Development of Urban Sociology in India

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Development of Urban Sociology in India

New Sociology

The field of urban sociology was recognized within the formal discipline of sociology in the United States in the late 19th century. Till 1921 there was no less effort to make it a discipline. A systematic discipline of urban sociology came into existence only in the 20th century. Specialties of Urban Sociology

A lot of intensive work has been done in the area. Several books have been published on classification of towns and cities, development of towns, urban environment, social disorganization in cities, demographic trends, family, marriage, divorce etc.

Apart from this, a lot of work has also been done on the improvement and development of urban life. In this regard, special mention should be made of the mechanisms of social welfare, the proper use of leisure, religious, cultural and educational institutions in cities, and intensive research in town planning and rehabilitation. But, however, it is a matter of regret that very little work has been done in India on the above mentioned aspects of urban life. 

Development of Urban Sociology in India 

Urban studies was first introduced in 1915 by Patrick Geddes, a popular social scientist at the University of Bombay. Later, urban problems were also studied by geographers and sociologists in the 1920s. However, substantial progress in research on urban problems was made in 1915. India in the post-independence period. During the 1960s, significant contributions were made by city planners. The Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) sponsored research on urban problems in the fields of geography, sociology, economics, public administration, etc.


Early urban studies followed a pattern already well established by social anthropologists in their study of Indian rural communities. Beginning in the 1920s, attempts were made to assess the similarities and differences between rural and urban society in India. A comparison of social institutions and customs between rural and urban communities showed a remarkably parallel development of social hierarchy in the two regions. Joint family, caste system, jajmani system etc. were some of the aspects which were included under urban studies. Considerable emphasis was placed on the study on aspects of sociology of education, sociology of medicine and industrial sociology. Popular movements in urban areas and urban unrest were also examined.


In the 1950s, several economists conducted economic surveys of individual cities or cities on aspects such as household income, spending, employment, unemployment, etc. Political scientists also probed the depth of urban politics and the impact of colonial and post-independence conditions on city development and city planning.


The pioneer of socio-economic survey in India was Dr. Gadgil who conducted the survey of Pune in 1936. Victor D’Souza has conducted a study of Chandigarh to examine the impact of land use policies on the emerging social structure of a new city.


By the early 1960s, the focus of urban research in India shifted from the study of individual cities to problems of classification of the urban.

Center in a regional and national perspective. In the early 1970s, planners focused on the relationship between urban centers and rural development. These studies provided valuable data on the movement of people within a city, housing characteristics and other studies focusing on rural-urban fringes etc. Several studies related to the metropolitan cities of Hyderabad, Kolkata and Delhi were also conducted.


During the 1960s, the impact of urbanization on social institutions was the subject of study by some scholars. Gore (1960) studied the changing characteristics of the family in Bombay.


Ross’s (1973) study of the Hindu family in an urban setting and I.P. Desai’s (1964) study of family life in Mahuva is some of the more representative studies in this direction.


Important contributions have been made by urban geographers. In this connection, special mention may be made of a unique study conducted by Sinha (1970) of Sirsi Nagar in North Kanara district of Karnataka. Sinha makes extensive use of certain statistical formulas in the analysis and interpretation of data relating to the town. It seeks to provide a more accurate understanding of the city’s growth pattern. The National Geographic Journal of India published several papers related to the developed urban patterns in India.


During the 1950s and 1960s, the sociological literature dealing with urban life in India began primarily with grassroots origins.

Entries being prepared by the Census of India, and with the sponsorship of research organizations provided for studies in various regions of the country. As a result of these factors, a more positive approach to the study of urban process and urban institutions developed.


The studies conducted during the 1970s were not very cumulative as they were based on diverse interests. Government interest in seeking definite areas of inquiry in the field of urbanization and the consequent problems arising from the process dominate most studies.


The 1971 census outlines the pattern of urbanization in India, pointing out that larger cities were growing faster than smaller cities and towns. Large cities were able to spend more money on civic amenities because civic interests were better expressed there than in smaller cities and towns. Thus, larger cities attracted more migrant population than smaller towns. As migrant populations with very few skills and little formal education grew in large cities, this increased the form of overcrowding and the development of slums. This is how slum development is done

closely related to migration. Big cities are facing the problem of slum development and slum improvement. City governments have not been able to meet such a dire situation of slum development. They are seeking governments’ assistance in implementing programs of low-cost housing, especially for slum dwellers. Venkatarayapa (1972), Wiebe (1975), Desai and Pillai (1972) in their studies have brought out the deplorable condition of slums in Indian cities.


In the face of rapid urban and industrial development, the Government of India had become acutely aware of the problem of overcrowding in Indian cities. Seminars were organized in Delhi and Mumbai to suggest suitable remedial measures. Such open discussions as an urban expression have resulted in slum being defined in more specific terms.


Between 1961–1971, four new cities in the million-range were added to the existing million-cities, giving rise to eleven million-cities in 1971. each of these eleven cities.


Alfred D’Souza’s (1978) edited work on Indian cities covers a wide range of topics such as nutrition, slums and urban housing, the relation to the inner city and issues related to migration. RC Sarikwal (1978) tried to highlight some of the problems faced by the growing industrial city of Ghaziabad near Delhi. The study provided an understanding of the growth pattern of industrial townships.


Historical study of individual towns and cities provides insight into the process of urbanization in historical perspective. Several such urban studies conducted in the 1970s and earlier decades have aroused interest from a historical and comparative perspective. The works of Crane (1955) and Ghurye (1962) were pioneering studies in this direction. Crane’s work provided an insight into the development of cities during the pre-British period, in the light of which the development of cities during British rule is discussed. Ghurye in his work compared urban development in colonial settings with urban development since independence.


In his study of Ahmedabad, Kenneth Gillian (1968) analyzed the colonial situation under the British as it prevailed on the west coast. The British were successful in reducing the influence of centuries-old customs and traditions in this city, a traditional stronghold of the Gujarati trading community. Ahmedabad thus turned into a major center of textile manufacturing.



In her study of Mumbai in the mid-nineteenth century, Christine Dobbins (1972) highlighted the speed and variability with which different local communities, generally receptive to new ideas introduced by the British, responded to new opportunities. Took advantage of This has been done by identifying the elites who merged with Mumbai in the mid-nineteenth century. Bailey (1975) noted the rise of an urban elite in the city of Allahabad. The new elite provided the much needed leadership to the nascent nationalist sentiments. Its members were instrumental in shaping the early policies of the Congress Party.


Pradeep Sinha (1978) traces the growth of the metropolitan city of Kolkata from a cluster of villages during the time of Job Charnock, when it assumed the status of India’s capital city. In this study, Sinha also highlights the emergence of an urban middle class and a class of Western-oriented wealthy residents with the advantage of Western education.


In the Serampore study by Pranabanjan Ray (1971) taking account of the colonial situation, first under Danish settlers, and then under British rule, Ray pointed to the fact that


Serampore’s trading community flourished under foreign rule, establishing it as a prosperous commercial town.


In his study of Indian society, Milton Singer (1972) emphasized the process of transition of an older culture, which he named as the Great Tradition, to a complex modern culture (the Little Tradition). Singer, in his study of the city of Madras, saw the rise of a new culture as a result of contact with the West. He pointed out that the demands of modern occupations to be followed in urban areas are such that even the most conservative of city dwellers are not entirely free from such influences.


Sociological literature on migration during the 1960s and 1970s by M.S.A. Rao on types of migration, problems of rural-urban migration such as urban caste tensions, development of slums and their entry into informal sectors of the urban economy A comprehensive review has been done in the context of Etcetera.


Some other relevant studies include –


(1) Delhi study by Nangia (1976).


(2) Study of demographic aspects of urbanization by Vatsala Narayan


(3) Study of hyper-urbanization by Victor D’Souza.


(4) The work of Subhash Chandra (1977) “Social Participation in an Urban Neighbourhood.”


(5) The study of urban housing in the Third World by Geoffrey K. Payne (1977) stated that there is an urgent need to deal with the vast magnitude of housing problems in urban areas.


(6) T.K.Oomen (1982) suggests a typology of urban households, nature of authority, ecology and value orientation within the urban mile. Apart from this, some new thinking on urban poverty, housing etc. has also been discussed.


Finally, it can be concluded

Urban studies is an area of research that has grown greatly from its multi-disciplinary nature.



  Case study of Mumbai regarding urban social structure: –


Urban studies was first introduced in 1915 by Patrick Geddes, a popular social scientist at the University of Bombay. Later, urban problems were also studied by geographers and sociologists in the 1920s.



However, in the post-independence period substantial progress was made in research on urban problems in India.


Coming to the case study of Mumbai with regard to urban social rigidity, it can be said that Mumbai is the most populous city in India and the second most populous city in the world. Mumbai is the commercial and entertainment capital of India. Mumbai is home to important financial institutions. Mumbai was ranked among India’s fastest cities for business startups in 2009. Mumbai has seen a finance boom in the mid-nineties and an IT, export, services and outsourcing boom in the 2000s.



Mumbai, formerly known as Bombay, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. With a population of around 14 million, it is the most populous city in India and the second most populous city in the world. Along with neighboring urban areas including the cities of Navi Mumbai and Thane, it is one of the most populous urban areas in the world. Mumbai is located on the west coast of India and has a deep natural harbour. As of 2009, Mumbai was named Alpha World City. Mumbai is also the richest city in India and has the highest GDP of any city in South, West or Central Asia.


The seven islands that constitute Mumbai were home to communities of fishing colonies. Over the centuries the islands came under the control of successive indigenous kingdoms before being handed over to the Portuguese and later to the British East India Company. Mumbai arose due to new direct maritime trade between Europe and India, and was originally peripheral to political developments in the country. The growth of Mumbai depended on imperial interests and specific economic factors fueled its growth. During the mid-18th century, Mumbai was largely redesigned by the British with civil engineering projects, and







Emerged as an important trading city. The British takeover of political power coincided with the introduction of Western education and Mumbai became not only the political capital of Western India, but also its major educational centre. In the late 19th century, industrial technology was applied to textile and other manufacturing in Mumbai. Thus, by the end of the 19th century, Mumbai had become a truly multifunctional city. The city was characterized by economic and educational growth during the 19th century. It became a stronghold of the Indian independence movement in the early 20th century.


When India became independent in 1947, the city was incorporated into Bombay State. In 1960, a new state of Maharashtra was formed with Bombay as the capital following the Samyukta Maharashtra movement. Its name was changed to Mumbai in 1995.

From the 1930s to the 1990s the city’s social and economic character changed from a labor-intensive orientation to capital-intensive production, and more recently financial services, a parallel move from nationalist and trade unionist politics to the local to the nation-state. and then by transitioning from a regional to a global context to the mobilization of citizens.


Mumbai is the commercial and entertainment capital of India, generating 5% of India’s GDP, and accounts for 25% of industrial production, 70% of maritime trade in India, and 70% of capital transactions in India’s economy. Mumbai is home to important financial institutions such as the Reserve Bank of India, the Bombay Stock Exchange, the National Stock Exchange of India and the corporate headquarters of many Indian companies and multinational corporations. It has major nuclear institutes of India like BARC, NPC

L, IREL, TIFR, AERB, AECI and Department of Atomic Energy. The city is also home to India’s Hindi and Marathi film and television industries, known as Bollywood. Mumbai’s business opportunities, as well as its ability to offer a high standard of living, attract migrants from all over India and, in turn, make the city a potpourri of many communities and cultures. Mumbai is the fourth most expensive office market in the world. Mumbai was ranked among the fastest cities in India for business startups in 2009.


State and central government employees make up a large percentage of the city’s workforce. Mumbai also has a large unskilled and semi-employed self-employed population who earn their livelihood mainly as hawkers, taxi drivers, mechanics and other such blue collar occupations. The port and shipping industry is well established, with Mumbai Port being one of the oldest and most important ports in India. In Dharavi, in central Mumbai, there is an increasingly large recycling industry, processing



Recyclable waste from other parts of the city There are an estimated 15000 single room factories in the district.


Along with the rest of India, Mumbai, its commercial capital, has seen an economic boom since the 1991 liberalisation, a finance boom in the mid-nineties and a boom in IT, exports, services and outsourcing in the 2000s.


Mumbai, from Colaba in the south to Mulund in the north and

To the south Dahisar and to the east Mankhurd, is administered by the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC). The BMC Tower is in charge of the civic and infrastructure needs of the metropolis. The mayor is usually elected through indirect election by councilors for a term of two and a half years.


Public transport systems in Mumbai include the Mumbai Suburban Railway, Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST) buses, black and yellow metered taxis, black and yellow metered taxis, auto rickshaws and ferries.


As of 2001 India census, Mumbai had a population of 11,914,398. As per the 2001 census, the area under the administration of Greater Mumbai, BMC has a literacy rate of 77.45%, higher than the national average of 64.8%. The population density is estimated to be around 22,000 persons per km². The sex ratio in the island lands was 774 (females per 1000 males), 826 in the suburbs, and 811 in Greater Mumbai overall, all numbers higher than the national average of 933 females per 1000 males. The reason for the low sex ratio is the large number of male migrants who come to work in the city.


Marathi, the official language of the state of Maharashtra, is widely spoken and understood in the city. 16 major languages of India are also spoken in Mumbai, with the most common being Marathi, Gujarati and English. English is widely spoken and is the dominant language of the city’s white-collar workers. The colloquial form of Hindi spoken on the streets, known as Bambaiya – is a mixture of Marathi, Hindi, Indian English and some invented words.


Mumbai suffers from major urbanization problems seen in many rapidly growing cities in developing countries. Widespread poverty and unemployment, poor public health and poor civic and educational standards for a large section of the population. With available space at a premium, residents of Mumbai often live in cramped, relatively expensive housing, usually far from workplaces and therefore requiring long commutes.



Travels on crowded public transport or on crowded roads. Many of them live close to bus or train stations, although suburban residents spend a significant amount of time traveling south to the main commercial district. Two factors, concentration of ownership and property price, reinforce inequalities in land and housing. They also create imaginary scarcity, speculation and capital accumulation through rent.


The number of migrants to Mumbai from outside Maharashtra during the decade 1991–2001 was 1.12 million, accounting for 54.8% of the total increase in Mumbai’s population.


Religions represented in Mumbai include Hindu (67.39%), Muslim (18.56%), Buddhist (5.22%), Jain (3.99%), Christian (4.2%), Sikh (0.58%), Parsi and Jewish. population.


Mumbai’s culture is a mix of traditional festivals, food, music and theatre. The city offers a cosmopolitan and diverse lifestyle, with a variety of dining, entertainment and nightlife in a form and abundance comparable to that of other world capitals.


The lack of legal ownership of the space where people live and work has made the issue of rights to land and physical space an important issue in the city, and in recent years, has fundamentally changed public politics. Have given. A large portion of the population struggles to obtain and then maintain a place to live and amenities are sparse. It would not be an exaggeration to say that the majority of workers and laborers lead a life of marginality, figuratively and figuratively. This situation


has given birth to a culture of scarcity. Being part of informal modes of construction and/or services means an unstable, insecure and irregular working life. Neither work nor access to housing integrates them into the rhythm of organized discipline. The instability associated with cultural and economic deprivation rules their lives.






























Urban Social Structures:


A Case Study of Hyderabad/Bangalore


(1) Discuss the case study of Hyderabad in relation to urban social structure


(2) Discuss the case study of Bangalore in relation to urban social structure.


As far as the nature and trend of urban studies in India is concerned, there is an abundance of data on the socio-economic conditions of individual Indian cities. The rapid urbanization in India since 1941 with its concomitant problems has prompted many surveys and research efforts. The Pune study (1945 and 1952) and other similar comprehensive studies conducted by the Gokhale Institute set the pattern for many later studies. The Planning Commission of India through its Research Program Committee sponsored several studies on social and economic conditions in about 22 cities of India. These surveys from different cities form the largest collection of material on individuals







Cities in any developing region. The major impetus to urban studies in India came from UNESCO. In 1952, it sponsored a comparative study of migration to cities in several South Asian countries.


Some of the modern and industrial cities of India like Baroda, Kolkata, Surat, Pune, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Lucknow, Kanpur, Ranchi etc. have been studied by some social scientists under R.P.C. Planning Commission, Government of India.





Case Study of Hyderabad on Urban Social Structure


Hyderabad in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India

is the capital. As of 2010, it is the sixth most populous city and sixth most populous urban agglomeration in India. Hyderabad was founded by Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah in 1591 on the banks of the Musi. Today, the borough covers an area of approximately 650 km. The twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad are governed by a single municipal unit, the Municipal Corporation of Greater Hyderabad.


Hyderabad has developed into one of the major centers of the IT industry in India, which has earned it the additional name of “Cyberabad”. Apart from the IT industry, various biotechnology and pharmaceuticals companies have set up their operations in Hyderabad due to its established public sector in Life Science Research and Genome Valley. Banjara Hills and Jubilee Hills in Nagar have the most expensive residential real estate in Andhra Pradesh. The city is home to the Telugu film industry, the second largest in India, known as Tollywood. Situated at the crossroads of North and South India, Hyderabad has developed a unique culture which is reflected in its language and architecture.


Since liberalization in the 1990s, Hyderabad has become one of the major centers of the IT industry. Growth in the IT sector and the opening of the Rajiv Gandhi International Airport led to activity in other economic sectors such as real estate in the 2000s. However, the global financial crisis of 2008–2009 has had a significant impact on construction activity.


Situated on the Deccan Plateau, Hyderabad has an average elevation of about 536 meters (1,607 ft) above sea level. Most of the area has rocky terrain and some areas are hilly. Crops are usually grown in the surrounding paddy fields.







Hyderabad, as a result of the rapid growth of the city along with the merger of 12 municipal circles and cantonments, has become a large cohesive and populous region. Yet many nearby villages are getting a facelift to be merged into the twin cities in the near future.


The city had a population of 3.6 million in 2001, and by 2009 had grown to over 4.0 million, making it one of the most populous cities in India, while the population of the metropolitan area was estimated to be higher.


Hyderabad is a cosmopolitan city whose residents are followers of a wide range of religions, mainly Hinduism (55%) and Islam (41%), but also Christianity (3%) and Sikhism (0.2%) and Jainism (0.2%). There are others including 0.4%). , Many prestigious temples, mosques and churches are located in the city.


Telugu and Urdu are the major languages spoken in the city, while English and Hindi are also widely spoken.


The city is administered by the Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation (GHMC), which came into existence in 2007 following the merger of 12 municipalities with the Hyderabad Municipal Corporation. The GHMC is in charge of the civic needs and infrastructure of the city. Hyderabad is divided into 150 municipal wards, each supervised by a corporator. The Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority (HMDA) is the urban planning agency of Hyderabad, India.


Hyderabad is the financial, economic and political capital of the state of Andhra Pradesh. The city is the largest contributor to the state’s gross domestic product.

Corps, State Tax and Excise Revenue. The workforce participation is around 29.55%. Starting in the 1990s, the city’s economic pattern has changed from being primarily a service city to a city with a more diverse spectrum including trade, transport, commerce, storage, communication, etc. The service industry is the major contributor, comprising the urban workforce. 90% of the total workforce. In 2009, Hyderabad was ranked as the second best Indian city to do business in. Hyderabad is known as the city of pearls, lakes and more recently for its IT companies. Products like silverware, sarees, Nirmal and Kalamkari paintings and artefacts, unique Bidri handicraft items, lac bangles studded with stones, silkware, cottonware and handloom based textile materials have been made and sold in the city for centuries.


Hyderabad is a major center for pharmaceuticals, with companies such as Novartis, Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories, Matrix Laboratories, Divis Labs, Lee Pharma, etc. located in the city. Initiatives like Gnome Vale, Fab City and Nanotechnology Park are expected





Creation of comprehensive infrastructure in biotechnology. Like many Indian cities, Hyderabad has witnessed high growth in the real estate business. The retail industry is growing in Hyderabad.


The city has several central business districts (CBDS) spread across the city. There are several major business/commercial districts from the old Charminar area to the new Kothaguda. For infrastructure advancement in the city, the government is building a high-rise business district at Manchirevula near Rajendranagar, with the 450-metre supertall structure APIIC Tower (Andhra Pradesh Industrial Infrastructure Corporation) at its centre. Also Lanco Hills near Gachibowli presents the tallest structure in India for residential and commercial purpose.


Hyderabad has established itself as a lending destination for the IT and IT-enabled services, pharmaceuticals, call center and entertainment industries. Several computer software companies, software consulting firms, business process outsourcing (BPO) firms, IT and other technical services firms have established their offices and facilities in the city since the 1990s. many fortune 500

Corporates – mostly related to IT or BPO service industry, Microsoft, Oracle Corporation etc. have set up operations in Hyderabad.


Hyderabad is connected to the rest of the country by National Highways – NH-7, NH-9 and NH-202. Like other cities, Hyderabad also suffers from traffic congestion. Many flyovers and underpasses are being constructed in the city to reduce traffic congestion.


Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation operates a fleet of 19,000 buses. Yellow colored auto rickshaws commonly called autos are the most widely used transport service.


Hyderabad has a light rail transport system known as the Multimodal Transport System (MMTS) which provides connectivity between rail and road transport for the convenience of commuters.


University of Hyderabad, NALSAR, NIPER, Maulana Azad National Urdu University etc. are some of the universities located in Hyderabad.


Government of India as a part of its Open Door Economic Policy is focusing on five mega cities namely Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Hyderabad and Bangalore. The aim is to make these metropolitan centers attractive to foreign development authorities to address some of their research woes and to develop infrastructure such as roads, sewerage and water supply, two important issues cropping up.







  1. First, given the inherent bias towards big cities in terms of economic resources, infrastructure, commercial activities etc. in the process of Indian urbanization, is it justified to spend huge money on metropolitan centers at the expense of smaller cities and towns? Secondly, the vague knowledge about the state’s handling of the urban sector also raises one to wonder whether the funds will be put to proper use or spent in giving metros a cosmetic face-lift.






A case study of Bangalore on urban social structure.



Bangalore is the capital of the state of Karnataka. It is a metropolitan city. It is a typical multi-functional city.


It is an industrial city set in the middle of a predominantly rural area, it is a commercial, educational, entertainment, health and administrative center. It is situated in the center of Table Land with some hills around it within a distance of 22 miles. It was established as a clay port by Kempegowda in 1537 AD. It first flourished with the construction of temples of Vinayaka, Gavegangadharaswamy etc. The development of the city was mainly due to the British.


In addition to modern modes of transport, commercial, educational and cultural interests all played their part in its development.



Extensions continue to grow and develop today to meet the housing needs of middle class and low income people.


There are many industries in Bangalore like H.A.L., Hindustan Machine Tools, Binny Mills, B.H.E.L. etc. due to its local and other advantages. In addition, it serves as an internal and international center of exchange for various durable and perishable goods traded from all over Karnataka and outside. It is also a cosmopolitan cultural center and the center of all the major cultural activities of the state. It is also a university town.


Therefore, one has to wonder how the city has accommodated its functions within a structural pattern. To an onlooker, the Bangalore strike is, at first sight, an area of confusion and chaos as it does not follow the Burgess controversy or





Any other pattern of development of the city. Its functions were gradually added to it and it is not a planned city as is the modern concept. But this illusion is more apparent than real as careful analysis reveals that it has its own distinct pattern in distribution of population, households, educational and social institutions etc.


The distinguishing factor employed in dividing ecological zones in Bangalore is the pattern of activity, that is, the types of activities people in the zones engage in. On this basis, there are definite clusters of a specific activity such as industrial or cultural spread in different parts of the city.



Bangalore can be divided into 7 zones – (1) Business Zone (2) Factory Zone (3) Agricultural Zone (4) Cultural Zone (5) Middle Class Residential Zone (6) Retirees’ Residential Zone (7) military area.


(1) Commercial Zone – The center of dominance of commercial activities, communication and transport system is concentrated in the market and princely area of the city. Other parts of the city include the suburban shopping centers that are spread throughout the city today. Mention may be made of the recently developed Jayanagar Shopping Complex which is the supply center of the trade. The area contains warehouses and establishments of large merchants, hardware stores, clothing stores, small workshops, machinery and utensils shops, several hotels, and most of the city’s cinemas. Commercial activity predominates here.


There are two areas in this zone- One is City Market Majestic Area which includes – Arlepet, Manivarthpet, Blepet, Sultanpet, Doddapet, Chikkapet, Kempegowda Road etc. The second is Cantonment Market which includes Tasker Town, Blackpilly, Russell Market etc. Foreign goods abound.


(2) Factory sector – employees of ports and factories, slums, laborers and poor

Are residents of the area.


In this area, huts and dilapidated houses are found around big factories. Industrial production and related activities take place in this area.


This zone includes 7 areas of the city – Zone 1 is located near Lal Bagh, Zone 2 is located near City Market, Zone 3 is located near Magadi Road, Zone 4 is located near Sriramapuram, Zone 5 is located near Tumkur Road Area 6 is the central factory area located in the heart of the city and Area 7 is located at the edge of the cantonment. The city’s various factories and small scale industries and industrial estates are located in these areas, which grew on the space they could find.


(3) Agricultural sector – Agricultural sector is located at the four extremes of the city and is gradually pushed back due to the rapid growth of the suburbs. Residents of Dumlur Duanalli, Apparedipalya in Bangalore East do agriculture and grow paddy. Residents of Jogpalaya, Halsur, Kalenalli etc. in Bangalore North mainly grow vegetables. Besides this, the residents of Munimaranapalya also grow casuarina trees in their farms. The people of Gavipur, Guttali etc grow vegetables in the vast land available with them. These people also do dairy farming and poultry.


(4) Cultural Sector – This sector includes activities related to education, social service and other cultural activities. As we know, Bangalore is the center of higher education and the new center of cultural activities of the state. Various schools, colleges, state cultural activities and cultural auditoriums and socio-cultural associations and institutions are spread across different parts of the city. This zone consists of 6 localities. Sector 1 is located near Basavanagudi and includes the National College, the Indian Institute of Culture and the Gokhale Institute of Public Affairs. Area 2 is near Lalbagh Fort Road and includes Lal Bagh and Victor Hall. Sector 3 is near Vishweshwarapuram and includes Ashokaposhakastabha and Arya Samaj. Area 4 is roughly in the center of the city and includes Central College. Maharani’s College, Mount Carmel College, Engineering College, Institute of Technology, Y.M.C.A. Century Club Museum, Cubbon Part etc. The area is located near 5 Residency Road and includes St. Joseph’s College, BIS.



Hop Cotton Girls School etc. Indian Institute of Culture arranges lectures and discussions. Lal Bagh is a pleasure garden. The Town Hall and Rabindra Kalakshetra which fall under Sector 4 are the major cultural halls of the city. Century Club is a prestigious club.




(5) Middle class residential area – It includes various suburbs of the city to some extent which are expanding day by day.


Small business owners, clerical and professional workers, and some middle class residents reside in the area. There are mainly 4 areas in this zone. The first area which lies to the south of Mysore Road includes Vishweshwarapuram, Upparpally, Chiyokkavalli, Kalasipalyam, Channarajpet etc. Sector 2 is located on the north side of Kempe Gowda Road and includes Gandhinagar. Sector 3 is located on the east side of Bellary Road and includes Upparalli, Benson Town etc. The area is located in 4 Cantonment and includes Mclver Town. There is a glut of houses in these areas.


(6) Retired people’s residential area – It includes various suburbs of the city which is growing day by day. These areas have spacious family accommodation and well decorated houses. Retired people and upper middle class people who seek peace and quiet live here. It consists of four sectors which are located in the four corners. Sector 1 is located in the south west end and includes Narasimharaja Colony, Basavanagudi, Shankarapuram, Hasahalli etc. Sector 2 is situated towards the north east of Maharaj Mills and includes Sesharajpuram, Malles Varam, Yeshwanthpur, Gokul etc. The area is located on the north side of 3rd St. Johann Hill. The area is located in 4 Cantonment and includes Mclver Town, Langford Town etc. The area mainly consists of well-planned and spacious single family residences, well-maintained streets, lounge spaces etc., with a suburban shopping complex at its centre.


(7) Military Area – This is a friendly area in Bangalore city. It developed as the British placed a garrison and made it a permanent military camp. Today our defense forces, defense training supply units etc use this area for their activities. However, even today it can be called a foreigner’s territory. This area is included in the entire cantonment area.


In short, the social ecology of Bangalore city can be said that:-


1) The commercial areas are mainly located in the center of the city.


2) Most of the factory areas are located in the western borders and outskirts.


3) Agricultural areas form a green belt around the city.


4) The cultural regions are evenly distributed. Recreational services are concentrated in and around cultural areas.


5) Retired people’s area is located near agricultural areas on three sides of the city.


6) Areas of middle class are adjacent to areas of retirees.


Coming to the present condition of Bangalore, the onslaught of industries and MNCs who are looking to cash in on this growing metropolis for their technical and scientific manpower and cheap labour.

have come down to bring with them all the associated evils. With flourishing trade and commerce and an increasing influx of people, Bangalore today is a far cry from the idyllic city it once was.

New Sociology


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