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It is only in recent decades that natural growth has taken an increasing role in accounting for urban population growth. Cities traditionally grew through migration, a geographic process, as death rates matched or exceeded birth rates in the past. In the past, it was migration that contributed to urban growth.

Migration is the transfer of population from one geographical area to another. Migration is a multidimensional concept that includes both emigration and immigration.

Immigration is in-migration, which means that population enters one area from another.

Emigration is out-migration, meaning that a population leaves an area.

Net migration is the difference between immigration and emigration. Internal migration is movement within the borders of a nation.

In India, except in recent years when Muslims

There has been a significant increase, migration from abroad has been the most reliable


Population due to migration from Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan. In fact it is internal migration that has led to the distribution of population from east to west and north to south, even as the death rate has declined significantly, the birth rate has not declined that much. So development does not depend only on birth or death rate but on migration which is determined by many socio-economic factors. Migration constitutes the foundation of the urban process in India.

According to the Indian census, a migrant is one who is counted at a place other than his place of birth.


Why do people migrate?


Due to the mechanization of agriculture, labor has become surplus and this labor moves from rural to urban areas and as opportunities decrease in one area, and new opportunities arise in another area due to industrialization, physical mobility of population increases. As the size of society increases, a major factor contributing to mobility is the reorganization of productive activities and the readjustment that occurs between and within cities. This massive movement of people shows that the labor force is closely linked to the ups and downs of the national economy.

Rural-urban migration is mainly a manifestation of population explosion, poverty and stagnation of rural life which lead to the inability of people to move to cities.

The positioning of the manufacturing sector to absorb surplus labor shows that even migrants are usually forced to relocate due to push factors.

They are generally poor and this type of migration is less selective as survival depends on it. And distress migration to India is often caused by famine and drought. Migration is largely selective by ‘pull’ factors. Such migrants are usually attracted to cities for better job opportunities than the general population with higher levels of education and training and can actually shop for jobs. Those who are affluent are attracted by the glitz and life of the city. In India, landlords and business groups, who are better off and more educated than the population in rural areas, move to cities.

Internal migration in India presents a picture in terms of origin, volume, distance and direction which shows considerable dynamism and is increasing due to education, employment and better transport facilities. It is possible to identify 3 types of migration which all broadly indicate the relationship between distance and migration.

Short distance – outside the place of enumeration but within the district

i.e. known as inter district.



Medium distance – ie people who have moved outside the district but within the enumeration state within the state.

Long Distance – Persons born in any State of India but inter-state outside the State of enumeration.

As far as migration is concerned, a little over half of male migration and about 3/4th of female migration is short distance migration. Most female migration is confined to the marriage sector and male migration is in the context of employment sector. The other half of men travel medium and long distances because of the urban vibe. The number of such migrants has been increasing steadily, but it is mainly in Tier 1 cities. Migration can also be classified in terms of rural-urban divide.


rural – rural

urban rural

urban – urban

urban rural


The dominant form of migration in India is rural to rural, typically 90% of females and 50% of males belong to this category and they are influenced by socio-economic factors, which include marriage migration, out-of-village migration and associational migration in the case of males. are affected by. Migration can be seasonal and temporary (harvest time), especially if it is the first migration. In such times women are usually left behind.

The artisan classes in the villages, due to lack of demand for their goods, are often forced to move and work as agricultural laborers over short and medium distances. However there is also a reverse return or outmigration i.e. from urban to rural areas. This is especially true for the older group. From the economic point of view, it is rural-urban migration which is relatively long distance i.e. important. However it is less stable than that driven by traditional social forces. short term range; Such male migration is indicative of the vagaries of the job market and falls under the category of ‘up to your luck’, as it is motivated by the perceived advantages of the city. On the other hand, female migration driven by traditional forces has an inherent stability. Large cities, especially industrial cities, have a large proportion of long-distance migrants who are attracted by the facilities offered by the city and are willing to take up any job after becoming part of the street economy.

Also, massive turnover migration occurs as populations move from one area to another without actually being able to settle down. This geographic mobility need not be voluntary as often poor rural economic conditions push people into urban areas. but




What is more important is that they are often pushed back from urban areas to other urban areas.

are pushed because there are not enough jobs.

Urban-urban migration is short distance but usually a push-back factor that operates everywhere as a result of population growth and rapid growth in the labor force. Due to this unemployment and under-employment it is the migrants who are marginal who stay in the city in the hope that when job opportunities arise, they will be absorbed.

According to Dandekar and Rath, rural poverty has remained the same, but urban poverty has deepened as there has been an overflow of the rural poor into urban areas, this explains the loose settlements and ruralisation of urban areas.

The positive aspect of this picture is that as a result of development schemes and expansion of irrigation facilities in rural-based agriculture and bleak economic prospects in urban areas, potential migrants are discouraged from moving to urban areas, for example. Sharad Pawar had set up a plant in Baramati. In fact there may be some migration from urban to rural areas due to new employment












  definition of megacities


Megacities are cities that are expected to have a population of at least 8 million inhabitants. This definition was first propounded by the United Nations


(Department of International Economic and Social Affairs). This definition only looks at the demographic aspect of a city.

The Asian Development Bank modified this definition:

A megacity is defined as a large metropolitan area with a complex economy, a large and highly skilled labor force, and a transportation network capable of maintaining daily communication between all of its residents.

This definition goes beyond mere demographic criteria to include the complex economic system of the city. This includes a skilled labor force and a good transport network.

A megacity can be a single metropolitan area or two or more metropolitan areas that converge on each other.

The number of megacities is increasing in less developed countries. 2 in developed Japan and 2 in developed U.S.A. Less developed Asia has 9 compared to 2 in the United States.

5 largest megacities Tokyo 35 million as of 2003

Mexico 18.7 million

New York 18.3 million

Sao Paulo 17.9 million

Mumbai 17.4 million

By the year 2015 these figures will have changed to 36 million in Tokyo.

Mumbai 22.6 million

Delhi 20.9 million

Mexico 20.6 million

Sao Paulo 20.0 million




Population growth is highest in urban areas of less developed regions, this is because:

rural to urban migration

Transformation of rural settlements into urban settlements.

Metropolises in the developing world attract people who are looking for a better lifestyle, higher standard of living, better jobs, less hardship and better education.





  characteristics of megacities


  • Large Service Area
  • Small Scale Manufacturing Sector
  • A large and generally inefficient government sector
  • substantial unemployment
  • Low productivity of employed people


There is also a large informal sector of employment in family enterprises and small enterprises ranging from peddlers to small retail stores, which is quite separate from the formal sector of large companies and government. Added to this is limited job mobility, inadequate transportation to jobs for poor citizens, lack of legal protection for workers (mainly the informal sector).


What happens in the megacities of the developing world affects the rest of the world.

High population density, poverty and limited resources make the megacities of the developing world an environment that favors the incubation of diseases ranging from cholera to tuberculosis to sexually transmitted infections, which in an age of rapid communication have become increasingly common in the rest of the world. can be promoted.

Terrorist attacks against embassies, businesses and travelers affect the developed world.

Megacities in both the developed and developing world are often places where social unrest frequently occurs. Historically Paris and St Petersburg which gave rise to the French and Russian revolutions.

The rate at which their residents migrate to other regions and the competitive challenge presented by their cheap labor force.

The ecological effects of megacities extend to all other regions of the world. air pollution.

They are major instruments of social and economic development. Megacities are strong indicators of both present and future conditions.


Location. They have become the means of dramatic birth rate reductions, they are the sites of cultural and educational institutions that promote social development and they are powerful means of economic concentration.

They provide new market opportunities for both the developing and developed world.



  Problems of mega cities :-



1) Explosive population growth

2) An alarming increase in poverty (which contradicts the reasons for attracting megacities)

3) Severe lack of infrastructure in terms of telecommunication services, availability of transport and presence of congestion.

4) pressure on land and housing

5) Environmental concerns like contaminated water, air pollution etc.

6) disease, high

Mortality, infection, lethal environmental conditions.

7) Economic dependence on federal or state governments that constrains the independence of megacity administrators.

8) Lack of capital, this is the factor that shapes a megacity’s economy and exacerbates its other problems, from infrastructure to environmental degradation.

9) Unemployment problem

Today there are 61.5 lakh unemployed in the world, i.e. one billion

More jobs will have to be provided over the next 25 years, a large proportion of which will be in megacities.


The problems are increasing rapidly as megacities are experiencing too rapid growth with which they cannot cope and with this the population moving to megacities for a better life has even higher expectations that megacities cannot handle are over capacity.





  Global City


For a long time cross-border economic processes of capital, labour, goods, raw materials, tourists have flown. But to a large extent these took place within inter-state arrangements, where the principal actors were the national states. The landscape has changed dramatically in the last decade, with the onset of globalization and other developments such as privatization, liberalisation, deregulation, international economic partnerships. It is in this context that we see the re-measurement of strategic areas that characterize the new system.

The term global city was first coined by Saskia Sassen. A global city is designated by the number of headquarters. Thus global city is a status that is seen as beneficial and hence many cities especially in third world or developing countries are trying to achieve this status.


Elements in a new perceptual architecture:


Globalization of economic activities involves a new type of organizational structure. Constructs such as the global city and the global city area are important elements in this new conceptual architecture.


Global City Model: Organizing Concepts



The geographic dispersion of economic activities that characterizes globalization as well as such integration




Geographically dispersed activities have been a major factor feeding the growth and importance of central corporate functions.

These central functions become so complex that increasingly the headquarters of large global firms outsource them; They outsource a portion of their core functions from highly specialized service firms – accounting, legal public relations, programming and other such services.

These specialized service firms engage in the most complex and globalized markets, subject to agglomeration economies. Thus being in a city is synonymous with being in a very fast and intense information loop.

Since all central work is outsourced by the headquarters, there is actually less work at the headquarters, so they are free to choose any location.

The growth of global markets for finance and specialized services and the diminishing role of government in regulating international economic activity has led to the existence of a series of international networks of cities.

The growing number of high-level professionals and specialized service firms earning high profits has the effect of increasing the degree of spatial and socio-economic inequality in these cities.




Retrieving Location and Working Process:



Due to the emphasis on excessive pricing of specialized services and excessive mobility of capital, other aspects constituting economic activity such as location and process of production which are equally important are being ignored and the focus is on work process. being focused. This is accompanied by an emphasis on spatial and economic inequality or polarization due to the disproportionate concentration of high-income and low-income jobs in these global cities.



Impact of new communication technologies on centrality:



The most important question here is how new technologies of communication change the role of centrality and therefore of cities as economic entities. Centralization remains a key feature of today’s global economy. CBD (Central Business Districts) in major international business.




The centers have been deeply reconfigured by technological and economic change.

The center may extend over a metropolitan area as a grid of nodes of intense commercial activity.

Hence there is a re-definition of a region where traditional forms of communication infrastructure like the traditional grid i.e. railways and airport linked highways have now been replaced by the latest grids; Expressed through cyber routes or digital highways. Places falling outside this new grid of digital highways are cordoned off.

The connectivity of global circuits has brought with it a significant level of development but the question of inequality has not been addressed.






Global city as a nexus for new political-cultural alignment:


This examination of globalization through the concept of the global city emphasizes the strategic components of the global economy, instead linking the dynamics of wider and more widespread homogeneity with the globalization of consumer markets. It also emphasizes questions of power and inequality. It also emphasizes the real task of managing, servicing and financing the global economy.

A global city is thus specified by the number of headquarters. Global cities around the world are areas where globalization

The plurality of processes takes concrete, local form. These local variants are about, well, globalization. Today’s big city has emerged as a strategic site for new types of operations – political, economic, subjective “cultural”. this is one of the nexus


Incorporation of cities into a new cross-border GE

The biography of centrality also indicates the emergence of a parallel political geography. Major cities have emerged as a strategic site not only for global capital but also for the trans-nationalization of labor and the formation of trans-local communities and identities. In this respect, cities are a site for new types of political operations and a whole range of new “cultural” and subjective functions.












It is only in recent decades that natural growth has taken an increasing role in accounting for urbanisation. Traditionally, cities developed through migration, which is a geographical process. Migration is a multidimensional concept which includes both emigration and emigration to India. Development does not depend only on birth or death rate but on migration which is determined by many socio-economic factors. Hence migration lays the foundation for the process of urbanization in India.

According to the Indian census, a migrant is one who is counted at a place other than his place of birth. It is possible to identify three types of migration which broadly indicate the relationship between distance and migration:-

Short distance, medium distance and long distance.

This can also be explained in terms of rural-urban breakdown:- rural-rural, rural-urban, urban-urban and urban-rural.










Megacities are cities with a population of at least eight million inhabitants. It is defined as a large metropolitan area with a complex economy, a large and highly skilled labor force, and a transportation network capable of maintaining daily communication between all of its residents. The rise of megacities is predominantly rural to urban



Migration and transformation of rural settlements into urban settlements. Megacities are characterized by substantial unemployment, large service sectors with low productivity, small manufacturing sectors, a large and generally inefficient government sector, among many other characteristics. There are many reasons why the developed world needs to pay attention to megacities. There are also many problems faced by megacities which include explosive population growth, alarming increase in poverty, overcrowding, pressure on land and housing disease, high death rate and many other serious problems.





global city 

It includes an entire infrastructure of activities, firms and jobs that are necessary to drive an advanced corporate economy. These industries are generally conceptualized in terms of their high dynamism of output and high level of professionalism. There is an emphasis on economic and spatial polarization in global cities due to the disproportionate concentration of very high and very low income jobs in these major global urban areas.

The growth of networked cross border dynamics between global cities covers a wide range of domains: political, cultural, social and criminal. Cross-border transactions occur between immigrant communities and communities of origin, and the use of these networks, including economic activity, tends to intensify once these networks are established. The global city also has greater cross-border networks for cultural purposes, as in the development of international markets for art and an international class of curators; and for non-formal political purposes, as in the development of international networks for environmental causes, human rights, and similar activities.

New Sociology


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