Theories of Social Change

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In the society that the process of social change goes on uninterruptedly, the natural question is, what is the direction of this change?  Is there a way that social change happens?  On the pages presented, we will discuss about the social change direction or paradigms.  The events of all social change can be represented by three types of paradigms.


1.Linear change- We can display the change that occurs in the society as a line, this line can be either horizontal or its direction towards development, we can see this kind of paradigm that changes happening as a result of technology.  Under this, it is characteristic of such changes that their change is towards development and generally its approach is utilitarianism.  It is, the gradual development of biology in the nineteenth century, in which the theories of Darwin and Mandel are prominent, can be placed in the category of similar social change, thus we see that such changes are gradual development or  There is progress, development in the means of transport, development in material culture, etc. come under similar patterns, Ogburn wrote that  The characteristic of this type of change is that there is continuous cumulative development in the utilitarian approach, it keeps happening until it is obsolete by a new scheme in the same direction, such a change in the paradigm.




2.Fluctuating Changes: The second pattern of change is fluctuating, we can keep the change that is going on in the economic world and the area of ​​population under it, a society is happy from the economic point of view at some point of time while its  The situation worsens, similar changes are seen in the area of ​​population, sometimes due to increase in birth rate.  Nsnkya rises density while Sometimes due to low birth rate and increase in death rate, the density of population decreases.


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3.Cyclical change: We can show the change happening in the field of natural world, human civilization and fashion with circular patterns, rainy season, winter, summer, then rainy and thus runs a circular sequence, also in human life.  A circular sequence of infant, adolescent, adult and old age continues, man is born after death and then he grows up as an infant.  Minister is heading.  We get similar symptoms in the rise and fall of civilization.  Changes in the field of fashion are also cyclical.  The form of fashion today will come back after a period;  Like – first people wore wide sealing pants, then started wearing thin sealing, and then slowly moving towards wide sealing.  Girls’ dress was also loose before, tight in the middle and now loose again.  Some sociologists place changes in culture and economic aspect in this category. This type of change can be shown in the following figure.  A Y B


changes continuously in clockwise direction and after some time attains its predecessor.  Spengular has put the transformation of civilization in his major work ‘Fall of the West’ under this paradigm.

We have just mentioned the paradigms of social change by the above pictures.  But the reality is that the process of change is so complex that it cannot be represented in such simple pictures.  There are many changes that make That we place them under all types of paradigms.  Such as – Economic Zone and.  Changes in the field can also be kept under the cyclical paradigm and also under fluctuations.  Measuring and delivering the dynamic changes that happen in society is not an easy task.  McIver wrote expressing the intricacies of change, ‘Wherever cultural values ​​enter, the type of change becomes complex and differs in terms, such as the science of electrical engineering has a counterpoint to politics.




Key features of social change:



(i) Lack of Prediction

(ii) Universality 

(iii) Relative Motion 

(iv) A Complex Process

(v) Compulsory 


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Factors of social change:



 (i) Cultural Factor 

(ii) Natural Factor

(iii) Population Factor 

(iv) Biological Factor 

(v) Psychological Factor 

(vi) Geographical Factor

(vii) Technological Factor

(viii) Political and Military Factor

(ix) Role of Great People

(x) Economic Factor


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