Stages or Process of Socialization

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  Stages of the Process of Socialization

 Johnson has divided the process of socialization into four levels

  (i) Oral Stage

  (ii) Anal Stage

(iii)  Identification Stage

  (iv) Adolescence




1.Oral Stage –

This is the first stage of the socialization process.  In this state, the fetus lives comfortably in the womb.  This stage lasts from one to one and a half years.  In this stage all the requirements are generally physical and verbal.  At this stage the child does not know anyone other than his mother in the family.  In fact, he does not feel isolated from his mother.  According to the Parsons, the child is an asset to others in the family.  This is called the verbal state because he learns to signal for his care.  The infant begins to express gestures through his face.  In this state, children experience physical pleasure.  This situation has been called primary identification by Freud.  In this state, children feel hungry, feel cold or hot and feel discomfort in every task.  The child suffers from these inconveniences and cries and cries.


 2 .  Anal Stage –

The infancy stage starts from one and a half years and ends in the third or fourth year.  In this stage the child is given toilet related training.  The child is taught to wash his hands with soap and keep his clothes clean.  In this stage the child reacts in every way.  Not only does he desire to love mother, but he also starts loving mother.  In this stage the child’s actions are justified or wrong so that he can understand the difference between right and wrong.  He is praised for right actions, and on the other hand is reprimanded for wrong actions.  In this way, he starts behaving according to his family and culture.  In this state the child comes in contact with other members of the family besides the mother and is affected by them.  Now he starts speaking and walking a little bit.  In such a situation, the nature of imitation in children develops.  Children also display a sense of tension and love when family members display anger, protest, love and cooperation.  Thus the child begins to play dual roles.



3.Identification Stage:

This stage lasts from three to four years to twelve – thirteen years of age.  Johnson said that in this stage the child becomes attached to the whole family and begins to recognize all the members.  The main feature of this stage is that the child is not familiar with sexual behaviors, but many sexual changes start taking place in his body.  At this time, the child begins to identify his gender (ie whether he is a boy or a girl) and his interest in the opposite sex starts growing.  At this stage, the child is expected to behave according to his gender.  If he behaves in harmony with his gender, he is encouraged.  In this way, he gradually learns gender differentiation.  In this stage, sexual development takes place in children to the extent that they become jealous of their parents.  In the beginning, the child is unable to establish full identity with his gender and situation.  Because there is more envy and envy in it.  But gradually he learns to control them.  In this stage, complex emotions develop in children.  Boys tend to be unconsciously attracted to the mother and girls towards the father.  The attraction of boys to their mother is referred to as Oedipus complex and the attraction towards father of girls is called Electra complex.  The state of identification is also known as the Latency stage.


  1.   Adolescences often begin at this stage in puberty. In this stage, children desire more independence than their parents. This stage is only from 13 to 18 years. This level is very important.  Happens because in this stage boys and girls experience severe stresses. The reason for this stress is physical changes in the boys and girls. – At this time children are expected to make necessary decisions related to their lives.  For example, the choice of life partner, business choice, etc. Children are often confused when making these decisions, but in relation to these decisions they are expected to keep in mind their family traditions and cultural values.  Take decisions. But often they are counter to the feelings of adolescents and are caused by mental stress. At this stage the process of socialization is influenced by the prohibitive rules of society (incest taboos) which have special importance in culture.  Children in  In addition to your family, adjustments have to be made with neighbors, sports mates, friends, teachers and newcomers.  In such a situation, they face new situations and gain new experiences.  In this stage, children also learn to generalize situations.  In this state, a feeling of super ego develops in them, due to which self-control arises in them.  The process of socialization does not end in these four stages.  But they are important and remarkable from the point of view of building personality.  After this, the process becomes simple, because the person develops language and those abilities, so that he can easily understand and assimilate a situation.

 The process of socialization goes through three main levels even after adolescence.

  (i) Youth

  (ii) maturity

 (iii) old age

(i) Youth – In this stage, one gets many positions, such as father, husband etc.  According to all these positions, a person works and performs important responsibilities of family and society.  He has to face the role of role clash in playing the roles related to different types of positions.

.  ) Old age – In this stage the burden of social obligations on the person increases.  He also has to bear the burden of education of his family and children – initiation, marriage and business etc.  As a senior officer or servant of the office, new responsibilities have to be taken.  In this way, he gets new experiences under different circumstances.

Old age – In this state, physical, mental and social changes begin to become apparent on the person.  Now he plays many important roles as Dada, Nana etc.  Jobber

The person is retired from service at this stage.  In general, now he has to depend on others.  At this time, he has to adapt to many new situations.  It is clear that the process of socialization goes on in some form or the other.  This process becomes relatively simple after adolescence.  Johnson discusses three reasons for this, first, that an adult is generally motivated to work toward the goal he or she has seen.  Second, there is a lot of similarity between the new role he wants to internalize and the roles he has played before.  Third, he easily understands new expectations through language.  Thus, the process of socialization continues automatically after adolescence.




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