Social movement:

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Movement means to collectively change or oppose social change by individuals.  Its main purpose is to solve some social or political problem.  Social movement can be defined as follows-

  1. According to the Oxford English Dictionary: ‘The social movement is an attempt by individuals to achieve a goal.  But if this meaning is accepted in sociology, it will be difficult to separate the movement from any other collective behaviour.
  2. According to Herbert Blumer: ‘The collective effort made to establish a new system can be called a social movement.  ‘
  3. According to Aldridge and Merrill: ‘Social movements are more or less conscious efforts to change stereotypes.
  4. According to Horton and Hunt: ‘The social movement is a collective effort to bring change or oppose the society or its members.  ‘It is clear from the above definitions that the social movement is an organized effort to bring changes in society or to oppose it, which is based on a common ideology.


Salient features of social movement:

The salient features of social movement are as follows-

  1.Based on organized schemes: Whatever the nature of the movement, social, religious and political, it is run by some organized public group.  In India, many organized political parties are carrying out the movement against inflation.  The movement against sati and child marriage was organized by organized organizations like Arya Samaj, Brahma Samaj etc.


  1. The fulfillment of special objectives: Every movement has a specific objective.  To fulfill which a program has to be presented.  It is mandatory to put this objective clearly in front of the public, otherwise it will not get public support.


  1. Nature of Movement: The movement is organized and starts in all the areas where it happens, but if the movement does not end soon, then the movement in other areas and classes or organizations in sympathy of the movement.  It spreads.  It may also be that other organizations do not take an active part in the movement, but demonstrate sympathy towards it and indirectly help the agitators.


  1. Based on sentimentality: The movement is a psychological process.  It requires skilled leadership.  If the leader due to his influence or eloquence, public opinion


If the nature of social change is successful in communicating 59 sentiments, then the movement begins in an instant.  The more emotionally connected you are to a movement, the more emotionally connected you will be to the movement.


  1. Emphasis on demonstrations and slogans: The form of movement is organized and planned.  It has a central governing board.  Through this mandal, instructions are given to the workers of the movement.  The activists of the movement are scattered here and there and take out a procession by influencing the masses.  They write their demands on cloth or cardboard board so that everyone knows the purpose of the movement.  Slogans are chanted loudly during the procession, so that the sentiments of the people are communicated or the public is also aroused.


  1. Emphasis on non-violent means: The agitators use only non-violent means.  They propagate the movement through their efforts through newspapers, radio, speeches and do their utmost to do Lokmat in their favor.  Many times in their program, strike, picket, hunger strike, boycott, satyagraha etc., using the means, attract the attention of the agitating people and the government towards their difficulties.
  2. Pre-informed and determined: Before starting the movement, the outline of the movement is determined and fixed.  The government is informed of the exact date of its commencement.  If the demands are not considered by the fixed and fixed date, then the movement is started.  The cow protection movement in India was started at that time. All the government did not pay attention to the prayers of leaders or teachers of religious organizations.


  1. Shelter of any religious or political organization: Whatever may be the form of the movement, but it is necessary to have a religious, economic or political organization for its success, because both the mass groups and the government bow to the power of these organizations.


  1. Attempt to influence public opinion: The purpose of the movement is to create public opinion by drawing public attention against any evil or law, so that the anti-social or anti-class law or practice of that society is abolished.  For this purpose, newspapers, radio, television or other means of communication are used.


  1. Leadership of enlightened persons: Some enlightened person leads the movement.  This leadership work can also be done by a group of individuals.  The purification movement inIndiawas led by Shri Dayanand Saraswati, Mahatma Gandhi led the social reform movements, the National Movement was led by the All India National Congress.

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Factors of social movement

Social movements occur from time to time in every society.  The factors responsible for this can be described as follows-

1.The antiquity of customs: customs prevail in every society, but society is dynamic. If customs do not move according to the society and stick to the antiquity, then they do not fulfill the needs of the society, so some section of the society tries to agitate against them so that by changing those customs. be able to adapt to society and make society progressive


2.Imbalance in Status and Work: Every person wants his place in the society according to his ability and ability and does his work accordingly, but when in position (position) and work  If there is an imbalance, then there is a feeling of discontent in the society and the result is a social movement.  This often happens in societies from tradition to modernity.


3.Cultural Delay: There are two physical and non-physical elements of culture.  The meaning of material element is derived from inventions and material achievements and non-material elements include customs, social ideals, practices and social values.  Often our physical inventions develop at a rapid pace, while the customs of society do not change at such a rapid pace.  Thus, one side of the culture (material side) transcends the other (non-material side).  Augburn calls it cultural delays.  Due to this delay, discontent arises from the backward class and that disgruntled class organizes and agitates to advance their position.  The position of women in India was high, but the position of women in society was not high.  To rise high in this situation, women have organized and organized a movement.  The reform movement of women in India has received considerable help.

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  1. Discontent in the economic sector: As the feeling of dissatisfaction in the economic sector intensifies, the poor class is dissatisfied and agitates for a change in the economic condition.  Economic discontent affects all other aspects of life.  The economic condition of the workers and women in India was poor, so they started various movements to improve their condition.


  1. Materialism through education: The movement of the movement will be rapid only in those places where there will be an educated society.  Only the people of an educated society can create awareness in people, because they themselves are also awake.  Therefore, the spread of materialism through education is the real factor of social movement, ie if the educated person is unemployed or has risen in opposition to any government policy, then in such a situation the movement can be quite frightening.


  1. Discontent among social classes: Different classes are found in the society.  These classes are divided on the basis of age, status, gender, religion, education etc.  There is a feeling of discontent in all the base-built classes.  Women do not allow men to advance, young men are stopped by the elderly, the poor are persecuted by the rich.  In this way, dissatisfaction develops in social classes as well.  This dissatisfaction also encourages the movement.


  1. Changes in the functions of social institutions: The functions of social institutions are determined by the society and culture, but when these institutions change their functions and take over other institutions, a situation of uncertainty develops at times.  Due to which a situation of social movement arises.


  1. Apathy towards social values: There are certain beliefs in the society.  If each person walks according to the prevailing beliefs in the society then the organization remains in the society.  But even when there is a difference or apathy in the beliefs prevailing in the society due to any reason, Exercise Books, Long


Discontent is generated in a section of the society and movements start in search of new values ​​in the society.


  1. Contact with different cultures: When people of one culture contact people of another culture, the process of exchange of culture starts in both.  Cultural exchanges lead to new ideas.  These new ideas give rise to social movements.  A predominantly dominant culture affects the weaker culture more, whereas it affects itself less.


  1. Opposition of the evils by enlightened persons: In every society there are some educated and knowledgeable persons who attract public attention against the evils prevailing in the society.  The public is influenced by their views and agitates to change the ancient customs.  Raja Rammohan Roy, Kabir, Nanak, etc. Social reform movements are examples of this category.


  1. Convenience to travel abroad: A person gets a new experience or new knowledge by traveling abroad.  Meeting other people ends his narrowness.  The influence of customs prevailing in foreign countries brings changes in the culture of other countries and from that the situation of social movement is born.  The reason for improvement in the condition of women in India is the result of foreign cultures.  To overcome the old social practices in India, the knowledge of the leaders of the social reform movement had developed due to traveling abroad.


  1. Impact of Technology: The use of different types of machines in the society also encourages social movement.  Due to these machines, factories develop tomorrow, causing tension between the capitalist class and the working class in the society.  The working class agitates for its demands.  Due to technology, there is a difference in living in society.  The use of more machines gives a particular class authority over the means of production.  At the same time unemployment increases in the society and there is an increase in the exploitation of workers, due to which the movements are created for the fulfillment of different kinds of objectives in the society.  The student movement in India is the result of this kind of unemployment and it is a product of unemployment technology.


  1. Development of means of transport and conveyance: Due to scientific inventions, the means of transport has developed.  Such devices have also developed, through which news can be sent from one place to another.  Due to this system, the circumstances of one society have an impact on the other.  If there is a movement in one society due to any reason, then they also have an impact on the other society.  Therefore, if there is a student movement in one corner of India, it cannot be stopped from spreading to the other.


  1. Creation of organizations on the basis of caste: The formation of many organizations on the basis of caste in the society intensifies the pace of social movement, as these organizations try to develop their own regions and as a result  Various movements are organized.  Many examples of ethnic conflicts are found in Indian society.  Ethnic organizations have played an important role in the movements of backward castes.


  1. Indifference towards the female world: In the societies where restrictions are placed on the freedom of women, there are feelings of indifference in women.  One reason for apathy in the female society is that they are given equal rights as men.  Under these circumstances, the women’s society has to agitate for their rights.  Many women’s movements in India are examples of this.  Conclusion: Based on the above discussion, it is said that there are many reasons for social and cultural movements in the society.

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 Major stages of development of social movements

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It is a difficult task to state the stages of development of social movements.  Various scholars have discussed the different stages of development of social movements as follows: Herbert Blumer has given five stages of social movements which are as follows:



  1. Development of certain feeling
  2. Development of morale
  3. Construction of ideology and
  4. Development of operating tips.


Houtton and Hunt have also given the following five stages of the development of social movements:


1.a state of dissatisfaction

  1. arousal state
  2. a state of formalization
  3. a state of institutionalization and
  4. a phase of completion


Dawson and Gatiss followed the following four of the social movements  Stages have been stated 1. Social dissatisfaction 2. Public stimulus 3. Formalization and 4. Institution. It shows us that there is not much difference in the views of scholars about different levels of development of social movements.  Here is a brief explanation of Herbert Blumer’s ideas: 1. Stimulus: The first level of development of social movement is the feeling of dissatisfaction prevailing among the members towards any current problem prevailing in the society which develops excitement among the members  .  Although some people who take part in the movement may also be calm and polite, but still the excitement brings the people supporting the movement closer.  2. Development of certain feelings: In this second stage of the development of the movement, certain feelings and principles about the movement are formed.  This union spirit is imperative to bring officers closer to each other.


  1. Development of morale: In the third stage of the development of the movement, the morale of the agitators becomes more firm and definite.  Development of morale is essential for the movement.  If the supporters develop the feeling that the purpose of the movement is pure and that injustice will be overcome, then the movement is sure to succeed.


  1. Formation of ideology: In this fourth stage of the development of the movement, a certain ideology is created for the continuation of the movement.  This ideology is developed by leaders or intellectuals who support the movement and soon it gets adequate support.  Ideology occupies an important place in the social movement and if the ideology does not have the capacity to influence the social movements then the movement cannot play any important role.  Movements without a definite ideology do not last long.


  1. Development of operating tips: After the development of ideology, the deliberative tips for conducting the movement are considered and attempts are made to obtain consensus on the alternative tips to be adopted under different circumstances.  It is not necessary that the tips of one country, state or movement help in another country, state or movement.  The selection of operating tips is done by keeping the nature of the movement, the type of leadership and the purpose of the movement in front.  We can also call it formalization and institutionalization.

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