Work and technology

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Work and technology


Marx misjudged the extent of alienation between workers. The depth of alienation and frustration that Marx saw among the workers of his time is not found among the ordinary workers of today. Rapid thinking with meaningful informal grouping makes the intellectual power of the worker redundant and vanishes behind the immense power of the factory system of production. It dehumanises the workers. It makes the worker more of a commodity. Workers’ labor can be bought and sold impersonally in the labor market.


Marx explains how alienation occurs within the process of production and the production activity itself. Therefore, the thing which produces labor confronts it as a force or additional system and something alien. Workers spend their lives and produce everything not for themselves but for the powers that be manipulated them.


The cost of segregation is found in the structure of social relations. Social relations are structured on the basis of the relation to private property. The private properly and each nexus extends beyond economic institutions to shape attitudes and behavior in all its social interactions.


Segregation is present in all societies that have a properly private one but it is in capitalist society that it had serious implications. Private property is thus a product. The result and necessary result of alienated labor. Alienated labor is therefore alienated labour, which consists in the alienation of the laborer from those aspects which result from the process of production and from himself and from the community of fellow men.

One of the main. Second, although the separation is present to some extent, it is a result of the structure.

Met with more economic exploitation of bureaucracy and society.


Work is a bigger part of our lives than any other type of activity. To maintain self-respect, it is necessary to do job in modern. Wages or salary is the main resource on which many people depend to meet their needs. Without income, the worries of facing day-to-day life multiply.


social organization of work


One of the most characteristic features of the economic system of modern societies is the existence of a highly complex division of labor. Work has become a dividend in a huge number of different professions in which people specialize. In traditional societies, non-agricultural pursuits required skill in crafts. craftsmanship was learned through a long period of apprenticeship and the worker normally completed all


aspects of the production process from start to finish. For example – a metallurgist making a plow would forge iron, shape it when it is assembled, assemble the produce, most traditional crafts have completely disappeared to be replaced by the skills of the agricultural part of mass production processes. went.


Modern society has seen a change is the place of work. Before industrialization, most of the work was done at home and was done collectively by all the members of the household. Advances in industrial sociology such as machinery that powered electricity and coal contributed to the separation of work and home. Factories owned by enterprises became the focal point of industrial development, with machinery and equipment concentrated within them and human production of goods began to eclipse home-based small-scale artisans. In factories job seekers will be trained, they do specialized work and they will get declining wages for this work. The performance of employees was overseen by managers who were concerned with implementing techniques to increase production and discipline of workers.





work and separation


The division of labor between traditional and modern society is indeed extraordinary. Karl Marx tried to explain the changes taking place in the society at the time of industrial revolution. Marx saw inequalities along with the growth of industrial production. Capitalism is a system of production that has a fundamentally contradictory history with previous economic systems, in part because it produces goods, and services sold to a vast number of consumers. Marx identified two main elements within capitalist enterprise. Any arrests, including the first capital money, machines, could also be used as factories or invested in to create future wealth. Wage labor refers to the pool of workers who do not have their own means of livelihood, but must find employment provided by the owners of capital. The capitalist is made up of a greedy class, while a large proportion of the population forms a class of wage laborers known as the working class. An industrialization spread, large numbers of farmers who supported themselves by working the land moved to the growing cities and helped create an urban-based industrial working class. This working class is called the proletariat.


According to Marx, capitalism is inherently a class system in which class relations are characterized by struggle. However, the owners of capital and the workers are dependent on each other. With the capitalist needing labor and the worker needing wages, the dependence is highly imbalanced. The relationship between classes is a exploratory relationship, as workers have little or no control over their labor





Factors are able to generate profit by appropriating the products of labor of workers.


Nature of Class and Work:


For Marx a class is a group of people who stand in common relation to the means of production and the work from which they derive their livelihood. Before the rise of modern industry the means of production consisted mainly of poor handicraft work and artisans. In pre-industrial societies, therefore, the two main classes consisted of those who owned land. Factories, offices, machinery and the money or capital required to purchase them have become important in modern industrial societies. The two main classes include those who own the new means of production, the industrialists or capitalists, and those who make their living by selling their labor to the working class, or the now somewhat archaic term, the proletariat.


According to Marx, the relationship between classes is an exploratory one. In feudal society, exploration

After took over the field of direct transfer of produce from the peasants to the elite. Serfs were forced to pay a certain proportion of their produce to their noble lords, or to work several days in their fields each month to produce crops for consumption by them and their retainers. In modern capitalist society, the source of exploration is less clear, and Marx focused more on attempting to classify its nature. Workers produce more, Marx argued, than employers actually need in order to cover costs. This surplus value is the source of profit, which the capitalists are able to make use of. A group of workers is a clothing factory, which may be able to produce a hundred suits a day, selling 75 percent of the suits to provide enough income for the manufacture to pay wages to workers and the cost of plant and equipment. Is. The proceeds from the sale of the remaining garment are taken as profit.


Marx was stressed by the inequalities created by the capitalist system. Although a life of luxury was led in earlier times, the peasant societies were relatively poor. Even if there was no elitist standard of living, with the development of modern industry eventually wealth is produced on a greater scale than ever before, but workers have little access to the wealth that their labor produces . They remain relatively poor, while the wealth accumulated by the grooms of the property class. Marx used the term impoverishment to describe the process by which the working class becomes increasingly impoverished in relation to the capitalist class, even as workers become more prosperous in absolute terms, separating them from the capitalist class. The gap continues to widen. These disparities between the capitalist and the worker




The classes were not strictly economic in nature. Marx noted how the development of modern factories and the mechanization of production meant that work often became dull and oppressive in the extreme. The labor that is the source of our wealth is often both physically exhausting and mentally exhausting, as is the care of a factory hand, whose work consists of routine tasks a day in an unchanging environment.


Marx’s theory of class is not a theory of stratification but a comprehensive theory of social change – a tool for explaining change in total societies. This, T.B Bottom ore a leading expert in Marxist sociology, considered a major contribution of Marx to sociological analysis.


Marx’s theory of conflict is currently revived radically as opposed to functionalism which dominated sociology and anthropology for 20 or 30 years. Where functionalism emphasized social harmony, Marxism emphasized social struggle; Where functionalism focuses on the stability and persistence of social forms, Marxism is historical in its origin but looks at and emphasizes the changing structure of society; Where functionalism focuses on the regulation of social life by common values and norms, Marxism emphasizes the divergence of interests and values within each society and the role of force in maintaining a given social order over a period of time. The distinction between the ‘equilibrium’ and ‘conflict’ models of society, which was forcefully stated by Dahrendorf in the 1950s, has not become common place.


The sociology of knowledge as a field of study was certainly reformed with Marx’s argument that the ideological and other human ideas prevailing at a given time and place depend on the structure and composition of society.


Analysis of Alienation:- Marx saw this economic alienation as the source of the general alienation of the individual from society and moreover the individual from himself. The concept has been greatly expanded by contemporary medical writers and the new Marxists. Marx acknowledged the importance of economic structure as he placed great emphasis on it, yet he focused on a hitherto largely neglected factor in the study of society.

That is, the economic system which was hitherto ignored in the social sciences.


Although most criticized by Karl Marx, he pioneered a range of other social ideas.


For Marx, work – the production of goods and services – is the key to human happiness and fulfillment.

is the key. Work is the most important, primary human activity. So it can provide


It is meant either to fulfill man’s potential or to distort and inhibit his nature and his relationships with others. In his early writings, Marx developed the idea of “alienated” labor. In its simplest form, alienation means that man is cut off from his work; He splits up on the different forms of his labour. In its simplest form, alienation means that man is cut off from his work; He is separate from his labor. As such, he is unable to find satisfaction and fulfillment in doing his labour, unable to express his true nature in his work, he is separated from it.

He is alien to himself because work is a social activity, alienation from work also involves alienation from others. The person is cut off from his fellow workers.


Marx believed that work provides the most important and vital means for man to fulfill his basic needs, his personality and his humanity. Workers can experience deep satisfaction from expressing their individuality in the creation of a product. Seeing his product being used and appreciated by others, meeting their needs and thus expressing his care and humanity for others. In a community where everyone works for themselves and for others, work is a fully fulfilling activity. But for Marx, man’s relation to his work has been destructive to both the human spirit and human relations.


For Marx, the moment the products of labor were used as commodities in exchange for other commodities, alienation arose. With the introduction of money, as a medium of exchange, they become commodities to be bought and sold. The products of labor became ‘commodities’ in the market, no longer a means of satisfying the needs of the individual and the community. From an end in themselves, they become a means to an end, a means to obtain the goods and services necessary for survival. The good are no longer part of the individuals who produce them. In this way, the product has become a ‘foreign’ commodity.


Dissociation initially arises from the exchange of goods in some of the market systems. This led to the development of the idea and practice of private property, individual ownership of the forces of production. Marx argues that although private property is the cause of alienation, it is rather the result of alienation. Once the products of labor are regarded as commodity items, it is a short step to the idea of private ownership. In a capitalist economy, the ownership of the forces of production is concentrated in the hands of a small minority. The alienation is exacerbated by the fact that workers do not own the goods they produce.





Several consequences arise from the idea that all workers are alienated from the product of their labor.




1) The worker is alienated from the action of production activity, he is alienated from himself.

2) When the worker is separated from himself, he does not fulfill himself in his work but denies himself; He develops a feeling of unhappiness instead of well-being, does not develop his mental and physical energy freely but is physically tired and mentally weak.

3) Hence, the employees feel comfortable with him when he is away from work. He feels restless while working.

4) Work becomes an end in itself, a satisfaction and a cause for the fulfillment of human needs. It simply becomes a means of living for him. As a means to an end, the work becomes boring or routine and if not real fulfilling.

5) alienated from the product of his work, the performance of his labor and the nature of himself; The worker is also separated from his fellow men. He then takes an interest in his comrades or their problems. He works only for himself and his family.





Reason for separation or alienation: Marx


Infrastructure: Marx emphasized on the economic system – infrastructure as the foundation of society which ultimately shapes all other aspects of social life. For him, infrastructure can be divided into two parts: the forces of production and the relations of production. According to Marx the forces of production i.e. the means of production of goods can change the relations of production

i.e. the relations between those who produce and those who own them under union, an agricultural economy is the main force of production landless labor from the two groups of landowners and relations. Under capitalism, the raw materials and machinery used for manufacturing are the major forces of production. The relationship between those who do not is established in a capitalist economy. Capitalists own the forces of production (means of production), while workers only own their labor, which they sell as wage earners to capitalists on occasion or often.


Marx argues that in a capitalist economy, a small minority owns the forces of production. The worker is neither the owner of the goods produced by him nor does he have any control over them. Like its products, it has been reduced to the level of a commodity. A fixed price is placed on his work and the cost of labor is apportioned in some way like a machine.

The cost of fabric and raw material is estimated. Like the goods he produces, the worker is at the mercy of the market forces of the law of supply and demand. When there is an economic recession, many workers lose their jobs or are paid less. Only labor produces wealth, yet workers receive


based on selfishness. Workers and capitalists both work for their own benefit.


  1. Powerlessness: The earlier owners were reduced to simple laborers in the capitalist mode of production. They were not allowed to produce anything original or any work of their own creativity. Workers feel that whatever they are producing, they thus produce for someone else. The worker is instructed in all details. It’s a lost man ship. Activists feel that they have lost all power of their independence. Further mechanization has also taken away all the freshness and energy from them. Workers feel that they are at the mercy of others who decide what they should make and how they should make it.


  1. Separation: In extreme division of labour, the work is divided into many different departments. Each being specialized and managed by experts. Workers, as distinct groups, work in a department; He has no idea about other departments. They are not given any additional information regarding the working of the entire system. Thus workers feel isolated and neglected. They begin to lose the sense of attachment with the work as they are concerned with only one aspect of the whole production and remain strangers to their own aspect of the work.


  1. Meaninglessness: Entrepreneurs in a capitalist system, who hire labor, own everything—machine tools, raw materials, buildings, etc. Thus they have full rights over the finished products produced by the workers. Workers receive anything extra in addition to their wages, however hard they work to do the job. Thus labor is external to the workers i.e. it does not belong to their essential being, i.e. their work so it does not affirm itself, but denies itself i.e. it does not feel a sense of meaning in its work. When he does not get any additional benefit from his hard work, he loses the charm and purpose of his work. He feels meaningless. Therefore he feels himself only outside his work and in his work; So he does not affirm himself but denies, does not feel satisfied but unhappy. He doesn’t know why he is doing this. He cannot claim any ownership over his own product; It is separated from the product or process of production. He cannot feel connected to them; Work becomes only a means to satisfy needs outside of him, realizing that his labor benefits others.


This feeling of losing the meaning or purpose of life through work is learned as idealism.



  1. Normality:- Loss of meaning leads to loss of values. The worker feels that the goals highly valued in the society are too far for him. He gets confused. He loses a sense of accomplishment or direction in reaching his goals. He cannot have any set pattern to follow. He feels rejected or below the standard. He feels as if he is not mean. The worker is gradually losing faith in what society considers important, workers feel that they cannot achieve socially desirable goals and further that ‘work’ is no longer an end in itself.


  1. Self-isolation :- The worker feels himself separate from himself, in the end he has no concern. This is the experience of loss of interest or participation in essential activities such as work; These activities are no longer goals, but are simply supported as means to other necessities such as income. I am a loss of self or identity because he cannot do what he really wants to do. The worker becomes confused as to what he is or what he is doing. He becomes strong in himself. The more the worker spends on himself, the less he has of himself, the less he has of himself.


Marx’s solution to the problem of alienated labor is a communist or socialist society in which the forces of production are communally owned and the special division of labor is abolished. He believed that capitalism contained the seeds of its own destruction. The concentration of isolated workers in large-scale industrial enterprises would encourage awareness of the exploitation of the common interest and facilitate organization to overthrow the ruling capitalist class.


Karl marx egalitarianism strongly opposed capitalism and pointed out its drawbacks especially workers are highly exploited and become profit making tools for employers i.e. capitalized workers feel deprived of their basic rights And thus make a united fight against the capitalists. On the factories and to become the boss himself. According to Karl Marx, ‘alienation’ is the most important aspect of the capitalist mode of production.




Isolation and material conditions of life


Alienation means alienation, stranger as mentioned in the Oxford dictionary. Isolation

A central concept that dates back to one of Marx’s early writings, man’s own action in government, money, and culture becomes an alien force descending against him rather than being governed by him. , “Man is thus divided within himself and from his fellows, never really having a complete social life at home.


Separation from Hegel. Hegel saw alienation ‘wealth, state power etc. as things separated from the nature of man. But Hegel used dissociation only in the form of thought.


According to Marx the material conditions of separation of life generations. Regarding the conditions of alienation by economic, political or religious institutions, Mark’s focus was on economic alienation, which is the capitalist system as it affects every aspect of human life.


  Principle of Separation and Function:


Marx was particularly interested in the process of alienation in capitalist society. Marx developed labor in the first block capital in capitalist society. In Capital, Marx carefully examines the changing material conditions of people and their consciousness. In the process of production, man impinges not only on the circumstances of his existence, but also on his whole psychological structure.


Marx divided the capitalist mode of production into two stages. The first phone is simple collaboration. Collaboration is an essential feature of all long scale production. This phrase is a permanent point of capitalism. A large number of workers worked together in the same place, at the same time, to produce the same type of commodity owned by a capitalist. There is production segregation of males working together and cooperating compared to males not working together. The capitalist paid each worker separately and still received more, creating a surplus value.


The phrases of the second were marked by a complex division of labor. Each worker was engaged in a simple operation. Therefore, the workman acquired the skill and proficiency handling his tools. They require less time to perform a single operation in the entire production process i.e. the job is completed in minimum labor time. Marx points out that this complex division of labor increasingly alienates the worker from her creative powers and reduces her as a human being.


According to Marx, the use of machinery in modern industry is the most important aspect of the development of the capitalist mode of production. In manufacturing, the worker uses the tool, the machine uses it, a condition characterized by modern societies, in contrast to a vast expanse of economic interdependence. With few exceptions, most people in modern societies do not produce the food they eat, the houses they live in or the material goods they consume. Karl Marx was the first writer to predict that the development of modern industry would lead to dull work for many people,




interesting work. According to Marx, the division of labor alienates man from his work.


For Marx’s alienation, refer to a feeling of indifference or hostility to the work, but to the overall framework of the setting. In traditional societies, he pointed out, work often exhausted peasant farmers, they sometimes had to take measures to control their work, had little control over their jobs for only a fraction of the total output produced, and They have no influence over how or to whom it is ultimately sold. Marxists argue that for workers work appears to be something that must be done for every income but that is intrinsically unsatisfying.

Anthony Gideras – Sociology Simon Griffiths, Politics, 2006

Jenkin Robb 1999, Democratic Politics and Economic Reform in India Cambridge University.


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