Agencies of Socialization

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Agencies of Socialization

 Family – Family has an important place in the means of socialization/agency of socialization.  A human remains in the family from birth to death.  Therefore, he plays a very important role in the creation of personality.  When a human is born, then it is just a living effigy of the flesh.  Gradually, he comes in contact with the family members and changes from a biological being to a social animal.  The relationship of parents in the family, relationship of parents and children and mutual relationship of children also affects the process of socialization.  We can understand their effects as follows

 (A) Parental relationship – The role of parents is very important in families of all societies.  The father provides instrumental leadership to the children and the mother provides the children with expressive leadership.  The father is the owner of the farm and business as a seeker leader and he is also the leader in the game, while the mother acts as a mediator in the family.  The mother does the work of making compromises and eliminating quarrels and unpleasantness.  In addition, she is loving, intimate, friendly and emotional towards children.  Son wants to be like father and daughter like mother.  Thus, it can be said that parents have a great influence on children.  If a rift or gap arises between their relations, it affects the personality of the children.  Lack of balance is found in the children of the family in which there is quarrel and discord between the parents.  If the husband and wife in the family maintain the relationship of love and cooperation, then it has a very good effect on the children and it is successful in leading a balanced life.  The morality of children also develops in the family.  In families where parents emphasize moral considerations, only children develop high morality in those families.

 (B) Relationship of parents and children – Not only the mutual relationship of the parents in the family, but also how the relationship of the parents with the children also affects their personality.  When parents give enough love to children, take care of their needs and requirements, then they feel safe.  If parents do not give enough love to the child, do not meet their needs, then they feel insecure.  If parents look at children with disdain and neglect, then a sense of inferiority develops in the children.  Sometimes they also become of vengeful nature and inside them a feeling of revenge for society is awakened.  In contrast, excessive pampering makes children careless and irresponsible.  They expect from others, but become selfish and self-centered.  Sometimes it is also seen that parents do not look at all their children with equal vision, discriminate against them.  This type of behavior with children affects their personality.  The one who gets more love, the crook and the one who is not favored, becomes destitute and demoralized.  Along with this, a feeling of jealousy and rivalry develops among the children.  Kimbal Young has said in this context, “The basic socialization of the child takes place in the family itself. All the basic ideas of heart, skill and standards are obtained in the family itself.


 (C) Mutual relation of children – The mutual relation of children is also important.  Mutual relation of children means the relationship between brother-brother and sister-sister.  Apart from this, the effect of birth order of children also affects his personality.  It is often seen that the first child of the family wants to enjoy all the facilities alone.  The only reason for this is that for a long time he continues to be loved by all alone.  Enjoys all kinds of comforts, as a result of which he also becomes selfish.  opposite of this,Everyone is the youngest child in the family.  Since there is no other child sharing his love, the childishness of such children goes away gradually.  Middle children (middle children) become competitive.  The main reason for this is that these children sometimes compare themselves with older children and sometimes with younger children.  Every time he feels that the love he is getting is not enough, he gets divided into big and small.  If a child in the family engages in delinquent behavior, then other children are also adversely affected.  Conversely, if a child gets ahead, other children also try to move forward.  The social status of the family also has an impact on the development of children.  It is clear from the above considerations that family is the basis of socialization.  Davis also explained the role of the family in socialization, stating that “the initial stages of socialization begin at home.” According to Samuel, “It is primarily the house where the heart opens, habits are formed.”  , The intellect is awakened and the good – bad character becomes.  “In the family, the child gets the same education, which helps him to become his ideal citizen and also helps in different circumstances of the society and teaches to harmonize.


 Play orPeerGroup The family is followed by the play – group, which plays an important role in the socialization process.  Sports – A group is also called a game or a group of friends.  Out of the family, the child plays with other children of his age.  In this game-group, the child learns to follow the rules of the game, which later teaches to remain in control and follow discipline.  As a result, he is restrained and disciplined in various areas and circumstances of life.  This quality makes him a guide to others.  Children get protection and love in the family, but in the sports group, it develops the ability to adapt to the odds.  In these groups, children’s habits, interests, attitudes and thoughts are different, as they come from different families.  Through the game the children establish customization all along.  If he loses during the game, he is restrained.  As a result, through this, he learns to be restrained even after the difficulties and failures in life.  When a child violates the rules of the game, other children oppose it.  All together lay emphasis on following the rules of the game.  This behavior controls and directs children’s behavior.  The child’s leadership, ability to take responsibility, duty, playing with his or her sports mates;  The habit of accepting one’s mistake, etc., develops.  All these qualities provide the basis for the personality of the child.  Rijman says that the sports group is an important socializing group at the present time, because nowadays, people depend more on the same people for their guidance and direction.  This is the reason that most friends give more importance to their decisions.  Children who do not get friends or groups, they do not play, they do not develop independently.

 Neighborhood – Family and Sports – The third place comes after the group.  Children learn a lot by coming in contact with neighbors.  Their thoughts, ideals, beliefs, actions and ideas have a profound impact on the personality of children.  Neighbors have special affection for children.  So from time to time they also praise or criticize their behavior.  Children learn to behave according to the traditions and customs of their F society through the humor and satire of the neighbor.  This is why people consider it necessary to have good people in the neighborhood.  Children imitate the behavior of nearby people.  The neighborhood thus forms an extended family.

 Kinship Group – Kinship group includes all those who are related to each other by blood (and bonds of marriage. For example, parents, siblings, husband and wife, mother-in-law, father-in-law,  Devar – sister-in-law, uncle – aunt, maternal uncle – aunt, etc. The thoughts, behaviors and suggestions of these relatives have a bearing on the personality of the children. When they come in contact, the children keep on learning something.  While playing the roles, they learn with whom close relationships, with whom laughter – joking and mockery or distance go away. He learns from these relationships what kind of people to give respect – love and affection. Live a collaborative life after marriage.  Learns. Thus his entire personality develops. These are the primary means of socialization. Apart from these, secondary means also have an important place. Some important institutions which contribute as secondary means are the following.

 Educational Institutions – Schools, colleges and universities etc. come under educational institutions.  The main medium of education is Pathak.  Which develops new knowledge and intelligence in children.  Children’s habits are formed in this period.  Which is necessary for life.  Educational institutions have their own rules and methods, which students have to follow.  Students try to adapt themselves to their standards.  Children’s mental and intellectual capacity is developed by reading there.  Through books, they get to know different works and different cultures and their achievements.  Individuals from educational institutions – reasonable.  One gets knowledge of practical theoretical distinction.  The importance of educational institutions has been going on since time immemorial.  Earlier, people used to get education by visiting Guru’s house, now people go to schools and colleges and earn knowledge.  Thus it is clear that educational institutions have always played an important role in the process of socialization.

Cultural Institutions – Cultural institutions also contribute a lot in the process of socialization.  The work of cultural institutions is to play a major role in socialization and disorder of their personality and to introduce them to the culture of the society.  Knowledge culture under culture, ethics.  Ideal values ​​etc. give a special direction to a person’s personality.  In fact, under the process of socialization, human beings, who learn the qualities, thoughts and behavior, all come under the culture.  Culture culminates in human behavior.  With the help of culture, a person is born as a living being and becomes a human being, a social animal.  Robert Beersteed says in this context, “We are not human by birth, but we become human only by acquiring our culture.” Thus culture and cultural institutions have great importance in the socialization of the individual.

Occupational group also takes the values ​​of the business in which the person is engaged.  He comes in contact with many people during his business and knows their qualities and characteristics and also acquires them.  In this way, everyone related to the business, be it an officer or an agent, a manager or a customer, learns something from everyone, thereby modifying his behavior.

Caste & Class – The role of caste and class in socialization of an individual cannot be denied.  Each caste has its own practices, traditions, beliefs, thoughts, feelings and behavior patterns related to food, living and living etc.  This is the reason why there is some difference in the personality of people of different castes.  The rites of different castes are also different, due to which socialization takes place in a different way.  Similarly, the living habits, ethics, thoughts and feelings of each class are different, which affect the personality of a person.  Thus it is clear that caste and class give direction to the process of socialization in their own way.

  Political Institutions – Political institutions also have an important contribution in socialization.  The state affects all aspects of human life.  Political institutions introduce the person to law, governance and justice system.  It makes a person realize his rights and duties.  In modern complex societies where interpersonal relationships between individuals are formal and indirect, the role of the state is very important in determining, regulating and controlling the behavior of the individual.  In the modern era, many important functions of the family are being completed by the state.  As a result, the importance of the state is increasing day by day.  The state is accompanied by its judiciary, by which a person who violates the rules of the state is punished.  Due to this people try to live in a disciplined manner.

  Economic Institutions – The role of economic institutions in socialization also cannot be denied.  Financial institutions enable an individual to live.  Economic institutions are concerned with the system of production, productive forces, nature of production, nature of consumption, distribution system, standard of living, trade cycle, economic policies, industrialization, division of labor, economic competition etc.  The effect of all these is on the person’s interpersonal relationships, ideas.  Falls on beliefs etc.  For example, economic competition is not found in agricultural economy, whereas there is bitter economic competition in industrial system.  The economic conditions of the society have an impact on the type, size and work of marriage and family.  Thus it is clear that economic institutions affect the process of socialization of an individual.




Religious Institutions – Religious institutions have a profound impact on a person’s life.  Under religion comes the notion of sin – virtue, karma – rebirth and hell – heaven.  Religious institutions motivate a person to do proper, virtuous and religious works and not to do unfair, sinful, irreligious and anti-social works.  Religious institutions include purity, peace, justice, truthfulness and the individual.  As she develops gana.  Religion makes a person fear the supernatural power and follow social rules.  Davis says that religion helps in the coordination of society and personality.  Religion plays an important role in the development of a person’s personality as a means of socialization.







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