What is Society

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 Concept and Characteristics of Society

Society is elementary concepts of sociology. In general , the term society is used for ‘groups of men or collection of individuals’.  Whereas in sociology the term ‘society’ is used for ‘social relations’, which are constructed by individuals.  Sociology studies social relations created by social influence, which we can call society.  Aristotle wrote long ago that man is a social animal.  Because the person is clinging to social relations for a second.  Sociology is the science of society.  Therefore, it is important to first know what society is?  People use the word ‘society’ in different ways in daily and practical life.

Generally people use the word ‘society’ by associating them with language, region, religion, culture, caste and species etc.  With regard to this language, a language-speaking group calls its society, such as Hindi society.  By associating with religion, a group which believes in one religion is called a society, like Hindu society.  By associating with culture, people of one culture call their group a society, such as Indian society.  In this way, by associating a caste group calls itself a society, like Brahmin society etc.  Looking at these examples shows that people use the word ‘society’ arbitrarily.  This experiment will be called unscientific.  In sociology, the word ‘society’ is neither a species group nor a religious group, nor a regional group, nor a cultural group.  The concept of society is very different under Sociology.  Under this, only a group of people is not called a society.  We live together in trains, buses, fairs etc. for a long time, but such groups are also not called society.  This is to say that the term ‘society’ has a specific meaning in sociology.  Let’s use  In the basic sense, ‘society’ is an intangible system of social relations.  Many types of relationships are found between the society and Malagar.  These relationships are also expressed in many ways.  There is no limit to social relationships.  All these relationships are interlinked.  All the individuals are connected with each other as farmers.

Many sociologists have given the definition of society.  Here we will refer to the definitions given by some prominent scholars.

In the words of Ginsberg, “Society is a collection of individuals, between whom unity is established by specific relations or methods of behavior that separate them from all those who do not have such relationships or whose behavior is different from them.”  .Jinnsberg’s definition shows that a society is made up of social relations. One society differs from another due to differences in the nature of social relations.

 Giddings wrote, “Society itself is a union, an organization, the sum of formal relationships. It is, in which interrelated persons are connected to each other. There are two main things in this definition – first, society individuals  One is the sum of the other and it has formal relations. The biggest drawback of Giddings’ definition is that it only refers to the sum of formal relationships as a society. But society has both formal and informal relationships and both have equal importance.  it happens .

  According to Fichter, “A society is an organized group of individuals who live in a region, serve their fundamental needs through a collaborative group, have a common culture and function as a separate social unit.”  Huh .  All the main things and characteristics of a society are becoming clear from this definition of a character.  It states that

(i) Society is a people’s organization, (ii) it has a geographical area, (iii) it meets needs through cooperation, (iv) it has a specific culture and (v) it is a stepping social unit  serves as .

According to Reuter, “Society is an abstract concept found among members of a group.  The wall makes sense of the entirety of mutual relationships.  “Reuter has given the definition of society in a very simple way. In this definition, he has described the mutual relations between groups as important.

Maclver and Page also explained the society more clearly.  According to them, “The system of social practices and practices, rights and mutual assistance, many groups and sub-departments, the controls and freedoms of human behavior. We call this constantly changing complex system. It is social relations.  It is a network and it is always variable. This definition includes all the elements of society. The maker also explained the nature of society by his definition and said that society is a network of social relations. It is not constructed by individuals.  Happens, rather it happens from the mutual relationships found between individuals. From this point of view, society is an intangible organization.


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Through all the above definitions of society it is clear that

  1. Society is a network of social relations.
  2. These relationships are of various types.
  3. Social relations are variable.
  4. Society has a specific culture.
  5. It regulates the behavior of individuals.
  6. Society is not just a collection of individuals. Society is the name of groups formed on the basis of social structures, institutions, customs, practices and needs



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Basis  of Society

Here we will mention some of the major foundations of the society, which the maker and page have discussed in their definition.  McIver pointed out that society is a network of social relations, but it also has some major bases, by which it takes the form of a complex system.  Maciver and Page have presented the following grounds of society in this way

  1. Rituals (Usages): Each society has different types of customs.  They are related to various functions and situations.  That is, there are certain practices for different tasks and different situations by which they are accomplished.  For example, there are special rules regarding food, clothing, dress, marriage etc.  By these rules, a person is motivated to behave in a special way on a special occasion.  Therefore, the society, as it is customary, behaves in the same manner.  In this way, social relations are formed through these customs and society is formed.

  2 .   Procedures – The main basis of some of the societies of each society are the work-systems and    rules by which the system of society is maintained.  Depending on the needs of the people, different work practices have been created for different tasks in the society, through these practices, the need of the people is met.  If all people start doing things arbitrarily, then the system of society will be destroyed.  Therefore, it is mandatory to behave in accordance with these procedures.  This system is based on rules and traditions.  At the same time most people are expected to complete their tasks through them.


  1. Authority – Rights are the mainstay of society.  Rights are also known as power and dominance.  There is no society where relations of rights and subordination are not found.  For proper functioning of every organization, group and committees of the society, it is necessary that rights and power should be associated with some individuals.  In the absence of these, order and peace in the society cannot be maintained.  This authority and power control the behavior of the people.  Right from the beginning till today the notion of authority and power has been in every society.  Like – father or doer in the family, head of panchayat, principal in school and college etc.  People have to work with this right and dignity, due to which the system or organization remains in the society.
  2. Mutual Aid =-is the real foundation of mutual cooperation society.  Human needs are eternal.  He cannot fulfill all his needs.  This requires mutual support to fulfill.  Social relations are formed only by mutual cooperation.  In the absence of these, society cannot even be imagined.  Through cooperation, individuals depend on each other and order is maintained in social life.  Therefore, it is necessary for any society to have a mutually cooperative relationship.
  3.   Grouping and Divisions – Different types of groups and departments are found in every society.  Society is formed by these groups and departments.  For example, family, neighborhood, caste, class, city, community etc.  The basis of division in the society are age, sex, class, caste, wealth and education etc.  All these groups and departments remain in relation.  All these (groups and departments) affect our social relations, as well as society performs its functions through these groups and organizations.  The more organized these groups and departments are, the more organized the society is.
  4.  Controls of Human Behaviour – The nature of a human being is such that he gets to be arbitrary when he gets an exemption.  If every person in the society starts doing things arbitrarily, then the system of society will be dissolved.  To maintain the order of society, it is necessary to control the behavior of individuals.  Every society has its own rules – laws and methods, according to which a person has to behave.  Society uses some formal and informal means to regulate the behavior of individuals.  Formal means include administration, police, courts and law etc. and informal means include ethos, custom, tradition, religion etc.  Through all these means, the behavior of individuals is regularized and controlled, which keeps the system of social relations in the society.

  7 Liberty– control and freedom are two aspects of the coin.  Along with control in society, freedom is also necessary.  Freedom is also very important for proper development of a person’s personality.  Freedom does not mean that a person acts in his own way.  Also, control does not mean that a person’s personality becomes frustrated.  This is the reason that Makeiver has declared both control and freedom to be important elements for building society.  To keep social relations in order, it is also necessary to give some degree of freedom.  Only on staying independent, a person makes social relations with other people according to his wish and opportunity.  It is also necessary to say here that freedom should be given to others as much as their own freedom is required.

Similarly, we come to the conclusion that it is very important for the society to have these seven bases.  All these elements are intertwined.  It is through these that social relations are formed.  There are some changes every time in these relationships.  This change also changes the society.  The seven grounds of society are different from place to place.  This is the reason why the nature of society also varies with local distance.  That is, some changes happen in the society according to time and place.  Maciver and Page have discussed the definition of society as well as its seven bases.  These seven bases have been mentioned above.  But after knowing about various definitions and its basis in relation to society, we come to the conclusion that for any society three things are necessary – first, excess of individuals, second, social relation and third, social  Intercourse  The first essential thing for the society is that there should be a considerable number of individuals.  A society cannot be built without it.  The second essential thing is that there should be a relationship between individuals.  Society is not just a collection of individuals.  The society cannot be imagined until there is a relationship between them.  The third essential thing for society is social interaction between them.  That is, there should be mutual awareness among them and they influence and influence each other through their actions and actions.  In society, one person not only influences the other by his behaviors and actions, but also gets influenced.




Characteristics of society

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 (1) Abstract: – Society is a system of social relations, so society is abstract.  ‘Wright’ wrote that, “We can define society as a system of relations established between them”.


 (2) Mutual Awaraness: – It is known that society is the name of the system of social relations.  The basis of social relationships is the psychological conditions of the individual.

It is necessary for social relations to have mutual awareness.  Till the time people are not aware of each other, they cannot develop a relationship between them.  Man is a social animal.  And he has consciousness and awareness.  In this way, when people become aware of each other’s existence and work, then they will do tasks in their context and social relations will be built.  McIver wrote that ‘Since mutual awareness is not consciousness between physical objects, they are nothing but being based on each other.  ‘For example, books are lying above the table, which are not conscious but material things, but this is not the case for a person.  The person knows.  Who is doing what for us.  Therefore, he becomes aware of it and deals with it in the context of which social relations are built.  Man has knowledge due to which one is aware of each other which is the basis of social relation, which can be written as a sign in this way


 (3) likeness and Differenees in Society: – There is a co-ordination of equality and difference in social relations.  Knowledge and awareness of each other is necessary for a social relationship, which cannot be built unless there are differences and differences between individuals.  But such variation in which individuals are attracted to each other should be in terms of equality.  Just as day is related to night, incomplete is related to absolute, maximum is related to less, similarly similarity is related to equality with variation.  It is necessary for social relations according to which the society is built.  That is why Giddings has written.  ‘The basis of society is Consciousness of kind’.


In the words of McIver and Page, ‘equality and difference are logically opposite to each other, but ultimately both are related to each other.  The two complement each other, by which social relations are built.  ‘


Variation – While there is equality in the society, on the other hand, there is also variation.  It is also very important to have diversity in the society.  This variation can occur in any area.  Equal intelligence, competence, efficiency, readiness etc. are not found in all members of society.  Equality is also not found on the basis of gender.  That is, it is mandatory to have personal and social inequality.  Due to inequality, people need each other and there is a reaction between them.  Due to this, there remains attraction in the society.  Due to inequality, division of labor is found in the society.  The person who is skilled for the work or the kind of work he is interested in, he does the same work.  Not all people have the same mental and physical strength.  Not everyone is as ambitious or apathetic.  Due to this, feelings of competition and competition etc. arise in the society.  As a result there are changes in the society.  Society is headed for progress.  Inequality is also necessary for invention and revolutionary social change in society.  Maciver and Page have said that if all the people of a society were exactly equal to each other in all areas, their social relations would be limited to those of ants or bees.  Thus it is clear that inequalities are complementary to each other.  After knowledge of both equality and inequality is known, it is clear that different people cooperate with different functions to fulfill the same objectives (equality).  Although equality and inequality are essential in the society, but equality is more important than inequality.  Similarities are primary and inequalities are secondary.  People perform unequal tasks together for the same needs.  For example, the main purpose of schools and colleges is to provide education to the people.


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All the people there work to fulfill this purpose by doing different tasks.  Teachers do different tasks, office staff do different work, students have different work etc.  Here we see that all people are fulfilling their purpose by providing equal purpose education through different tasks).  That is, there is a situation of internal equality between them.

  (4) Interdependence: Human needs are eternal.  He cannot fulfill all these requirements alone.  As the needs of the people grew, so have the people who organized them, which created the society.  People have to depend on each other to fulfill their needs.  This mutual dependence creates a feeling of brotherhood and equality among people.  This establishes relations among people and they behave according to the rules of society.  This dependence persists among people from birth to death.  The primitive society was very simple and small.  At that time the requirements of the people were also less, yet people had to depend on each other.  There was division of labor between them.  There was a division of work between men and women.  Women used to take care of children and look after the house and men used to hunt and gather food.  The basis of this division was gender discrimination.  Due to division of labor, they were related and dependent.  Today, interdependence has become more and more in modern and complex society.  One has to depend on each other for every need in every sphere of life.  If there is a change in any one initiative of social life, then other aspects are also affected by it and that too changes.  The reason is that all units are interrelated and dependent on each other.  Thus, it can be said that mutual dependence is an essential element in building a society.

 (5) Co-operation and Conflict – Like equality and inequality, cooperation and struggle are also very important for the society.  These two features look at each other from above, but in reality they are the antithesis of each other.  The process of cooperation and conflict is found to be essential in every society.  Whether society is simple or complex, primitive or modern, primitive or urban, both cooperation and conflict are found.  Cooperation – Cooperation is the mainstay of social life.  Every person needs each other’s cooperation to fulfill their needs.  There can be no work alone.  Work cannot go on without cooperation in every sphere of life and in every task.  This cooperation is of two types

 Indirect cooperation – when some people help or support their objectives through their face-to-face relationships.  For example, various players in the playground are called kabach cooperation.  Both direct and indirect cooperation are necessary in society.  None of these can be called more important or less important.  It is definitely that simple.  The importance of direct cooperation is more in small and primitive society, while indirect cooperation in complex, large and modern society.  The reason for this is that in simple, small and primitive society, direct relationship and face-to-face relationship is possible.  But in complex, large and modern society, only secondary relations between people are possible.  It is not possible for everyone to know each other directly and to support them directly.


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Conflict – Many sociologists have also expressed their views on the importance of struggle.  The history of struggle has been going on since time immemorial.  There is no society in the world where there is no conflict.  Whenever a great change has taken place in the society, its root cause has been struggle.  Due to their selfishness, motives, ideas, religion, physical differences and cultural differences people struggle among them.  Conflicts are also of two types: direct conflict and indirect conflict – in direct conflict people cause physical or mental damage to each other through face-to-face relationships.  Mar-peat, riot-fuss, loot-fight, fight-fight etc. are examples of direct conflict.  In such incidents it is seen that people harm each other through direct relationship.  In indirect conflict, a person harms another for his own interests and interests.  People do not have face-to-face relationship in indirect conflict.  Competition is the best example of indirect conflict.  In this, the person or group indirectly creates obstacles in the way of the other and wants to fulfill their purpose.  The ‘Cold War’ is also a good example, which takes place between different countries.  Like direct cooperation, direct conflict was found more in simple, small and primitive society.  Indirect conflict has become important in complex, large and modern society.  But at this time, direct conflict is also present in society.  There is no society in the world where conflict is not found.  Just as equality and inequality complement each other, in the same way, cooperation and conflict are also a measure of each other.  On the one hand, cooperation teaches to work together and on the other hand it ends conflict, exploitation and injustice.  The form of cooperation that we are seeing today is the result of thousands of conflicts.  It is written in relation to this, “Society struggle is mixed cooperation.” (Society is co-operation crossed huamnflict) There is a need for cooperation in society, this leads to progress in society.  But even if conflict is necessary, it can lead to disintegration in society.  It is not necessary that exploitation and injustice will be lost by struggle.  It is clear from all these things that cooperation develops a feeling of brotherhood and mutual goodwill in the society while the struggle eliminates peace, injustice and malpractices.  Therefore, both cooperation and conflict characteristics are necessary in the society, but cooperation is more important.

(6) Society is not confined only to humans- (Society is not confined toMen only) Society is not found only in human beings.  It is also seen in other organisms.  Macavar and Page have said.  Wherever there is life, there is society.  That is, society is found in all animals.  to society .  It is necessary to have social relations, mutual awareness, equality – inequality, division of labor, cooperation – struggle, interdependence.  The arrangement of all these things is also seen in other animals.  For example, mutual support, division of labor, struggle etc. are also found in Makkhaya, ants, termites etc.  This makes it clear that society is not limited to humans only.  But the organization and system found in human society is not found in the society of other animals.  In the absence of language, animals cannot develop their civilization and culture.  Human beings have developed civilization and culture through their language, experience and thought power.  Due to this culture, human society is different and unique from other living societies.  Only human-society is studied under sociology.  The reason for this is that human society is complete and orderly.  It has a culture of its own, from which it is at the height of development.

 (7) Changeability is the law of change.  Society is a part of nature, so society also changes.  There is no society in the world where there is no change.  Society is primitive or modern, simple or complex, rural or urban change is inevitable.  Even if the quality of its rate of change is found to decrease or increase, the change will happen.  Maciver has said that society is a web of social relations.  Changes in social relations happen for many reasons.  As a result, the society also undergoes change.  Our requirements vary according to the time and situation.  This also changes the relationship of fulfillment of needs.  When new ideas and new approaches develop in the society, then it also has an impact on the ideals and values ​​of the society.  Today’s society is not the type of society that was found in ancient times.  Due to industrialization and urbanization, there have been extreme changes in the society.  It is clear from all these things that there are changes in social relations due to various reasons, consequently there is change in the society.  Many changes are seen in ancient India and new Indian society.  The form of caste-system which was earlier is no more.  The relationship between the teacher and the student was no more.  In other areas too, there were many kinds of discrimination – which is no more.  Similarly, there is a change in every society of the world.  Therefore, we can say that society is variable.

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