Types of social movements

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Different scholars have classified social movements in different ways on different grounds.

  1. Hary w.Laidler has divided social movements in the following way


  1. Utopian Movement
  2. Marxist Movement
  3. Fabianism Movement
  4. Communistic Movement
  5. Socialist Movement
  6. Consumer Cooperative Movement II.


According to Richard T. La – Piere, social movements can be divided into the following parts:


  1. Mass Movement:

(i) Long lived,

(ii) Short lived.  lived),


(iii) Charismatic,

  1. Educational Movement
  2. Political Movement
  3. Political Movement
  4. Religious Movement.


III.  According to Andersen and Parker: Social movements can be divided into reformist and revolutionary movements on the basis of primary values ​​and ideals.  Those movements that want to improve will be called reformist movements;  Such as: In England, there was a movement for the right to vote for women under democracy.  Depending on the region, it can be divided into Totalitarian and Segmental and depending on the method can be divided into Corrective – Reformative Segmental and Revolutionary – Totalitarian movements.

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  1. Rush and Denischoff: divided the social movement into three categories:


  1. Revolutionary movement: These are called the goal of establishing a new system of relations of power in society.
  2. Retrograde movement: Such movements want to restore the system of power relations which has been in the society ever before.


  1. Reformist movement: They try to amend the existing system.


  1. Herbert Blumer: has described three types of social movement
  2. Specific Purpose Movement,
  3. Expressive Movement,
  4. General Movement.


M .  s .  a .  Rao in his book Social Movements in India discusses the following types of movement


  1. Protest Movement,
  2. Reformative Movement,
  3. Transformative Movements,
  4. Revolutionary Movements


  1. Revolutionary Movement: These  They are movements whose purpose is to change any aspect related to the current system.  Such movements are not aimed at bringing changes in the entire social and cultural system.  Generally they can be called a situational movement, that is, they aim to improve the status of a particular group, or to express their opposition against exploitation.  Such movements are often not successful because all efforts are made by the opposition groups to suppress them.


  1. Reformist movement: The aim of these movements is to bring about a partial change in the existing system of social relations and social values.  They improve people’s beliefs, attitudes, rituals and way of life.  The Bhakti movement in the medieval period and the reform movement in the nineteenth century by Arya Samaj and Brahmo Samaj are examples of this.


  1. Transformational movement: These are the movements which are traditionally carried out to bring about changes in the system related to the rights, facilities or means available to different classes.  Through these, efforts are made to improve the condition of backward classes by challenging the monopoly of the upper classes or castes of society.  Movements by backward classes in India to get religious, educational, economic and political rights and to challenge the monopoly of Brahmins in South India fall in this class.


  1. Revolutionary movement: These movements are different from the revolutionary movement in the sense that the feeling of class struggle is very deep in them.  Movement by the workers against the mill owners or any exploited group on the basis of class consciousness against the exploiting group are examples of this.



Different types of social movement:


1.Krishak Movement: The farming community refers to the section of the society whose main occupation is agriculture.  This class includes farming peopleanagricultural laborers.  Traditionally, the ownership of arable land in India has been in the hands of a few limited individuals.  In general, the peasantry cultivates crops by taking land on rent, lease or share from these landowners.  As a result of this system, two main classes developed in the agricultural system.  The first class is the class of landowners and the second class is the class of peasants and agricultural laborers.  The interests of these two classes are conflicting.  The peasantry labors but the land-owning class wants to get maximum benefits only on the basis of land ownership.  This system


Due to this, the land-owning class exploits the farmers and the working class for a long time.  The zamindar class kept the peasantry as slaves.  As a result of this exploitation, there have been conflicts between the peasantry and the landowner class from time to time.  Any conflict can be successful only when it is organized.  One form of organized struggle is movement.  To protect their interests by the farmers and to get rid of the atrocities on them  movements are called peasant movements.  Thus, it can be said that the movement of the workers associated with the agricultural system is the farmers’ movement to protect the farmers and their interests.


  1. Tribal Movement: Since tribal society is inhabited by forested areas, it is backward from all social, economic, political perspectives.  In such a situation there are many problems related to tribal society.  Taking advantage of its backwardness for centuries, it has been exploited by the British, Indian landlords and the Bahubali class.  But as a result of government reform programs and contact with progressive society, tribal people are also continuously creating awareness about their rights and they are becoming aware of their rights.  When all these change through organized efforts, only tribal movement arises.


3.Women’s movement: Women’s movement also has a prominent place in social movements.  It is related to the consciousness emanating from the Renaissance that inspired women to improve their social status.  It is true that in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Arya Samaj and Brahmo Samaj also made extensive efforts to improve the status of women through their reform movements.  Nevertheless, during the freedom movement, women, led by Mahatma Gandhi, had the opportunity to sit outside the house, protest and participate in satyagraha for the first time.  Along with this, social consciousness grew in Indian women due to the promotion of the ideology of egalitarian values ​​during the British state.  During this time, many leaders tried to give women full opportunity to participate in social service, welfare works and political activities.  As a result, many women’s organizations began to be established from the regional level to the national level.  It was from here that women’s movements emerged in India.


  1. Movement of Backward Classes: Another form of social movement in India is related to those movements of Scheduled Castes and Other Backward Classes which originated in the early nineteenth century.  The aim of these movements was to improve the condition of backward castes and to change the social relations and social values ​​by reducing the impact of social inequalities arising from the rules of the caste system.  This implies that the movement of backward classes is based on the ideology of secularism and the improvement of the situation.  Many social movements were organized by backward classes.

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By understanding some of these major movements, their nature, objectives and influences can be understood.  The movement of backward classes was started by Jyotiba Phule in Maharashtra.  This was the first movement by which lower castes created consciousness about their rights by opposing the monopoly of Brahmins and Brahminical religious beliefs.  Jyotiba Phule considered himself to be a backward caste, hence he was exploiting backward and lower castes.  In 1873, he founded the Satyashodhak Samaj and started a social movement aimed at emphasizing the need for education, social rights and economic reforms for Harijans and backward castes, challenging the superiority of Brahmins.  Later this movement became so influential that many backward and lower castes, such as Reddy,

Velala and Kamma etc. also joined it.  Under this effect, the movement of Beddar caste started in Mysore in the early twentieth century.  Beddars are a nomadic caste of Karnataka who have been earning a living through excavation and stone work.  When some of these people lived in cities and got education and gave up their traditional occupation, gradually they started a movement by mobilizing the people of their caste to gain more rights in the socio-economic and political arena.  Although this caste was seen as a Scheduled Caste, they tried to bring about a big change in their social status by declaring themselves as regional class.  It is from here that a new consciousness arose to improve the social status of scheduled castes and backward castes.  Among the movements that are under the movement of backward classes are more important: Srinarayan Dharma Paripalana Movement, Dravida Kadagham Movement, Mahar Movement and Yadav Movement.


  1. Religious and communal movement: When people of any religion or community make collective efforts to improve the unhealthy conditions of their religious life, it is called religious or communal movement.  For example, religious and communal movements were run under the leadership of Swami Dayanand Saraswati, Swami Vivekananda and Kabir, Gurunanak etc. to stop exploitation of people on religious grounds.  To get rid of religious bigotry, superstition etc. and become an indicator of religion progress and public welfare.


  1. Reconstruction movement: M.R.  s .  a .  According to Rao, such movements express dissatisfaction with the present conditions on the one hand and on the other hand present measures to overcome those conditions.  Their aim is to develop a system which is necessary for the survival of the group by opposing any odd problem of the society.


7.The “Chipko Movement” started by Sunderlal Bahuguna in Uttarakhand was done to protest against the cutting of trees in the forests, so that the economy of the mountain and its related life can be saved.  Along with opposing manner, emphasis is laid on such programs or practices that can infuse a new power among the people. The ‘boycott movement’ of foreign goods run by Mahatma Gandhi, Sati practice by Rammohan Roy and child marriage  The example to be opposed is the example of this.


  1. Nationalist Movement: Many scholars consider the nationalist movement not a social movement but a political movement, but AR Desai explained the social background of India’s national movement in detail and made it a social  Has accepted as a movement. Such movements are inspired by the national spirit and their main task is to generate a new social and political consciousness in all sections of society on the basis of nationalist sentiments.  To do .  In this way, the nationalist movement also brings changes in the social structure and motivates individuals to re-evaluate their attitudes and behaviors.

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  1. Ideological movement: These are those movements which are carried out on the basis of certain social, religious, cultural or political principles.  These principles, regardless of any religious leader

185 Social movements are related to teachings or based on a particular social and political ideology, their task is to change people’s thoughts and inspire them to adopt new ways of behavior.  The “Tebhaga Movement” and other peasant movements in India illustrate the nature of the ideological movement.


  1. Organizational Movement: The aim of this movement is to unite conflicting groups, classes or communities and organize a community and create a consciousness of equality in it.  When the entire political parties were isolated from the effects of the Emergency which came into force in India in 1975, the “whole revolution movement” run by Jai Prakash Narayan was inspired with the aim of reorganizing them. Arya Samaj Movement  The aim was also to re-organize the Hindus divided into various religions by moving them towards the Vedic ideals. 11. Swadeshi Movement: The aim of many movements is to restore the cultural characteristics, religious beliefs, language or political rights of their region or country.  To curb the growing influence of another region or country. The independence movement in India was aimed at opposing foreign hegemony. Against people living there from Bangladesh in Assam.  There were mass movements.  The anti-Hindi movement in the south and the English Hatao Movement in North India were “inspired by the maintenance of indigenous existence. Importance and Functions of Social Movement: Dr. MS A Rao gave the functions of social movement to the two main processes of social  Reforms and social transformation have been explained.

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