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 Definition and Meaning of Deviance: The change in the accepted practices and systems of a society due to social changes is called deviation.  Contrary to the norms of the society and social norms, work is referred to as deviation.  In various countries of the world social problems such as child crime, prostitution, narcissism are studied as deviations. Before understanding the meaning of deviation it is necessary to discuss the definitions given by various sociologists.


  According to Robert Bell “deviation is a manifestation of too much variance from the average behavior in society. Walsh and Farfe have considered social problem to be deviation,” according to them, “social ideals are considered deviations that can only be corrected by collective efforts.”  According to them, there are two elements of deviation –

( 1) less than ideal

  (2) In relation to collective efforts deviation for its resolution


  Johnson wrote, “Divergence behavior is not just behavior that violates a norm.”  This is a behavior that violates the standard towards which the subject is facing at that time, it is a deliberate violation.




  According to Theodorson, “Divergence means Non-Confirmity” against social norms.  “


 It is clear from all the above definitions that deviations are known as parameters.  These standards are changed by social complexity.  These changes are known as deviations.  Definitions reveal its characteristics.  The details of these features are as follows:

  1. Divergence is state controlled – Divergence is produced through social problems.  To prevent these, the intervention of the government is necessary, so the government as a state controls it through the courts, prisons and police forces.


 2 .  Divergence is group dominant – it is not necessary that one social problem is in the form of another society.  Divergence is related to social problem, hence deviation of one group cannot be deviation of other group like sex is prohibited in India but it is freely exempt in European countries.


  1. Deviation as a social norm is seen as a social criterion, deviation from standards is created.  Therefore, every person should behave in such a way that these norms are not violated.  Like playing cards is not a serious offense, but playing cards as gambling is a serious offense.





  Causes of Deviance


There is a reason for every social change and social problem, similarly the reasons for deviation are as follows.


  1. Lack of education -There is a lack of education in the society, so man does not understand the social problems and gets distracted from faulty education and gets oriented towards socialization.


 2 .  Lack of punishment is not a proper punishment system for the faults prevalent in society by law.  Man is not afraid of this unfair punishment system, deviation increases behavior.  Divergence has also been politicized.


  1. Constitutional deficiencies There are no concrete clauses of deviation in the constitution.  When the cases related to deviations come in the society, then the distracted practical person is saved by mis-analyzing the constitution.


  1. Improper Interpretation – Major departments of the state that curb crime such as jail, police etc. do not mask the distraction due to improper behavior of people, and doubt in coming forward.


  1. Lack of social control – Due to the politicization of the society, the criteria of the society is becoming less and less devotional and lack of independence.  Hence deviation is not controlled by society.


  1.   Encouraging culprit tendency People fear the culprit for fear of some social reasons. They are not interested in catching the culprit. This increases the tendency of criminal deviation.


  1. Loose policy of the state – One of the main reasons for increasing deviations is the laxity of the state governments.  If the right action is taken at the right time, the tendency to deviate may be curbed.




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