the form of loss of jobs for a large number of people, houses on entire neighbourhoods.


Of the variety of new technologies, perhaps none has affected people’s lives as radically and widely as the invention of the semiconductor chip and its subsequent implantation at the heart of the computer.


Impact of ME (Micro Electronic) technologies on East Asian A paper was presented by Gambhir Illustration by Baghram Tulpul and Ramesh C. Dutta in October 1991 at the Center for Studies in Social Sciences, Calcutta! Labor displacement effects of ME technologies in the Indian textile industry. In most cases such labor displacement effects have not been offset by a sufficiently large increase in output. This is particularly serious in view of the ongoing economic liberalization program in India. Since 1991, the overall growth in employment is expected to decline significantly if




Among the many firms using technologies and organization that cannot survive in the new environment of cutthroat competition. Tulpule and Datta also show the non-uniformity of labor and management responses to the introduction of ME technologies. In most cases, however, not all management and workers are able to complete a program through which some workers retire but receive training in new techniques and can expect an increase in their income. Tulpule and Datta find little evidence of worker resistance to the introduction of new technologies. In contrast, fund limitations have acted as major roadblocks.


Paper by Radha D’Souza (Author) from Source Method Introduction of MR technology in Bombay region. Despite the existence of a long tradition of trade unions in and around Bombay, workers’ wages had been under attack for a long time. Computerization was first introduced into office work and did not affect blue cellar workers in factories in the late 1970s, old-style trade unions unable to rely on an aggressive stance in collective bargaining

And new and militant organizations emerged that seemed solely concerned with wage growth and had little understanding of what technology could do for upper management control over the labor process. Management often introduced techniques in haste in the midst of a strike or lockout declared by the company. Therefore, job reorganization with ME techniques remained haphazard and paid little attention to workers’ response to the new work environment. After trade union leaders accepted management’s broad authority to introduce new technologies, layoffs or disruptions to employees’ work patterns occurred, and workers in a particular shop or depositors of a factory were often forced to accept the settlement. Let’s refund. This further weakened the authority of the union and led to avoidable legal missteps. Management generally had to lead the way in most cases, but the transition to new technology was an unnecessarily costly affair, both in personal and social terms.


Piero and Sahel (1984) emphasize political and social competition for the success of flexible specialization and industrialization. A major factor driving the introduction of ME technologies is the reduction of high-cost factory labor. Japan, the land of MR-based flexible expertise, enjoyed virtually full employment during the period from the 1950s to the late 1980s and it is only recently that with its unemployment and adversarial relationship, ME technologies and flexible manufacturing systems are only beginning to make labor a reality. And be an introduction to the bunch of collars management politically backed by the ruling class to drive down wages. One of the exploitative goals of Thatcher’s Reagan agenda of new liberalization was to reduce workers’ real wages. This part of the agenda is very successful in our learning. the real household wage is



falling since the early 1970s and

through the 1980s. This deception was accompanied by a gradual widening of the wage gap as wage earners in the upper income levels improved significantly. Low and large scale skilled workers experienced a steady decline in their relative income status. The proportion of workers in the middle-income category, previously dominated by unskilled workers in manufacturing, has declined with automation and the declining importance of the manufacturing sector. The drain of resources can be seen in the consumer absolute decline in housing construction, and in the general atmosphere of social unrest and crime prevalent in Ghost Towns, with closed factories and shuttered down shops and offices.


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