Mortality meaning and determinants

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Mortality meaning and determinants

From the biological point of view, death refers to the impermanence of the body which was born alive. In this, the biological power inherent in a particular person comes to an end. Thus death marks the end of biological energy. In this, the vibrations stop in all the organs working from the time of birth. Death is the eternal truth. Health services, standard of living, medicine, scientific progress, no matter how much medical science may progress, can bring about change in time on the basis of facilities, but cannot stop death. On this basis it can be said that death cannot be void because the death of the one who is born is true. In this way, the main function of mortality is to reduce the population size and the main function of fertility is to compensate for this decrease. This is the regular work of creation, maintenance and destruction of the universe, no hindrance is possible in this.

Death is the vehicle of social change. As soon as the system comes in the hands of the next generation, it tries its best to bring about radical changes in the social fabric. In this way the process of development and destruction goes on continuously.

Some of the common features of mortality are as follows:

In general, death order and death are used synonymously. Under demography, it is considered a demographic phenomenon by not considering it as the secret of life or the control of God. Death is real and inevitable. Although the uncertainty of time remains.

Death is an involuntary event. Humans have no control over this. High death rate is a sign of underdeveloped state of the economy.

Mortality plays an important role in population growth. The reason for the growth of population in a country can be a decrease in the death rate rather than an increase in the birth rate.

Mortality equation has importance in demography, so its study is also important.

Mortality not only determines the size of the population, but it also affects the customs and rituals of its formation. In such a situation it becomes even more necessary and important to know the factors which determine the mortality rate or mortality rate.

The various causes of death can be studied by dividing them into the following parts


Environmental Conditions

lack of medical facilities
social and economic factors


You would like to know the chronological explanation of the above determinants. Malnutrition and malnutrition is the leading cause of death and illness in the world. Malnutrition is a widespread problem in poor and economically backward countries. According to the reports of the Food Agricultural Organization, about 400 million people are malnourished in the world, of which 300 million people live in South Asia. Their number in India is about 220 million. Protein deficiency is estimated to account for 50% of all deaths in children under the age of 5. Malnutrition is often a man-made disease due to poverty, food habits, social and religious customs, ignorance, addiction and pollution and adulteration.



Malnutrition weakens the immunity power of man, as a result of which, as soon as it comes under the circle of diseases, there is immediate erosion in the body, after which the person starts going towards death. Social, economic, environmental and climate and infectious diseases are the main reasons for the increase of diseases. The World Health Organization, an organization of the United Nations, has described about a thousand types of diseases in five groups, which you can know in the following forms. On the basis of these, data is also collected in the world Group = 1 Infection, parasitic and respiratory diseases Cancer Group Group – 3 Transport system diseases 4- Death by violence Group Group = 5 Other abdominal or internal diseases Air disorders, Diabetes etc.

Environmental Conditions


Under the environmental conditions, housing arrangements, drinking water, air, sewage, – sanitation, sewer line garbage cleaning, adulteration pollution etc. are included. At present, water, air, and noise pollution are unbalanced the environment of the whole world. According to the World Health Organization, only 35% of urban and only rural people in India have access to safe drinking water. Urbanization, industrialization, increase in the number of tanneries, waste water flow by factories are seriously polluting the water of rivers. The water of the cities has become unfit for drinking due to the escaping orsanic poison. Infectious diseases have increased further. Due to the dirty conditions in the residential colonies, there is a rapid increase in the number of Tikali Khasi and malaria patients.


The number of deaths has increased rapidly due to increasing accidents. These accidents can be both man-made or nature-made. Train fighting , Airplane crashes , Cloudburst on mountains , Car collision on four lanes , Terrorist incidents , Bomb blasts in crowded areas , Wars or battles , Ambushing soldiers and soldiers , Drought , Flood , Famine Disaster, arson and tsunami are mixed examples of natural and man-made accidents.

Lack of medical facilities


Despite the revolution in science, technology and medical world, there is still a lack of medical facilities in poor and underdeveloped countries. Whatever facilities are there, it is accessible to the upper class of the society. This facility is not easily accessible to the poor. Where more population resides, there is still pressure of diseases, malnutrition, health facilities in villages.

Social and Economic Factors

The social and economic system prevailing in any country and society directly affects the death. Such as poverty, illiteracy, unemployment, indebtedness, purdah system, marriage system, honor killing, delivery system, child rearing, religious and social customs are the main factors due to which death rate is affected and population growth rate is affected.

infant mortality rate

Child marriage is the main reason for high infant mortality rate in India. Lack of nutritious food for the mother during pregnancy. Delivery by unskilled midwives Lack and obsolescence of modern obstetric facilities. maternal ignorance. Conservatism and superstition. Extreme poverty. Decreased birth interval and deterioration in health due to frequent delivery, faulty way of parenting

Maternal Mortality Not only is the infant mortality rate high in poor and underdeveloped countries, but the maternal mortality rate is also high. Under this, death due to factors related to childbirth or reproduction is included. Most of the developed countries in the world have 0-5 maternal mortality rate per thousand live births. The rate in India before independence was very high. 24.5 in 1933, 20 in 1946. There was a substantial decline in the 1970s. Due to the high maternal mortality rate, you can assume the following. as –

Child Marriage (Early Marriage)

The pressure of physical exhaustion, the delivery system is uncomfortable and faulty. Lack of medical facilities. Social evils illiteracy.

Nutrition. poverty

In this way, by studying the various determinants of mortality, you have now come to know that malnutrition, diseases, environmental conditions, accidents, lack of medical facilities, determine how much death rate and how much these reasons depend among themselves.

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