Social Change: Concept

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Concept:     Social change is a comprehensive process.  In every society of the world, whether it is a primitive tribal simple society or a modern complex technical society, there is a change in the society in some form or the other.  That is, there is no society in the world that is stable.  It is an unwavering and eternal law of nature.  Human society is also variable due to being part of nature.  We can use change address for any change in social, economic, political, religious, moral or all fields.  Fitcher explained the term ‘change’, stating that “change is abbreviated as the difference in the former state or type of existence.  “In the context of this meaning, it can be said that if there was any change or difference in that stage in the society earlier, then it would be called social change. But this meaning is not clear. In fact the meaning of social change

There is difference of opinion among scholars. Some scholars say that if there is a change in social structure, it is called social change. Others believe that the change in social relations is called social change.  In other words, any kind of change in any aspect of social life is called social change. In fact, many scholars have analyzed the society in different ways and in the same way the interpretation of social change is also presented.  The meaning of social change is given by various scholars as follows :



According to Ginsberg: By social change we mean change in social structure i.e.  The size of the society, the nature of the units that make up the society or their mutual balance or organization of the society changes in procedure is called social change. thus the definitions of Ginsburg and Davis are of equal consideration.

“By social change I understand a change in social structure, e.  g.  the size of society, the composition or balance of its parts or the type of its organization.

According to ” MacIver & Page” our special interest as sociologists is in direct social relations.  Only social changes in these social relations.  Change is called.  ”

” Our direct concern as sociologist is with social relationship, it is the changes in social relationship.  ”

In the words of Kingsley Davis,” by social change we understand only those changes which occur in the structure and functions of social organization. ”

“By social change is meant only such alteration that occur in social organization that is in structure function of society.

“[Kingsley Davis – Human Society P – 622]

According to Gillin & Gillin, when the modification in the accepted stage of life begins to happen, we call it social change. These changes, whether due to changes in geographical conditions or cultural decor, structure of the population.  Or as a result of a change in ideas, or whether it was a period of diffusion or invention in the group.

“Social changes are variations from the accepted modes of life, whether due to altration in geographical conditions, the cultural equipment, composition of population or ideologies and whether brought about by diffusion or invention within the group.

[Gillin & Gillin Cultural Sociology P561].

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The following definitions are clear from the above definitions-

(i) Changes in social structure and functions are called social changes.

(ii) Relation of social change to an individual or certain persons, beliefs and faults. It is not    through a change in the life style of the majority of the society.

(ii) Social change is related to change in human social relations.


The main features of social change are:

Its following salient features are clear from the definitions of social change-

1.Lack of predictability:  the meaning of social change practices prevalent in society and.  Traditions change, but in relation to social change, it is difficult to say how much change will happen in which society by what factors?  We are going to be in a society.  One can only imagine the changes.  The nature of social events is so complex that it is a difficult task to predict.


2.Universality:  Social change has been happening in all times since the beginning of the history of society.  There has been no era of history that has not provided any new ideology to human society.  This proves that social change is taking place in some form or the other at all places in human society.


3.Relative speed:  The speed of social change that we have in society.  Only by comparing changes with other societies can we decide.  The pace of social change varies in each society even when circumstances are present simultaneously, because not all societies are equally affected by the conditions of change.


4.A complex process:  Social change is always related to qualitative change.  No criterion for dynamic change can be determined.  Therefore, social change is also called a complex fact or process.


5.Essentialism: Social change is an inevitable phenomenon that occurs in every society.  This process of social change is inevitably found in every society.  Therefore, AW Green also said that “enthusiastic reception of change has often become a way of life”.


6.Other features: Wilbert E. Mer has noted the following points by mentioning some other features of social change

(a) Social change takes place at a slow pace.

(b) The pace of social change is relatively rapid in the modern era.

(c) Social change affects our physical life at a rapid pace, so today there is more difference between food and clothing than before.

(d) Social change has a slow effect on our cultural feelings.

(e) The change that affects our normal life is more rapid.

(F) No one can predict in relation to social change.


Social change and cultural change:

In relation to social change and cultural change, equality and inequality. Different scholars have different views. also practically It cannot be said which of these changes is considered more important. For example, Gillin and Gillin.  The change in accepted ways of life is considered social change. Culture is another name for the accepted way of life because according to Maliowsky, culture consists of total ways of life. According to Herskovits Culture is the man-made part of environment. If seen from this point of view it can be said that according to the above scholars a change is a social change. In this regard, Harton (P.B.Harton) says – “The relation of social and cultural is based on their equality. It is both the cause and the result of each other and it is very difficult to determine.”  Is there any particular element of change related to cultural change or social change.

“In relation to social and cultural change, Merill has also clarified with the help of many examples. Maril’s view that most cultural changes are the result of social changes but changes in culture bring about social change.  Play an important role. For example, various means of mass communication, such as press, television, radio and cinema  Etc. are part of the culture because of its relation to technology. If we look at the effect of these tools, then it is clear that different information related to these tools. And programs generate huge changes in our social relations and social structure.

if we consider MacIver and Page’s view, it will be clear that social changes are different from cultural changes. Nusar society is the web of social relations. so any change in social relations means social change, whereas under culture according to Tyler (E. B. Tylor) – “Culture is that complex.”  There is completeness in which knowledge, belief, art, ethics, law, practice and all such abilities and habits are included.  Those who receive human being as members of society.

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Pacquired by man as much as the difference between these two can be called from this point of view as well as social change in India which includesknowledge. Batros morals. Law. Customsandany other capabilities and habitsacaIRAT asa member of society.  That social change is more dynamic than cultural because the speed of change in social relations is not as fast in art, science, tradition, faith, religion and philosophy.  Both of these can be seen as frontal.

Sociol Change |  Cultural Channel 1. Cultural change 1. Social change is called change. Change in culture is called change. Cultural change is called. 2 Social change is only social – 12. Cultural change knowledge, science, tomorrow structure, functions and relationships.  Relates to the nature of philosophy, morality, value, beliefs, jadas. Changes in patterns.  3. The field of social change is limited. 3. The field of cultural change is broad because it includes the non-cultural of the culture because its relationship is only the changes occurring in the material side of the culture. And the changes that occur in both the non-social. 4. Social change cultural change  4. Social structure is a part of cultural change. And changes in functions  At the same time, there are changes in ethos, ideas, practices, traditions, customs, machines, techniques etc. 15. Changes in social relations are quick and 5. The pace of cultural change can be easily expected which we  Social is slow because the relationship of culture is called change.  Art, knowledge, science, customs, beliefs, laws, etc., in which change is slow.

6.By natural causes and human efforts

  1. It is planned by humans.  This is possible only with the efforts made.


Factors of social change


Not one factor but many factors for social and cultural change.  Are responsive.  There is some difference between cause and factor.  The historian tries to discover the many causes that cause a particular event.  Whereas a sociologist discovers results that are generated by a class of causes.  We can call the class of these factors ‘factors’.  Next we will discuss some of those special factors.  Which according to sociologists are responsible for social change.  Each of these co-exist in a particular theory of social change, separately or collectively.

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1.Cultural Factors: German sociologist Max Weaver found that religion also plays an important role in social change during the study of various religions.  During his analysis, he found that capitalism developed due to Protestant religion.  In the cultural factor of social change, we take religion, thought, morality, belief system, tradition, ethos, public opinion, various institutions etc.  Any changes brought about as a result of these also bring changes in our social life.  For example, often a new generation in society feels inadequate to meet the current needs in their practice and traditions, so new social values ​​develop.  Marriage today is not just a religious rite, the walker has become a ‘sensea’ and many marriages are taking place in other marriages.  The ideal of marriage has changed today.  Religion has been giving rise to important social changes.  Changes in religion and morality often reduce social stability and increase individualism.  Changes in institutions probably lead to the most social changes, because it is the institutions that control social life.  Marriage – We have given an example of change in institution.  Disintegration in the family institution not only brings many changes in personal life, but also changes in social life.  Today with the development of individualistic and other attitudes, the importance of children is decreasing due to which people want to give birth to fewer children.  As a result, there is a decrease in the size of the families and counteract effects.  Changes in religious, economic, political and other institutions maintain the continuity of important social changes.

Cultural Lag: Augburn first mentioned this principle in his book published in 1922 in the context of culture and social change.  In the words of Biersteed, “The cultural delay of Augustan means that one part of the culture changes more quickly than the other, and it always happens. As a result the treaty is broken into two parts. In fact  If not exhaustive, then the reason for many social problems is that different elements of culture cannot be properly harmonized with each other.  It takes a long time (sometimes centuries) to reconcile with the ideals and innovations that arise as a result, and the pace of inventions can move beyond the possibilities of harmony.  Delay means ‘to be left behind’ or, to go lame, that is, the material side of the culture is now lagging behind, if the whole culture falls behind.  A situation of imbalance arises and this situation is called ‘cultural delay’. Augustan has enumerated the various problems and situations which may arise as a result of cultural delay. First of all social change happens because one of the culture starts  Falling behind the second part would affect the methods and methods of behavior of people and their attitudes.  Land.  People are forced to adapt to the changed conditions in a complete way, so a state of change arises.  There is a transfer of cultural institutions.  This is because in the event of going backward, if the cultural delays of the society continue for a long time, then individual and community disintegration situations will arise.  Practices, and ethos begin to lose their usefulnessThe village today has a big impact on the ideas of natural, desolate, etc.  There is little or no control of human beings in these.  Also they have to change.  Huntington’s new institutions begin to flourish in their place.  Thus, cultural delays give rise to social changes and social problems.


2 Natural factors: Person having enough civilization and knowledge science has not conquered Pin nature.  Therefore, sometimes the process itself becomes an important factor of social change.  Revolutionary changes in the social life of natural crises and changes take place in the cities and villages or deserted places of tomorrow.  When the thoughts of heat, cold, rain, earthquake, land formation etc., and various natural conflicts, there is a sense of inspiration and self-confidence in the great pranic women, then they took disappointment and Salman.  Changes in the relationship between population and people result in famines.  It is said that Bagha – the victim ma bale ki khagha – victim ma leaves the child and sells it to the wife for a full piece of rice and there is a struggle between the man and the dog of bread.  Cholera, plague etc. gives great batches and must have a social connection to a piece of bread.  Go natural  Pandemics like plague affect people’s lives.  Natural geography does not take place on geographical changes, so with such changes Sahtington is of the opinion that climate equals complete physical development etc. is possible.  For example, the imagination of man according to the Vihara Pakatika state.  The latter has greatly affected the social life of the people there.  As an example, came to Bihar, Orissa, Assam

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  1. Population Factors: Population factors can be responsible for social change in many ways – First, there is a possibility of social change due to increase in population size and population population size and population density.  For example, there is a feeling.  For example, the increase in birth rate and decreasing death rate would increase the population in the country and if a situation of overpopulation was created.  There will be outbreak of velvet epidemic etc.  Millions – Millions of people will be the victims of death.  All these things will definitely have an impact on social life and relationships.  On the other hand, due to decreasing birth rate and increasing rate of inflation, the country’s population will fall and there will be a shortage of working people in the society.  As a result, the natural resources of the country will not be fully utilized.  The economic condition of the country will fall, the size of the families will decrease and as a result of these there will be changes in social and family relations.  It is natural that poverty and unemployment will spread due to very high population.  Criminal attitudes will be encouraged and social change will be adversely affected due to very small population.  Second, if there is immigration, that is, people will migrate from one country to another, even then there will be social change.  After partition, about 90 lakh people from West and East Pakistan settled in India and there is no need to tell how many changes have taken place in the cultural, economic and social life of the place.  Immigration not only increases the population of a society, but also has a far greater impact in the tribal area.  The number of people in the society increases, whose culture, ethnic characteristics, social values, standard of living, etc. are different from the original inhabitants.  Over time, these characteristics begin to blend with the original inhabitants, resulting in the development of a mixed culture of both forms of behavior are born and the biological and physiological characteristics of individuals also begin to change due to mixing of biological organs.  All these things have an impact on the thinking system, ethics, behavior patterns etc. of Laga and thus social change takes place.

Thirdly, if there is migration, that is, people move from our society to another society, then our population starts decreasing and consequently the problem of re-accrual from production-means arises.  As a result of fasting, the proportion of women for the short time generally increases, because the migration is often in greater numbers by men.  Elements of family disintegration prevail as a result of male absence in many families.  Like this .  Society changes.

Fourth, social changes also occur with increasing population density.  Due to high population density, new innovations to raise that large population make social progress easier and encourage agriculture and intensive agriculture.  However, if the pressure of population remains on the land, then people leave the villages and settle in the cities and thus the cities develop.

Lastly, age, sex, marital status etc. means that the population structure is also closely related to social change.  For example, if there is an excess of people of older age in the population, then strict rules of discipline are formed and traditional ideas are protected.  Relaxation is often found towards enthusiastic tasks.  If the number of young people is more than the old, then the attraction for innovation increases.  Reasoning enters religion, military aspirations rise and an atmosphere of strength and enthusiasm grows.  If the ratio of women is very less than men, then men get priority in every area of ​​the society and if the ratio of women is more then women are not given less importance than men in social positions, economic services, political representation etc.  Goes, as in Western countries, especially in America and France.  When women start doing the work of men, then the male habits develop in women and there are changes in the interpersonal relations between husband and wife, parents and children.


4.Zoological factors: creation, distribution, distribution, ratio of population of men and women, physical and mental qualities of individuals, their own, etc. from one generation to the next, are taken into the zoological factors.  Changing social organization and institutions modifies the form of society.  For example, if weak children are being born through inheritance, that is, the health level in a society is low, then it will definitely have an impact on social life.  Due to short life span, there will be a shortage of experienced people in the country and thus the possibilities of social inventions will also be reduced.  As more and more boys are born in a society, the number of girls will be greatly reduced and consequently the spread of polyandry will reduce the number of children, if more girls are born than boys, then polyandry will flourish.  As a result more children will be born, men’s health will fall and the condition of women will be miserable.


5.Psychological Factors: Different factors of social change have their own special role.  The nature of a human being is changeable, he always makes new discoveries and wants to be innovative towards new experiences only as a result of the trends, traditions and customs of human society.  Mental dissatisfaction and mental conflict and tension in social relations.  Affect and they encourage murder, suicide, crime, child crime, family disintegration.


6.Physical or Geographical Factors – Geographical elements or circumstances have also contributed to various factors of social change.  The geographical culmination of the world is changing day and night.  Intense rains, storms, earthquakes etc. have been transforming the nature of the earth, which has a special effect on the social conditions of humans.  According to Hutting, climate change is the only cause for the rise and fall of equities and culture.  The place where iron and coal comes out, there are rapid changes in society.  Even if this statement does not have complete truth, it is true to a sufficient extent.

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7.Technological factors – possibly the most important of social changes in the modern era.  The factor is the technical factor.  New machines, inventions of new machines have an impact on social life.  Mechiver and Page have rightly written that the invention of steam engines has brought so many revolutionary changes from social life to political life that it is difficult to imagine them.  Augvern mentions 150 changes arising as a result of the invention of radio.  These elements are not hidden from us that large scale production is possible with the invention of machines etc., the importance of division of labor and specialization has increased, trade and commerce has spread, cities have started to develop at a rapid pace, living standards have risen.  , Various economic crises and industrial conflicts have increased, villages have been urbanized, joint families are disintegrating, religion has decreased,  Trion has changed the situation and they have started to work out of the house, new – generated new social Smsyaaa etc.  Birstead wrote – “The speed of causal invention (social change) is a simple or automatic process.” Karl Marx also attributes the technical factor to social change.


8.Political and military factors: Birstead wrote that “according to some writers, social change is the story of wars, sporadic battles, dynasties and wars, victories and defeats. In fact, history was written on the basis of military power even till a short time ago.  Was and similarly there are military social principles in social change. “If the Persians had not defeated the Athenians in the Maratha battles,  The Napoleon would have been successful Akramn Moscow, if Hitler crosses the English Channel to the military order of civilization theory is something else.  If we accept these interpretations, then history can only be understood in the context of the rising parts of the land and the water forces.  The victory of an army becomes the only factor that explains many changes in the development of a society.  Thus the story of society is struggle and war, victory Social change concept and analysis is the story of R defeat.  Although the importance of the military factor has to be accepted in social changes, it is appropriate for Birstead to write that “military theory alone cannot explain the sociology of war.”

It is difficult to pinpoint the military factor with the political factor because many of history  There are political incidents of power and wars in the episodes.  History is a past politics and politics presents history.  “The manner in which people rule themselves over others” – is one of the important figures we can ask about society even though history was once a story of rulers and rulers and the changes that took place in these kingdoms.  All societies that they ruled had influence, however the sociological significance of these political and dynastic influences has not yet been clarified.


  1. Role of great people: Biersteed has commented on the role of great people, another factor of social change.  People are of the view that history is sometimes distracted by the influence of great men and great women.  Of course, the influence of great people cannot be neglected in terms of turning the society, giving new direction to events, etc. But the reality is that “in the end, all social changes happen only because of the actions of men and women.”  … in a society, some kind of a little bit of tradition is done by a man and he does something in another way.  C seeks. He proposes a new idea, or makes a new discovery. Whether or not he is a ‘great man’, but by doing the above, he stirs up the cultural waters and the way water is thrown at the stone  Bouncing all around, similarly the waves created by doing something to the water source of the culture always keeps on moving and after some time all the parts of the culture and all the areas of the society are  Can be affected.

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  1. Economic factors – Social change is also explained on the basis of economic. The main credit is due to Karl Marx. The form of property, nature of business, distribution of wealth, business cycle, class struggle, individuals.  The standard of living, size of production etc. give a special form to the society.  The changes that occur in these circumstances give rise to diverse social changes.  For example, if the form of property becomes socialist in place of capitalism, there will be a revolutionary change in economic conditions and as a result a new social state will be created.  In fact, there is no denying the fact that Russian society has changed so much in the short term as a result of the revolutionary change in economic factors that it is difficult to recognize Russia before the Second World War and Russia today.  Changes in business sometimes affect the society so much that the society even disintegrates.  In summary, economic factors become decisively influential in social change.  In fact, there are many reasons for not one but social change.

One reason can lead to many changes in the society and many reasons can also lead to a change, but the process of change never stops.  Change is an essential rule that always prevails in society.


Paradigms of Social Change:

In the society that the process of social change goes on uninterruptedly, the natural question is, what is the direction of this change?  Is there a way that social change happens?  On the pages presented, we will discuss about the social change direction or paradigms.  The events of all social change can be represented by three types of paradigms.


1.Linear change- We can display the change that occurs in the society as a line, this line can be either horizontal or its direction towards development, we can see this kind of paradigm that changes happening as a result of technology.  Under this, it is characteristic of such changes that their change is towards development and generally its approach is utilitarianism.  It is, the gradual development of biology in the nineteenth century, in which the theories of Darwin and Mandel are prominent, can be placed in the category of similar social change, thus we see that such changes are gradual development or  There is progress, development in the means of transport, development in material culture, etc. come under similar patterns, Ogburn wrote that  The characteristic of this type of change is that there is continuous cumulative development in the utilitarian approach, it keeps happening until it is obsolete by a new scheme in the same direction, such a change in the paradigm.


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2.Fluctuating Changes: The second pattern of change is fluctuating, we can keep the change that is going on in the economic world and the area of ​​population under it, a society is happy from the economic point of view at some point of time while its  The situation worsens, similar changes are seen in the area of ​​population, sometimes due to increase in birth rate.


3.Cyclical change: We can show the change happening in the field of natural world, human civilization and fashion with circular patterns, rainy season, winter, summer, then rainy and thus runs a circular sequence, also in human life.  A circular sequence of infant, adolescent, adult and old age continues, man is born after death and then he grows up as an infant.  Minister is heading.  We get similar symptoms in the rise and fall of civilization.  Changes in the field of fashion are also cyclical.  The form of fashion today will come back after a period;  Like – first people wore wide sealing pants, then started wearing thin sealing, and then slowly moving towards wide sealing.  Girls’ dress was also loose before, tight in the middle and now loose again.  Some sociologists place changes in culture and economic aspect in this category.



changes continuously in clockwise direction and after some time attains its predecessor.  Spengular has put the transformation of civilization in his major work ‘Fall of the West’ under this paradigm.


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