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  Poverty is a serious economic and social problem of Indian society.  Poverty is the root cause of social problems like crime, child crime, begging, prostitution, slums.  Poverty is also the cause of economic problem.  Poverty has been viewed differently in different periods and societies, the nature of poverty in the agricultural economy is different from that found in the industrial economy.  The nature of poverty of a particular time is different from the nature of poverty of a particular time. 

The way to measure wealth or poverty in a state is to look at the consumption of goods and services in that country at a particular time, it is called national income or dividend.  Poverty or poverty in India is not only a macroeconomic problem but also a terrible social disease.  It is true that the nature of poverty is economic;  But as a result of this, the social consequences that come from the social consequences of normal social relations are broken a lot. 

The bitter form of this poverty that is visible in India, will probably be seen in very few countries in the world.  Mr. Sanjay Chaudhary has written that “In fact, poverty is a comparative word in international context;  The term denotes a particular class of population in a particular country.  Only 5 percent of the total population of India is such that Purchasing Power is similar to another citizen of America.  That’s why one Indian poor and one American poor in a row.  It would be wrong to consider it.  Measures have been set to measure poverty such as standard of living, no, ability to get a nutritious diet, purchasing capacity of a person, etc.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  In fact, poverty depends on purchasing power.  The lower the purchasing power, the poorer it is.  ‘This thing will become even more clear with the following deliberation.


 Every human has certain basic requirements to survive.  Even if the items of comfort and luxury are removed, it is necessary to maintain a minimum standard of living so that the person can get proper food, adequate clothing and a good house and their quantity should be such that the person and his dependents are  To fulfill its basic requirements.  When these basic requirements are also not met and the standard of living of the person and their dependents falls below that minimum level, then that state is called poverty.


  Goddard, while defining poverty, wrote, “Poverty is the absence or insufficient supply of those things which are necessary to keep a person and his dependents healthy and strong.  “


  In the words of Gillin and Gillin, “Poverty is the condition in which a person is unable to maintain a high standard of living due to insufficient income or due to thoughtless expenditure so that his physical and mental skills are maintained.”  Nor does that person and his dependents be able to function in a manner consistent with the values ​​set by the society to which he is a member. “From the above definitions, it is clear that poverty is the condition in which a person and his dependents have a life.  The material required to maintain the minimum level is also not available.




Causes of Poverty in India


 Poverty or poverty in India is not only a macroeconomic problem but also a terrible social disease.  It is true that the nature of poverty is economic;  But as a result of this, the social consequences that come from the social consequences of the normal social relations are broken a lot.

  Poverty is a complex problem, so take a shower on the basis of a particular factor.  Can be explained.  In other words, there is more than one reason for poverty.  The following are some of the reasons responsible for Indian poverty in particular:

  Social Causes- The following are the social causes of poverty:


  Joint family system – Joint family system is very much responsible for poverty.  This system makes many people lazy, useless and irresponsible.  Who thinks about working when you get food while sitting?  Such people do not share anything in the economic progress of the country.  Joint family practice encourages child marriage, which increases the population of the country rapidly and at the same time increases the maturity of the country.


 Caste system – Indian caste system is a big obstacle in the way of economic progress of the country.  This practice has divided the people of the country into many small parts so that all the people can not cooperate together and contribute to the economic progress of the country.  Not only this, people of the caste-system also do not understand the “Dignity of Labor”. Therefore, the upper caste people never want to do the things that the lower caste people do.  It has also increased poverty in the country.


  Disease and low health level – Many of the people of India always have severe diseases.  Malaria, T.V.  B, millions of people suffer from diseases like cancer, due to which they often have to take leave from mills, factories etc.  This reduces production on the one hand and reduces the employment of workers on the other.  Similarly, people in the country die at a young age due to low health level, due to which there is a continuous shortage of unbecoming and deserving people.  Due to this also, the economic progress cannot be done properly here.


  Slums – Almost all Indian industrial workers live in slums.  By staying in these settlements, they become victims of many types of terrible diseases and their health declines day by day.  Workers’ efficiency decreases as health declines, and national production and income both decrease as efficiency decreases.  Currently 5 in the country.  120 million people live in a slum.  It is also a major cause of poverty.


 Illiteracy – illiteracy is the main cause of poverty in India.  52 of the total population in this country.  11 percent (according to the interim report of 1991 census) is literate.  Not only this, proper provision for technical education and training is even less in the country.  That is why it is not possible to find skilled people to work in factories here. It is believed that as long as there is a shortage of people trained in industrialization training to thrive in the country, the economic condition of the country cannot improve.


 Parsonal Causes


Illness – The main cause of family poverty is illness.  Disease makes a person weak and worthless;  He is not able to work and his income is reduced.  Not only this, a lot of money is wasted in getting treatment for the disease which leads to poverty.


  Mental diseases – More common are more mental illnesses.  About 1 in this country  69 million people are victims of mental development deficiencies.  Mental ragas also make a man unfit to work, so that his income stops.  Also, the treatment of mental illness is not as simple as that of physical diseases.  It is estimated that there are at least 8 lakh mental patients in this country who need to be kept in hospital.


   Bad habits – A person’s bad habits also make him poor.  Prostitution, intoxication, gambling, betting, etc. are particularly notable in bad habits in India.  These bad habits make the economic basis of a person’s personal and family life hollow.


  Accidents – Train, motor, airplane etc. accidents occur in large numbers in India.  Also, Indian workers have to work on old and broken machines in mills and factories.  Due to this, a lot of accidents happen in Millav factories.  As a result, many people either die or some part of their body becomes useless.  Permanent or temporary incapacity thus generated also increases poverty.  Poverty increases in the family even if the earning person dies due to accident.




 Economic Causes-

 Poverty is an economic phenomenon, so economic reasons also contribute immensely in increasing it.  As is evident from the following deliberation:


   Backward state of farming – India is an agricultural country.  About 70 percent of the total population here depends on farming for their livelihood.  But the sad thing is that the state of farming here is very backward compared to other countries.  Due to low irrigation or other difficulties.  Agricultural production is very less in the country and the people of the villages suffer from poverty.


   Backward condition of basic industries – The condition of basic industries has also fallen in this country.  There is an acute shortage of factories for making iron and steel, scientific equipment, electric heavy machinery, mineral oil, air transport, rail transport, etc.  On the one hand, the development of industries is not possible quickly, on the other hand, a lot of money goes to foreign countries in getting machines and equipment from abroad.  Both these conditions thrive on poverty.


  Less capital – In India, capital – accumulation is very less.  The reason for this is that the income of the residents here is so low that all their money is spent in eating and wearing.  People who save some money, a lot of it is either kept hidden or gold or silver jewelery is made.  With this, the necessary capital is not available for new industries – businesses to flourish and poverty is developed in the country.


 Lack of advanced means of transport and communication – for the advancement of industries – businesses, trade and commerce, it is necessary that the means of transport and communication of the country are in advanced state;  But in India, they are very lacking.  The facilities of train, telegram, telephone etc. are very less in Indian villages.  Due to this the villagers are unable to sell their produce properly and they do not get the proper price for their produce.  Poverty also thrives in the country.


  Lack of efficiency of workers – One of the reasons of poverty in India is that the efficiency of the workers here is very low.  It is said that workers of other progressive countries often work three times more than Indian workers.  Due to this lack of efficiency of labor, production here is reduced and it has an impact on national income and poverty does not leave the country chased.


  Lack of proper banking and credit facilities – Banking and credit facilities are not available in India in sufficient quantity due to which the accumulation and creation of capital is not done properly in the country nor adequate credit facilities are available to the farmers, traders and industrialists.  Can be attained.  Apart from this, agriculture and industry – businesses do not develop properly in the country and poverty thrives.


   Inadequate use of natural resources – As it has been clarified that there is no shortage of natural resources in this country and India is rich enough in the fields of hydro power, land, minerals – wealth and animal wealth.  But the present situation is that Indians are not able to use these tools properly and due to this, despite all this, they remain poor.


 Political Causes- Some political causes of poverty can be mentioned:


  British imperialism – British imperialist policy had made the Indian economy absolutely hollow.  The British used to buy raw materials from this country at their own prices and take them to their country and develop the industries and sell the goods made at high prices.  This would lead to the gradual destruction of the industries here.  Gone .  Apart from this, the British used to recover the government-related expenditure that was incurred on India at that time.  In this form, crores of rupees used to go from here to England.  The British brought an end to the British Empire from India, but the empire of strong and terrible poverty established by it is still intact in the country.


War – The last two world wars have also increased the poverty of India.  Especially after the Second World War, the imbalance that started in the economic situation of the country has not ended even today.  Not only this, due to the attacks of China and Pakistan on India, the country’s economic crisis increased even more.  Similarly, the liberation struggle that took place in ‘Bangla Desh’ in 1971 also had a very bad effect on India’s economy because there were about 1 crore refugees there.  Came here and after staying for about 20 months, Bangla went back to the country.  The Government of India spent 325 crore rupees on the eating, living, medical and return of the refugees, as well as financial assistance for its rehabilitation.


  Demographic factors are said to be “overpopulation is the root cause of India’s poverty.  “It is said that the population of India is increasing at a very fast pace. For example, in 1901, the population of the country was usually 23.83 crores which increased to 27. 89 in 1931. In 1941, the population of India was usually  31. 8 crores which was increased to 43. 92 crores in 1961. India’s population was 54, 81, 59, 625 in 1971 and 68, 51, 84, 692 in 1981 which was recorded in 1991 census.  As per the provisional figures of the report, it has been 84, 39, 30, 861. In the current state of economic development, India is not able to maintain such a growing population well, hence the situation of overpopulation in the country at present  Which promotes poverty in the following ways:

 (i) It is estimated that due to rapid increase in population, new workers in India are increasing in number to 2.5 million per year.  Employing them is not easy.  This leads to unemployment and poverty in the country.

  (ii) Another side effect of excessive population of workable workers.  It is expected that the supply of workers is much higher than the demand of the workers.  She goes .  Due to this, the value of labor means the poverty in nature increases by decreasing the wages of the workers.

  (iii) Per capita income decreases greatly due to increase in population.  The result is that the person neither gets proper food nor to live.  Nice houses  Taking away food from inadequate and unbalanced food and living in unhealthy houses.  Types of severe diseases surround and their efficiency decreases.  Declining efficiency decreases income even more.

  (iv) The excess of population and the rapid increase in it daily is a major impediment in the path of economic development of the country.  In this, the country first has to worry about filling the stomach of most people or protecting them from starvation.  This also increases poverty in the country.

  (v) Increasing the population increases the pressure on the land.  Today, 70 percent of the country’s population depends on farming for their livelihood.  Due to excessive pressure on the land of the population, the fields have become very small and scattered and modernization and development of farming has become very difficult.  Hence the total production of agriculture is very less in the area and the people of the village remain poor.  Therefore, it can be said that overpopulation is the root cause of poverty or poverty of India, but this is not the only reason, there are other reasons for poverty which we have discussed.



 The major social consequences are:


Child crime – An important social consequence of poverty is child crime.  When a child from a poor family sees children of his or her more affluent family consuming various kinds of comforts and luxuries, and even if they are unable to get those things due to poverty, then that poor child has greed, malice and  Feelings of jealousy arise.  First tries to obtain those items by legitimate means and when he fails in these attempts, then he adopts theft by illegal means.  In the event of extreme sleeplessness, the children do not meet their primary needs and learn to steal from hunger.  Similarly, due to poverty, both parents have to work, this loosens their control over children and makes it easy for children to spoil.  That is, they become child criminals.

 Crime – A side effect of fearlessness is also crime.  Due to poverty, a person is not able to fulfill his primary needs as well.  Therefore, at first he wants to fulfill these needs by staying on the path of honesty, but when he is unable to do so, then he tries to steal and forcefully seize his needs by illegal means.  More than stealing or robbing a person than seeing his wife and children starve before his eyes

Understands well  Similarly, in a situation of extreme poverty, the mental balance in the economic concerns loses and in that stage it is possible for him to commit any crime.


 Suicide – A person can also commit suicide due to poverty or poverty.  When a person suffering from poverty fails to arrange bread and clothes for himself and his dependents, then at that stage he commits suicide and saves himself from self-immolation.  Similarly, poverty arises due to sudden loss in business.  It also leads to suicide.  Not only that, poverty destroys the social reputation of a person and loss of reputation sometimes becomes so unbearable for the person that he finds death sweeter than swallowing the bitter pill of this insult.  –


  Separation – A direct side effect of fearlessness is marriage – separation.  Being anxious for many days in religious matters is also the destroyer of marital relations.  It is possible that the dead husband hit the streets throughout the day in search of his job – and when he returned home in the evening, he could not get the sympathy of the wife.  The wife thinks this and says that if tried properly there is no reason to not get a job.  These things and financial worries make husband – wife and children irritable and this leads to discord and unrest in the family.  In a state of poverty, children do not have shoes, their clothes are torn and ragged and there is no eating at home, all worries make marital life odd, which can result in marriage.  –


 Unemployment – Unemployment is another side effect of poverty.  Due to poverty, a person is not able to fulfill his primary needs and it is not possible to arrange for food, house, clothes etc.  As a result, he becomes sick.  Injured persons have to take more sticks in the job.  A high hawker may be fired and may be unemployed.  In addition, many types of mental diseases also make humans unfit to work due to economic concerns, even unemployment thrives.


  Begging – A social side effect of poverty can also be beggary.  At the peak of poverty, when a man starts starving and sees his wife and children starving and dying in front of his eyes, begging for him is also not a matter of shame.


 Prostitution – When basic economic needs are not met due to poverty, many women are forced to adopt prostitution.  In fact, prostitution is to sell one’s body in exchange for money, ie ‘money’ is the main thing in prostitution.  And hence poverty can be considered as the main reason for this.  There are many helpless girls and women who covertly run prostitution in order to protect themselves from the trauma of poverty, because the money needed to fill their stomach and cover their body is also required by these measures  When it is not available, then there is no other solution for them other than selling the body.  It is therefore clear that prostitution is also a bitter social consequence of poverty.





Relationship between Poverty and mal-nutrition



  – It is quite clear that poverty and inadequate nutrition are closely related to each other.  A person who is chained to the chains of poverty first thinks of raising food and the matter of fruits, milk, ghee and other nutritious foods remains a dream for him.  Due to poverty, that person does not have enough purchasing power to provide adequate nutrition for himself.  Scholars are of the opinion that simple working person should get 2, 500 to 2, 600 calories per day, hard-working person 2, 800 to 3, 000 calories, school’s small children 1, 600 and older children  Requires 2, 400 calories.  On this basis, a meal of 3,000 calories is considered necessary for a normal adult male, but due to poverty in India, as in Prof.  N.  R.  Dhar (Prof N. R. Dhar) has said that 1, 628 calories are available.  In other words, we can say that the amount of calories or nutrients that young children should get, is almost as much as adult people in our country.  Not only this, due to poverty in India, only 5 ounces of milk is given per person, whereas they should drink 25 ounces.  56 in Canada.  8 ounces, 44 in Australia.  5 ounces, 40 in England.  7 and 35 in America.  6 ounces of milk is given per person.  Pregnant and obstetric women at least 33.  8 ounces of milk should be provided, but the milk of poverty to innumerable mothers in India.  So doesn’t food also get it right?  Due to the extreme poverty prevailing among the Indians, the condition of their inadequate nutrition is that the investigation so far in this connection leads to the conclusion that two-thirds of the families do not eat any kind of fruits and other such things. 

About one-third of the families do not get any kind of rich food like fish, meat, eggs etc. and one fourth family recommended the use of other things made of milk or foliage or leafy vegetables, other vegetables, ghee and vegetable oil and pulses.  Values ​​are below.  Use of pulses and other vegetables in only one of the five families examined is at the recommended level.  Finally, in this regard, the statement of the Planning Commission can also be presented that “Our country has not yet reached that level of progress only because of poverty, at which the food grains and other types according to the balanced quantity for all the countrymen  It is possible to supply enough. “


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