Stages of social movements

Spread the love



It is a difficult task to state the stages of development of social movements.  Various scholars have discussed the different stages of development of social movements as follows: Herbert Blumer has given five stages of social movements which are as follows:



  1. Development of certain feeling
  2. Development of morale
  3. Construction of ideology and
  4. Development of operating tips.


Houtton and Hunt have also given the following five stages of the development of social movements:


1.a state of dissatisfaction

  1. arousal state
  2. a state of formalization
  3. a state of institutionalization and
  4. a phase of completion

Dawson and Gatiss followed the following four of the social movements  Stages have been stated 1. Social dissatisfaction 2. Public stimulus 3. Formalization and 4. Institution. It shows us that there is not much difference in the views of scholars about different levels of development of social movements.  Here is a brief explanation of Herbert Blumer’s ideas: 1. Stimulus: The first level of development of social movement is the feeling of dissatisfaction prevailing among the members towards any current problem prevailing in the society which develops excitement among the members  .  Although some people who take part in the movement may also be calm and polite, but still the excitement brings the people supporting the movement closer.  2. Development of certain feelings: In this second stage of the development of the movement, certain feelings and principles about the movement are formed.  This union spirit is imperative to bring officers closer to each other.

read also

  1. Development of morale: In the third stage of the development of the movement, the morale of the agitators becomes more firm and definite.  Development of morale is essential for the movement.  If the supporters develop the feeling that the purpose of the movement is pure and that injustice will be overcome, then the movement is sure to succeed.  4. Formation of ideology: In this fourth stage of the development of the movement, a certain ideology is created for the continuation of the movement.  This ideology is developed by leaders or intellectuals who support the movement and soon it gets adequate support.  Ideology occupies an important place in the social movement and if the ideology does not have the capacity to influence the social movements then the movement cannot play any important role.  Movements without a definite ideology do not last long.  5. Development of operating tips: After the development of ideology, the deliberative tips for conducting the movement are considered and attempts are made to obtain consensus on the alternative tips to be adopted under different circumstances.  It is not necessary that the tips of one country, state or movement help in another country, state or movement.  The selection of operating tips is done by keeping the nature of the movement, the type of leadership and the purpose of the movement in front.  We can also call it formalization and institutionalization.

read also

The discussion of social movement became very much in the middle of 20th century.  Its period is that in Latin America and Asia there were very wide movements in this period.  At this time a socialist revolution took place in a country like China.  Returning to the fourteen countries of Eastern Europe, the Russian army brought socialism and in 1960 the countries of Africa became independent at the same time.  Social movement is seen as an effort by which a particular group or community can bring desired changes in their social institutions and social structure.  In fact, the purpose of the social movement is not only to bring changes in the social system, but sometimes to stop the change.  This implies that the social movement is a collective effort that mobilizes people on the basis of a particular ideology to solve their problems and achieve the desired objectives.  Every social movement has an element of compulsion and pressure directly or indirectly.  Definitions given by various scholars can be seen.

read also

MSA  Rao wrote in his book Social Movements in India that “social movement is an organized effort by any part of society to bring about partial or complete change in society.”  It involves a collective organization based on an ideology.  “(” …… a social movement is an organized effort on the part of a section of society to bring about either parlial or total change in society through collective mobilization based on an ideology. “) Thus, M.S.  A. Rao’s definition makes the following points clear: 1. Collective effort 2. Partial or complete change 3. Purpose 4. An ideology Ralph Turner and Lewis Killen stated in their book Collective Behaviour that “the social movement must be done with continuity  One is a collective effort that aims to encourage change or prevent change in the society of which those people are a part.  “(” Social movement is a collective acting with some continuity to promote or resist change in the society or group of which it is a part. “—Collective Behaviour – P – 38) Turner and Killen’s definition contains the following elements1.  Collective effort 2. Continuity 3. Objective 4. Change – Stop or do it Herbert Blumer defined it as “the collective effort that is aimed at establishing a new system of life is called a social movement.”  “Therefore, if we look at the definitions of all the above scholars, then all these elements are embedded in it.


  1. A collective effort
  2. Partial or complete change
  3. A special purpose
  4. An ideology
  5. Continuity
  6. A leadership
  7. Change – Stop or do
  8. Organization

read also

Leave a Comment

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.