Caste and Race

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Caste and Race



It was first used by Gracia de Orta in 1563 AD. In his words, “People do not change their ancestral occupation. Thus the people who make shoes belong to the same type (caste). It is in this sense that Abbe Dubois has used it. He is of the opinion that the word ‘caste’ has been used in Europe to denote a tribe and class. ) is of the opinion that the word ‘cast’ is similar to the Latin language ‘ castus ‘ meaning pure species or race. It is believed that the meaning is complete with racial element, race, or ancestral qualities. The word ‘Jati’ of Hindi is derived from the Sanskrit language ‘Jana’ which means ‘to be born’ and ‘to produce’. From this point of view, the meaning of caste By birth, it is related to things having similar qualities. But in sociology the word ‘caste’ is used in a specific sense. The definitions of caste given by leading scholars are as follows (1) According to Risley- “It is family or many is a collection of families given a common name, which traces its origin to an imaginary man or god

With regard to the concept or definition of caste, it can be said that it is primarily a lesson of the people whose membership is based on heredity. It gets a definite place in the caste hierarchy. A caste is not itself a community or a society, but a community or a group of societies whose society is a predetermined place and it is related to a certain occupation. Some important definitions are as follows
Herbert Risley defines caste, writing, “A caste is a collection of families or family groups that share a common name, which derives from an imaginary ancestor, who may be a human or a deity, of its lineage.” claims origin, which carries on the same birth (ancestral) occupation and which is considered to be a homogeneous community by those who are entitled to such judgment or vote. This definition makes 5 things clear –

(i) ) A caste is a collective organization of many families , ( ii ) it has a name , ( iii ) each caste has an imaginary ancestor , ( iv ) it has a definite occupation and ( v ) it is a homogeneous community is known .
According to Majumdar and Madan (D. N. Majumdar and T. N. Madan), “Caste is a closed class. It is clear from this definition that caste is based on birth. Therefore, the caste in which a person is born is in that same caste. Have to live till the end. In no case can the membership of caste be changed. In this sense, caste is a closed class.
Dutta (N. K. Dutta) has defined caste, covering the maximum characteristics of caste, writing, “Caste is a type of social group, whose members do not marry outside their caste, restrictions on food, profession It is certain that hierarchical division is found, it is not possible to change from one caste to another.

This definition reveals 6 characteristics of caste –

(i) caste is a social group, (ii) caste is endogamous group, (iii) There are restrictions on food and drink in the caste, (iv) the occupation of the caste is fixed, (v) stratification is found among the castes and (vi) it is not possible to change the membership of the caste. Based on the above facts, it can be said that caste is a dynamic system of stratification which is based on birth and imposes restrictions on food, marriage, profession etc.



Characteristics of Caste


_ GS . Ghurye (G. S. Ghurye) has discussed 6 characteristics of caste, on the basis of which it is said to be more useful to understand caste. These features are the following
Segmental Division of Society: The caste system divides the society into certain segments. The position, position and functions of the members of each division are determined by birth. And they have a sense of community. It is a moral duty to follow the caste rule.
Hierarchy: Under the caste-system, the position of each caste is danced in search of a tussle. The Brahmins are at the top of this strata and the untouchables are the lowest castes. These two people are bean castes. Not only this . Within a caste there are many sub-castes and among them there are high and low castes.
Hereditary Nature of Occupation: The occupation of a person is determined on the basis of caste-occupation. Therefore, the caste in which a person is born has to adopt a person of that caste. There is no scope for any change in this. Thus it can be said that the main characteristic of caste is the traditional occupation.
Endogamous: According to the caste system, the members of the caste can establish their own caste or sub-caste, marriage-relationship. Often no one dares to violate this rule. Westermark has considered the characteristic as the ‘essence of the caste-system’. The endogamy rule is still found in the castes. Thus, on the basis of the above description, it becomes clear that the caste system in Indian society

Magic has been a clear and important basis of stratification.

Restrictions on Fooding and Social Interecourse

: There are restrictions on food and social interaction in the caste system. Often the people of one caste do not accept food from the hands of the lower castes. Along with this, many restrictions are seen related to raw and cooked food. Similarly, the feeling of untouchability is found in the context of social interaction and interaction.

Social and Religious Disabilities:

In the caste-system, a special difference is seen in the precautions. On the one hand the lower castes do not get as much facilities and rights as the upper castes in the spheres of life. Brahmins are full of many rights in social, religious, economic and other fields. On the other hand, the untouchable castes are denied even public facilities and rights. Its glimpse is also seen in rural areas.






Species is a biological concept. Members of each species have their own physical characteristics. These traits are basically hereditary. On the basis of these characteristics, one species can be differentiated from other species. Some of the main definitions are as follows
a . Ale . Defining a species, Kroeber (A. L. Kroeber) wrote, “A species is a proven, zoological concept. It is a group that is related by heredity, lineage, or species trait or subspecies.” It is clear from this definition. –

(1) Species is used in the zoological sense. (2) It is related to the physical characteristics and characteristics produced by birth.

J. Bisanj and M. Biesanz (J. Biesanz and M. Biesanz) wrote, “A species is a large group of individuals who are recognized by innate physical features.” This statement is clear from –

(1) Each species has some distinctive physical characteristics. There are. (2) When these distinctive physical features are found in a large group, that group is called a species.


In the words of Hoebel ( E. A. Hoebel ) , ” A species is a natural zoological group which possesses distinctive physical characteristics. These traits are passed on purely from one generation to the next. ” It is clear from this –

( 1) Species are a zoological group. (2) A species group possesses distinctive physical characteristics. (3) These traits are passed on from one generation to another.


On the basis of the above description, it can be said that species is such a human group whose members share some similar physical features. These characteristics are transmitted from generation to generation and on the basis of this one species group can be differentiated from others.



Characteristics of Race


A Particular Physical Type:

A species has some specific physical characteristics or characteristics in common. This does not mean that all the physical characteristics of the members of a species are exactly the same. Common physical characteristics refer only to the ‘physiological pattern’ of their species. One species can be distinguished from another on the basis of physical appearance.

Transmission of Inherited Traits:

The physical traits or characteristics of a species are transferred from one generation to another through the process of inheritance. Genes play an important role in transmitting the traits of a species. Those whose carriers are similar will be of the same species.


Large Size of Group :

A species is a large human group. Its members are spread over a wide area rather than in a small area. Thus, only when common physical characteristics or features are found in a large population group, that group is called a species. The number of its members can be up to crores.


Race Endogamy:

Each species follows the policy of marrying members of its own species. For this reason, the same physical characteristics are found in their offspring, which are of that group. Through intermarriage, each group also protects its progress from external influences and through this policy, efforts are made to reduce the possibility of mixing of blood with other species.



Stratification of high and low is seen in the society on the basis of racial differences. It is believed that the best among the species is the white species (Kalachian) because its color is white, high level of blood, high mental ability and spreader of civilization. This is followed by the yellow species (Mongoloid) and at the bottom is the black species (Negroid).

Biological Concept

Species is a biological concept. It is closely related to heredity. believed to be associated with. Merrill wrote, “Species is a biological term that refers to the physical similarities of a larger human group that are transmitted by heredity.




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