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Kinship literally means relationship.  This relationship can only occur between two or more persons.  Members of society are tied to various relationships.  These include blood relations, marriage and distant relations.  When these relations have received social recognition, then it is called kinship system.  Each adult person belongs to two families,

  First  Family  Of Orientation- in which he was born and brought up.

  Second Family Of Creation – created by marriage.  In this way a person belongs to two families.  These relations create kinship system.


Charles Winick, defining kinship in the anthropological dictionary, wrote, “The kinship system consists of relationships recognized by society that are predictable and based on blood relations.”  “It is clear from this definition that kinship systems are accepted by society. These arrangements are both real and fictitious. Fable means the practice of adoption.


It is written in Notes and Queries on Anthropology, “Kinship is the relationship that is actually or predictably known by the relationship between parents and their child or sibling.”  “This statement shows that the kinship system is based on blood relations. At the same time, the artificial and presumed relations which have been recognized by the society also come into kinship relations.


  1. R. Brown wrote, “Kinship is the accepted lineage relationship for social purposes, and it is the basis of the customary nature of social kinship that is defined by the definition that kinship group consists of descendants after the family. Members of the dynasty are relatives. It has received social recognition.


According to Levi-Strauss, “the kinship system does not create offspring or blood relations,” the kinship system is not the lineage or blood-related karmic formulas that a person finds, it exists in human consciousness, these ideas  It is an absolute system, not an automatic development of the real situation.  “Levi-Staas believes that kinship involves both a paternal relationship and a society-accepted relationship. Saladari should not be considered to be based only on blood relations, because where there is a tradition of accepting adopted sons and daughters, they are involved in kinship  Huh .

Based on the above description, the concept of kinship system can be understood on the following four grounds:


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  1. The basis of kinship system is both blood relation and marriage relationship.

  2 .  Also, the basis of its construction can be adopted son or daughter, while it is not related to actual blood.

  1. Kinship is related to social beliefs.
  2. Variation can be seen in the nature of kinship system because social beliefs are not the same in all societies.  Thus it can be said that kinship system is based on blood relations, marriage relations and social beliefs.





Kinship Categories


  1. Primary Kins: Primary kinsmen are called persons associated with JanakParivar and JananParivar.  A parent family is one in which a person is born and grows up.  Thus, father, mother, sister and brother became the primary relatives of the person.  A reproductive family is one in which a person is related to marriage.  Thus husband, wife.  The letter and daughter are the primary relatives of the person.  Dubey mentions a total of 8 types of relationships as primary relatives.  These are – husband – wife, father – son, father – daughter, mother – son, mother – daughter, brother – brother, sister – sister and brother – sister.  All these relationships are related to blood and marriage.


 2 .  Secondary Kins: The primary kinship of a person who has his own primary kinship is called secondary kinship.  For example – Father is our primary relative.  Our father’s primary relative was his father.  Here father’s father i.e. grandfather is called our secondary relative.  Similarly, the father’s mother i.e. grandmother, mother’s father i.e. maternal grandfather, mother’s brother ie maternal uncle, etc. are secondary relatives.  G.  P.  Murdock (G. P. Murdock) mentions 33 types of secondary relatives.


  1.   Tertiary Kins: The primary kinship of a person’s secondary kinsman is his or her primary kinsman.  That is, the primary relative of the secondary relative is called tertiary relative.  For example – Father is our primary relative.  Father’s father i.e. our grandfather is our secondary relative.  Grandpa’s father means our tertiary

They are called relatives.  Similarly, Grandmother’s mother, grandfather’s brother, grandfather’s sister etc. are tertiary relatives.  G.  P.  Murdock mentions a total of 151 types of tertiary relatives.


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Types of Kinship



Two main types of kinship are described which are prevalent in almost all societies.  These are – marriage-oriented kinship and blood-oriented kinship.

  1. Marriage – Affinal Kinship: The relationship which is manifested by socially or legally accepted matrimonial relationships, is called Marriage – Malak Kinship.  The relatives concerned in this form are called AffinalKins.  For example – After marriage, a man or woman not only becomes husband or wife, but also develops other relationships.  Son-in-law, brother-in-law, along with a husband’s husband.  Creating brother-in-law, warts etc.  In the same way, a woman’s becoming a wife as well as a son – bride, sister-in-law, aunt, Jethani etc.  Each relationship is in two persons.  Such as – brother-in-law, sister-in-law, mother-in-law, son-in-law, husband-wife etc.  Thus the kinship produced by marriage is called marriage-oriented kinship.


 2 .  Consanguineous Kinship: A blood-related relationship is called blood-related kinship.  In this form, the relatives are called blood-related relatives.  For example, the relationship between parents and children, the relationship between two brothers, the relationship between two siblings, etc.  In this context, it is to be known that not only biological facts are important in determining blood-related kinship, but social recognition is also important.  As such, the practice of adoption is universal.  The adopted son and daughter are treated everywhere in such a way that they are born in biological form.  Similarly D.D.  N.  Majumdar and T.V.  N.  Madan (D. N. Majumdar and T. N. Madan) states that in many primitive societies the role of the father in relation to the birth of a child is unknown.  An example of this is seen in the lives of the Trobriand island dwellers of Melanesia, where the wife’s husband is traditionally considered the father of the offspring.  Thus, in the kinship system, social recognition is attributed to biological facts.



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Kinship Terminology



The first significant contribution in the field of study of kinship terminology.  H.  Morgan (L. H. Morgan).  He studied kinship nouns prevalent in all parts of the world and divided it into two main parts – classified kinship nouns and specific or descriptive kinship nouns.

  1. Classificatory Kinship Terms: When multiple relatives of a class are addressed by the same noun or address, then it is called Classical Kinship Nouns.  For example – in SemaNagas, the word ‘aja’ is used in the villages of mother, aunt, aunt etc. for the word ‘aaja’, ‘Praya ma’, ‘aunt’, ‘maasi’ etc.  The word ‘up’ refers to the father’s uncle warts etc.  Also, different generations and people of different sexes are also addressed with the same caste noun.  Grandfather, Nana, by the word ‘Hapu’ in the Kuki tribe.  SchweserMamera brother, brother-in-law and nephew means relatives of three generations.  In the AngamiNagas, the word ‘Bari’ refers to the elder brother, sister of the wife, aunt, etc., relatives of different sexes.


 2 .  Particularizing or Descriptive KinshipMazumdar and Madan state that ‘specific or descriptive nouns are indicative of actual relationship.  And is used only for those specific persons in whose context or to whom they are spoken.  For example – in Hindu society the word father is used for a person who has given birth to us.  Similarly, mother, wife, son, daughter etc. are such nouns which are used only for a special relative.  Majumdar and Madan state that there is no region in the world where either Sanskrit classified relative nouns or pure specific kinship nouns are used.



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Kinship Usages



The relationship patterns between two relatives in a kinship system are called kinship practices.  These customs are of different types.  Actually, not all relatives have the same manner of behavior and neither is the basis of behavior.  A person’s behavior towards parents is associated with respect.  Then the behavior towards the wife is of love, affection towards children and sweetness towards sister-in-law.  Since there is a difference in the basis of behavior and behavior with relatives, the practices of kinship are also different.  Following are the major


 The method of avoidance is popular.  According to this method, there are some relatives who establish a definite relationship between two people, but instruct that they should stay away from each other and do not participate in mutual interaction as much as possible.  For example, the method of avoidance is common in sons-in-law and in-laws-in-law, sisters-in-law, etc.  Similarly, in the mother-in-law’s son-in-law the manner of Parihar is found in the Yukadhira tribe.


 Joking Relationship: In the kinship system, the custom of joking-relationship is normal.  It is a ritual that binds two people together in a sweet-relationship thread and gives them the right to joke with each other.  For example, jokes – sister-in-law, brother-in-law, baba – granddaughter, nephew – aunt, etc. are found to have joking relationships.  The joking relationship between brother-in-law and brother-in-law can be seen in almost every society.  But the custom of the relation between Baba – granddaughter and nephew – aunt is characteristic of primitive societies.  Whereas in the Hopi tribe, open nephew-aunt joke is prevalent, in Oraon and Baiga tribes there is a relation between grandma-grandson and grand-granddaughter.


Avunculate: Matuleya practice is characteristic of matriarchal societies.  When a maternal uncle occupies a prominent position in the lives of his nieces, nephews should be the basis of their affinity, more than their fathers carry on their maternal responsibilities, the nieces-nieces have special loyalty to the maternal uncle, transfer of property from maternal uncle to nephew  , Then such a relative method is called Matuleya.  Such power of maternal uncle is called matriarchalism.  If the bhajanes – nephews grow up living in the maternal uncle’s house, then this situation will be called the maternal house.  Its prevalence has been observed in the Haida tribe, Trobriand tribe, Hopi and Juni tribe, etc. in North-Western America.


  Amitate: This is the specialty of patriarchal societies.  When a aunt (sister of a father) occupies a special place in the life of her nephews and nieces, compared to her father, taking special responsibility in the interest of children, such practice is called Amitate.  It is practiced among the tribes of Toda, Bax Island, South Africa in India.


Teknonymy: The English word tacronimi is derived from the Greek language.  Credit for bringing it first in social science.  B.  Tyler (E. B. Tylor) is.  When a relative is not directly addressed, it is addressed through a person, in many Hindu families, there is no practice of a wife taking the name of her husband.  In such families, the husband addresses the husband by associating it with another name (Anonymity).  It can be a son or daughter or other relatives as anonym.  If the son’s name is Shanu, then the husband is called as Shan’s father.  Tylla mentions 30 tribes in her study, where it prevails.  Among them, the restless tribes of South Africa, the Crow of Western Canada, the Khasi of India, the gold tribes of Siberia are mainly.


Cauvade: Sahakashti of kinship is known as a unique practice.  When a woman who gives birth to a child, her husband is also forced to live a painful life, it is called Sahakashti.  Its practice has been seen in Khasi and Toda in India and tribes outside India.  According to this custom, a husband has to eat the same food as his pregnant wife, follow all the prohibitions and experience suffering.



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Importance of Kinship



In Hindus, kinship plays an important role.  Its importance can be seen in daily life, in various socio-cultural-religious rites, in social ceremonies and in annoying situations.  The structure of any society and the individual’s interpersonal relationships can be known through the kinship system.  The person’s lineage, succession, status etc. is determined by kinship.  Its importance can be understood as follows


  1. Status Determination: In every society, the status of a person is determined a lot on the basis of his relatives.  With the help of kinship, the history of one’s lineage can be known.  Also, the number of relatives is revealed through this.  Through the number of relatives, the power of a particular dynasty and clan is revealed, thereby The status of a person is determined.  In some traditional societies, the larger form of kinship is considered a status symbol.


 2 .  Basis of Family and Marriage: Morgan has considered Kinship Terminology as the basis for information about the origin and development of family and marriage.  Kinship terms indicate proximity and distance between individuals.  The role of relatives is important in the choice of a life partner for a boy or a boy’s marriage.  Also, family kinship is an integral part of the larger system of relationships.  Social relationships between members of families are based on kinship obligations.


  1. Mental Satisfaction: The sense of kinship provides mental satisfaction.  This kind of tendency is found not only in simple and rural societies, but also in modern urban societies.  Migrants in the city feel more contented and secure in proximity to their accommodation sites.


  1. Unlimited Responsibility: In social life, kinship is the role of group in which often all the people bear unlimited responsibilities towards each other.  On the one hand it is good for the relatives, on the other hand, in the relatives groups, the person gets training in the responsibility of subsistence and responsibility.  Individuals help each other in relationship and their


  1.   Social Security: Natdara provides social protection to the group person.  This is known when a person is in a state of crisis.  Situations are provided in such a situation.  Due to kinship group, person provides kinship and peace on the occasion of solitary and helpless ceremonies – Mundan, Upanayana, Marriage etc.


  1. Solidarity in Social Organization: Kinship system makes social organization strong.


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