Components of population growth and their interdependence

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Components of population growth and their interdependence

There are three important components of population growth which can bring change in the population of any society and country. These are – High birth rate / fertility rate • Death rate. The reason for the high birth rate of migration is the high fertility rate, if the fertility is high, then it is natural for the population to increase. The determinants of fertility rate are interdependent on each other. Due mention of these interdependent elements in the explanation of the determinant elements in the explanation of various points will help you to understand.

The second component is the mortality rate or mortality rate, death is an eternal truth. Death ends life itself and is inevitable. A person can increase the standard of living by keeping his health right. Various types of external obstructive elements like malnutrition, diseases, accidents and malaise increase the mortality rate and when there are favorable factors, it decreases. In demography this phenomenon sometimes brings in the size formation and distribution of population. Migration or Migration is such a determinant factor which brings about rapid change in the population of any place, society or country. These migrations can be in any form, in-migration and out-migration. one of the outbound
It is also called purely International Migration. Educational, economic, social and political interdependent factors affect migration. Determinants of High Birth Rate / High Fertility Rate Birth can never be zero. This is the work of creation. Zero means the cessation of creation. Yes, if the birth rate is high, then it is natural for the population to increase. Birth rate means the number of live births per thousand population. Here it is necessary to differentiate between the two words birth rate and fertility rate.

Birth is an important life event related to a particular individual, whereas fertility is a life process associated with a group of individuals. In short, it can be said that in this, the life events related to the individual are studied collectively. According to George Buckley, “Fertility is an actual level of performance in a population based on the number of live births” -G.W. Barclay. Fertility is basically three things. Capacity to Reproduce is affected by

Opportunity to Reproduce
Decision to Reproduce

All the factors that determine fertility can increase or decrease the fertility rate only by influencing these three primary factors. Factors that affect fertility either provide opportunities for reproduction such as age of marriage and marriage, or help in decision-making regarding fertility, such as educational level, social security system, not satisfactory, Importance of boys in religious customs or society (Male Child Preference) etc.

Notable elements that determine fertility are

Educational level, marital status, urbanization, economic status, occupation, religion and social customs, social mobility, mortality, geographical causes, biological elements, direct and indirect social elements. The analysis of these elements and their interdependence is presented sequentially.

Educational Status

Able to know the primary factors and the most important ones. is the determinant of fertility. • After understanding this fertility directly, now you understand the major and indirectly affecting factors, the level of education plays a role in the determinants of fertility. Education enables a human being to become intelligent and prudent, what is the importance of children in the family. How many children should there be? When two should be born between the children or what are the benefits of the elder. An educated person, what should be the time gap in his family, is anticipatory towards the present and future of the small family. He would have been able to decide the number of children that he would need in his family. On the basis of his financial resources, how many children reduce the S rate in his dream of raising a small family. He will not be inconvenienced. In this way an educated person shows more determination and enthusiasm in relation to reproduction, he is fulfilled in a happy family. He accepts the meaning of family planning from his conscience and accepts it to his heart. On the contrary, due to uneducated person or intelligence in the society, the person is not able to take the right decisions related to reproduction.
The shackles of illiteracy, ignorance, stereotypes, superstitions, family planning, family welfare or children, act as a hindrance in understanding the concept of only two good. It is concluded from various surveys and research that the birth rate decreases with the increase in the educational level. This is where interdependence comes in. Along with the increase in the level of education, physical, mental, social, economic and such demographic changes take place, as a result of which the birth rate inevitably decreases. The age of marriage increases due to education and more time taken to maintain and maintain its standards. decrease the chance of reproduction. This applies equally to both men and women.

In this regard, the surveys of Chandrasekaran, E.M. Driver (Differential Fertility in Central India), Kumudni Dandekar are noteworthy which clarifies. That there is a negative correlation between the level of education and fertility.

Marital Status

Marital status is a major determinant of fertility determinants. The variation in the fertility rate depends on the number of years of reproduction period when there was full possibility of producing offspring, that is, the duration of marital life. This point directly indicates the age of marriage. Where the age of marriage is high or such social and economic conditions exist that one can live without marriage or delayed marriage, the fertility rate is low. Conversely, where the age of marriage is low, the fertility rate is high due to more opportunities for reproduction. There are more children, as a result the size of the family also remains large. Marriage is an absolute condition of fertility. In Europe 90% of men and 83% of women marry, in America 90% of men and 92% of women marry. But in India, marriage happens to almost everyone (99% male and female). The minimum age of marriage is in the agricultural societies of China and India and the highest age is in European countries. In addition to the age of marriage, divorce, remarriage, widow-marriage, polyandry and polyandry also affect fertility rates. One of the reasons for the lower fertility rate in the upper castes is that widow remarriage, remarriage and polygamy etc. are looked down upon in the society. E.M. Driver found in his research that the average birth rate of children was 35 when married above 18 years of age, and 41 at younger age i.e. 13-17 and the average birth rate of children under 13 was found to be 53.


Urbanization or urbanization also has an effect on the fertility rate. Due to economic planning, development and industrialization, rural population starts settling in cities. Due to the increase in the urban or urban population, the fertility rate is also affected. The fertility rate of the urban population is low and the fertility rate of the villages has been found to be high in various surveys. There can be many reasons for the small size of urban families, such as – (1) The members of the families living in the cities work in different institutions and offices, due to which they are related to outsiders besides the members of the family who – change their thoughts.

In rural environment, children are not considered as liability, but they are considered as child labor whereas in urban due to awareness.
The number of children growing in place of child labor gives a sense of responsibility.

(3) There is more ambition towards development in urban civilization and culture. The large and joint family system, which mostly resides in the villages, hinders the fulfillment of their ambition.

(4) In villages, children are considered as sticks of old age and a gift of God. Urbanization and level of education help people to understand the rationale of why and when to have children in the family. Consequently, the decision regarding reproduction plays an important role. Implementation of fertility control measures, lack of knowledge, considering breeding as a means of entertainment are the factors that increase the rural fertility rate while reducing the urban population due to awareness. Higher infant mortality rate in villages whereas the factor of less chance of infant mortality in cities due to urban medical facilities also affects fertility

Economic Status

Economic level also plays an important role in influencing fertility. Demographic studies conclude that the poor have more children than the rich. There can be various reasons for this difference in fertility rates. Money is a human resource. One can fulfill his strong desires, the means of entertainment, the pleasures and facilities of the world.

The rich person makes his goal different than the poor, as a result the fertility rate is not high, whereas due to the absence of the above-mentioned tendencies in the poor, the fertility rate is not low, due to the low standard of living, the poor person is not affected by this. It happens that having one more child will further lower my standard of living, he takes it very easily whereas a rich person takes it seriously that if he has more than two children, his standard of living will drop.


Occupation is closely related to fertility rate. Occupational structure has a profound effect on the size of the family and the level of birth rate. in different types of businesses. The fertility rate of working people varies. The fertility rate of people who do physical labor is higher than that of mental workers. There is a difference in the fertility rate of laborers and land owners engaged in agriculture and agricultural activities.
Most of the laborers are illiterate and live in villages. Economically weak, the age of marriage is low, due to low use and knowledge of family planning and its methods, the fertility rate is not able to keep low. Women working or residing in cities do not want their standard of living and physical fitness to be imbalanced.

It is very careful for this, as a result the fertility rate remains low.


Religion and Social Customs

Religion and social customs also play an important role in determining the fertility rate. The need for children, family size, birth spacing, son desire, increasing the number of followers of religion, family and social practices affect fertility from every point of view. It has been found in different countries of the world that Catholic Christians have high fertility rates and Jews have low fertility rates. In India, Muslims enlarge the size of the family due to being bound by religious traditions and customs. Progeny control or family planning is considered a hindrance in family welfare.

The practice of early marriage in the society or not following the instructions of religious scriptures is considered to be a part of sin. As – “Ashtavarsha Bhavedgauri Na Varsha Cha Rohini. Das Varsha Bhavetkanya Tat Aharva Menstruation.” That is, girls should get married before menstruating. In the society, only sons get freedom from the hell called ‘Pu’, not daughters, because of this belief, the attachment of the son gives birth to more daughters.

Male Child Preference

directly affects the fertility rate. Not one but more than two sons, because infant mortality rate is high in rural areas, this feeling increases the fertility rate. Various countries have legally fixed the age of marriage for boys and girls, but still the practice of marriage of children at an early age is not ending. Child marriage still remains a popular practice in India.

Social Mobility

One can remain very active and dynamic in social activities only when the number of children in the family is not large. A person is always striving for his development. He wants to participate actively in various areas of the society for his economic growth, fame, reputation, glory. This is possible only when the fertility rate is low. The higher the fertility rate, the lower the social mobility. Mortality Rate The fertility rate is also affected by the death rate. Where child and infant mortality rates are high, fertility rates are high. Because the person thinks that the family will end if there are only two children and sudden death. Who will run the dynasty? Feeling increases the fertility rate. Where the survival rate of the child is high, the fertility rate is low.

Geographical Factors


The country’s geographical structure, climate, land structure and also the food items available in the country. determines the fertility rate. This is characteristic with countries with hot climate, the physical development of girls is faster and more than in colder countries. As a result, they become capable of breeding quickly. Their maternal age increases and the fertility rate also increases. The standard of living and eating habits of these regions have more tendencies of this type, due to which sex desire increases. Maturity age comes late in girls in cold tropical regions. Motherhood comes late. The fertility rate remains relatively low if the work spirit is not relatively high. In

Biological Factors

Prof. D.S. Nag has given primacy to the biological element among the three major factors affecting reproduction. Fertility is affected by the health of the individual and the facilities available. With the expansion in health facilities, there is an increase in the capacity to reproduce. Fertility diseases, diseases such as – AIDS, cancer, infertility etc. also have an effect. Here, due to the increase in health-related facilities, medical facilities, there has been an increase in fertility in all the countries of the world, as a result of which the population has increased.

Direct Social Factors

Under this, those elements are included which increase or decrease the population. These elements include the factors controlling the population, such as progeny control, family planning methods, abortion, feticide, infanticide, etc. directly increasing self-restraint

Indirect Social Factors

Indirect social factors include those factors which directly affect fertility. Such as age of marriage, divorce, separation, bilgao (distance from husband), widowhood, polygamy, distance or separation between husband and wife due to social, religious customs, pregnancy and postpartum separation, self-restraint after marriage, etc. After studying the above elements, you have become expert that which elements are related to fertility, which are the factors of population growth and what is the status of their mutual interdependence.

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