Education and culture

Spread the love

Education and culture



Generally, we keep using the word culture continuously in our day-to-day life. Also, the word culture is used in different meanings. For example, this does not happen in our culture and it is accepted in the western culture. Sociology as a science has a clear meaning of any concept which reflects scientific understanding. Therefore, the meaning of culture as a sociological concept is “learned behavior”. That is, whatever a person learns from childhood till now, for example, the way of eating, the way of talking, knowledge of language, writing and reading and other abilities, this is culture.

Which human behavior is culture? There are many sides to human behavior
(a) Biological behavior like – silent, sleeping, walking, running.
(b) Psychological behavior like thinking, fearing, laughing etc.
(C) Social behavior like- Greeting, reading-writing, talking etc.

Under culture, we do not take biological behavior or psychological behavior. Culture is that aspect of human behavior that a person learns as a member of society, such as wearing clothes, religion, knowledge, etc. An important difference between human and animal society is that human could create culture while animal society lacks it.
Do you know how humans were able to create culture?
Leslie A. White has mentioned five special abilities in human beings, which man has got from nature and as a result of which he can create culture:
The first feature is – the ability of a human to stand, due to which the person does useful work with both hands.
The second is the texture of man’s hands, as a result of which he is able to freely move his hands in any direction and create different types of objects through it.
Third – Human’s sharp vision, due to which he is able to observe and observe nature and events and makes various discoveries and inventions.
Fourth – developed brain, with the help of which man can think better than other creatures. It is because of this brain that he presents logic and is able to establish cause-effect relationship.
Fifth – Ability to create symbols. Through these symbols, a person is able to transfer his knowledge and experiences from one generation to another. The development of language became possible only through symbols and people were able to exchange their knowledge and ideas. Thus it is clear that symbols have a great contribution in the creation, development, change and expansion of culture.

Do you know ?

The first mention of culture in the book Primitive Culture, published in 1871 by the famous anthropologist Edward Benart Tylor (1832-1917). Tylor is mainly known for his definition of culture, according to which, “Culture is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and all other capacities and habits acquired by man as a society.” Tyler has used culture in a broad sense. According to him, being a social animal, whatever a person possesses and learns is culture. Only non-material elements are included in this definition.

Meaning and definition of culture

The definition of culture given by Robert Beersteed (The Social Order) is that “Culture is that whole complex which includes all those things which we think, act and possess as members of society”. In the definition, both the physical and non-material aspects of culture have been included.
In the words of Harshkovits (Man and His Work) “Culture is the man-made part of the environment. It is clear from this definition that the environment has two parts, first – natural and second – social. Social environment includes all material and non-material things. For example, chair, table, pen, register, religion, education, knowledge, morality etc. Harshkovits has called this social environment, which is created by humans, as culture.

According to Bogardus, “Culture is the name of all the ways of thinking and acting of a group.” On this, you should note that, like Beerstead, Bogardus has emphasized both its material and non-material aspects.

Malinowski – Culture is the creation of man and a means by which he achieves his goals. You say that “culture is a total way of life which fulfills the physical, mental and other needs of a person.”
Redfield defined culture as “the lifestyle of the members of any society”.
It is clear from looking at the appropriate definitions that various sociologists and anthropologists have given the definition of culture on the basis of their respective viewpoints. In fact, culture is the way of life of the society and in this form it is passed on from generation to generation after necessary changes and modifications. within the culture

Then all kinds of thoughts and behavior come. Therefore, it is clear that in culture that complex totality of material and non-material elements, which a person receives as a member of society and through which he passes his life.

Nature or Characteristics of Culture

After knowing the views of various sociologists regarding culture, some of its characteristics become clear, which is also helpful in knowing and understanding its nature. Some of the key features are being discussed here

1. Culture is learned behavior – Culture is a learned behavior. It is not acquired by the individual through inheritance from his ancestors, but is learned through the process of socialization in the society. This learning goes on continuously till life i.e. from birth to death. You need to know that culture is learned behavior, but not all learned behavior can be called culture. The behavior learned by animals cannot be called culture, because whatever animals learn, they cannot teach it to any other animal. Those habits and ways of behavior come under culture, which are learned by all the members of the society in general. In this context, Lundberg has said that, “Culture is not related to a person’s innate tendencies or zoological heritage, but it is based on social learning and experiences.”

II. Culture is social – The quality of sociality is found in culture. The whole society and social relations are represented under culture. Therefore it can be said that the behavior learned by any one or two-four persons cannot be called culture. Any behavior cannot be called culture until it is learned by most of the people of the society. Culture represents the entire way of life of a society. This is the reason why every member of the society adopts the culture. Culture is also social in the sense that it is not the property of any particular person or two or four persons. It is for every member of the society. Hence its expansion is wide and social.

III. Culture is Transmissive – It is because of this quality of culture that when culture passes from one generation to another, the experiences and understandings of generations get added to it. Due to this, there is a slight change and modification in the culture. Due to this quality of culture, man invents new things on the basis of his previous knowledge and experience. You have to understand that – even animals have the ability to learn something. But they are unable to teach what they have learned to their children and other animals. This is the reason that despite having the ability to learn a lot, culture has not developed in them. Man develops and expands his culture very easily through language and symbols and also transfers it from one generation to another. This also maintains the continuity of the culture.

iv. Culture is made by man (Culture is Man-Made) – Culture refers to all those elements, which have been created by man himself. For example, our religion, beliefs, knowledge, ethics, ways of behaving and means of various needs i.e. chair, table etc. have been created by man. In this way all this culture Harshkavits says that “culture is the man-made part of the environment”.
Culture Satisfies Human Needs – Culture has the quality of satisfying human needs. Even the smallest unit of culture directly or indirectly fulfills or helps to fulfill human needs. Sometimes a unit of culture may appear to be redundant or ineffective on the outside, but it has an important place in the overall picture.

Thoughts of Malinowski:- Famous anthropologist Malinowski states that the existence of even the smallest element of culture depends on its ability to satisfy needs. When any element of culture does not have the quality to fulfill the need, then its existence also ends. For example, the elements of culture that were there in ancient times were destroyed because they were unable to fulfill the requirement, in this Sati Pratha can be seen as an example. Similarly, a unit in the system sometimes appears to be very small but that unit is also very important for the system. Thus, no element of culture is dysfunctional but rather the fulfillment of a human need in any form. Does i
.vi Every society has its own distinctive culture (Culture is Distinctive in every Society) – Every society has a distinctive culture. We know that any society is meant for a specific geographical and natural environment. According to this, the social environment and culture is created. For example, the geographical environment of the people living on the mountains is different from the geographical environment of the people of the plains. Similarly, the people living in these two places have different needs. like

Food, lifestyle, dance, singing, religion etc. Therefore, the culture of both develops according to the need in relation to the geographical environment. When there are changes in the behavior and needs of the society, then there is a change in the culture. The rate and direction of change in the behavior of people in different societies is different. Because of which there is variation in the rate and direction of change in culture.

vii. Culture has the quality of adaptation (Culture has Adoptive Quality) – An important feature of culture is that it gets adapted to the needs over time. Culture is according to the environment and situation of the society. When the environment and circumstances change, the culture also molds itself accordingly. If this specialty and quality is not there, then the existence of culture will not remain. Due to change in culture according to time and situation, the usefulness of uraki does not end. The main objective and function of every culture is to fulfill the physical, mental and social needs of the village. Culture has to be molded according to these needs. Do you know – the needs of people have been different in every era. New needs have been born in place of old needs and they also change from time to time. Along with these, the quality of adaptation is in the culture. This is the reason why culture changes, but culture changes very slowly.

viii. Culture is Super-Organic – Man created culture by using his mental and physical abilities, which is above organic. A person develops by living in a culture and then a human creates a culture which is above the human. The basis of all human capabilities is organic, but this culture goes above organic. In this sense, culture has been called super-organic.

ix. Culture is super-individual – both the creation and continuity of culture do not depend on any particular person. Therefore it is super-individual. Culture is not created by any particular person, but culture is created by the whole group. Each cultural entity has a history of its own, which is beyond any individual. Culture is the result of social invention, but this invention is not the brainchild of any one person. Thus no one person can be the creator of the whole culture. The ability to change and modify it is not in the control of any particular person. Thus culture is hyper-personal.
x There is balance and organization in culture (Culture has The Integrative) – There are many elements and sections within the culture, but they are not separate from each other, rather interrelationship and interdependence are found in them. Of culture. Each unit does not work in isolation from each other, but all work together. This type of balance and organization creates a cultural framework. Under this structure, each unit has a certain position and function, but all of them are based and related to each other. In any one part or unit of culture. If there is a change, the other party or other entity is also affected.

xi. Culture is Ideal for the Group – The culture of each group is ideal for that group. This type of belief is found in all societies. All people consider their own culture as ideal and consider their culture higher than other culture. Culture is also ideal because its behavior pattern is not of a particular person but of the whole group.

You need to understand that – according to Emile Durkheim, culture is a symbol of collective-consciousness, that is, it does not represent a particular person but a group, so it is considered ideal, that is why it is ignored against collective consciousness. And that person is condemned but those who respect it are praised.

types of culture

Ogerbon and Nimkoff have discussed two types of culture –

Material culture and non-material culture. 1. material culture

-1. All those physical and tangible things are included under material culture, which have been created for humans, and which we can see and touch. The number of material culture is more in modern society than in primitive society, Prof. Bierstead has tried to make it more clear by dividing all the elements of material culture into 3 main categories. Machines 1. Equipment iii. Utensils iv. Buildings v. Roads vi. Bridge vii. Craft articles viiiArtistic articles ix. Clothing x. Vehicles xi Furniture xii. Foodstuffs xiii Medicines etc.

The characteristics of physical culture are as follows
1. Material culture is tangible.
2 . It keeps on increasing continuously.
3. Physical culture can be measured.
4. Changes happen quickly in the original culture.
5. Its usefulness and benefits can be evaluated.
6. It cannot be accepted without making changes in material culture. ie a

There is no difference in its form in taking it from place to place and adopting it. For example motor vehicle, dress and cloth etc.

Non-material culture – All those non-material and intangible things are included under non-material culture, which do not have any size, shape and color etc. Non-material culture is transferred from one generation to another through the process of socialization and learning. In this way we can say that non-material culture refers to that part of culture.
107 is in favor, which does not have any concrete form, but controls, regulates and influences human behavior through thoughts and beliefs. Pro . Bearstead called ideas and ideal rules as the most important under non-material culture and said that ideas are the main part of non-material culture. There can be a certain number of views, yet Prof. Beerstead has presented some sets of ideas Scientific truth Religious belief Mythology iv. Anecdotal literature vi Superstition vii. Sutras viii proverbs etc. All these ideas are part of non-material culture. Ideal rules are not related to thinking, but to the way of behaving. That is, those rules or methods of behavior which the culture considers as its ideal, are called ideal rules. Pro . Beerstead has divided all ideal rules into 14 parts. Law 2. Act 3. Rule 4. Regulation 5. Practices 6, Generalities 7. Ethos 8. Prohibition 9. Fashion 10. Sanskar 11. Karma-Kand 12. Rituals 13. Custom 14. virtue .

The characteristics of non-material culture are as follows
1. Non-material culture is intangible.
2 . It is difficult to measure it.
3. Non-material culture is complex.
4. Evaluating its usefulness and benefits is a difficult task.
Change in non-material culture is very slow.
6. When non-material culture is accepted from one place to another, then there is a slight change in its form.
7. Non-material culture is related to the spiritual and inner life of man.

difference between material and non-material culture

Culture is created only by the combination of material and non-material aspects, but there are some differences between the two, which are as follows
1. Material culture is also called civilization, while non-material culture is simply called culture.
2 . Material culture is tangible, while non-material culture is intangible. For example, the train and the thought and mind of the scientist, which led to the invention of the train. Here the train is the material culture, while the scientist’s idea is the non-material culture.
3. It is easier to imbibe material culture than non-material one. It can be accepted anywhere, but it is not easy to accept non-material culture. Others face difficulties in accepting. Very easily we are not able to accept the ideals and values of other places.
4. Non-material culture changes at a slower rate than material culture. Like – motor, watch etc change, but the beliefs of man do not change soon. ,
5. Since material culture is tangible, it is easy to measure it, but due to non-material culture being immortal, there are difficulties in its measurement. Its measurement is not possible.
6 Growth in material culture happens at a rapid pace, while growth in non-material culture happens at a very slow pace. For example, different types of things come to the fore due to new discoveries and inventions in the society, but the thoughts of a person are found to be years old.
7. The growth and accumulation of non-material culture cannot be explained. But there is growth and accumulation in material culture and it can also be measured.
8. The benefits and usefulness of material culture can be measured and told, but the usefulness and benefits of non-material culture cannot be evaluated. It can only be experienced.
9. Material culture is related to the physical and material life of the person, while non-material culture is related to the spiritual and inner life of the human being.
10. Material culture is simple, while the form of non-material culture is complex. ,

The Structure of Culture

1. Cultural Traits
2 . Culture Complex
3. Culture Pattern or Culture Configuration

1. Cultural elements – Cultural elements are the smallest units or single elements of culture. Culture is formed by combining these units. Culture is formed by combining these units. Hershkovits has called the cultural element the smallest identifiable unit within a particular culture. Kroeber called it “the least defining element of culture”. For example – handshake, touching feet, taking off one’s headgear, kissing cheeks, providing accommodation to women, saluting the flag, wearing white sari during mourning, vegetarian food. Eating, walking barefoot, sprinkling water on idols. It has three main characteristics i. Every cultural element has a history of its origin, whether that history is small or big. ii. Cultural element is not static. Mobility is its characteristic. iii.Cultural elements have the nature of assimilation.They are like a bouquet of flowers.

They live together like that.

2 . Cultural complexes – are made up of cultural elements. When some or many elements together fulfill human needs. Thus, bowing down in front of the idol, sprinkling holy water on it, placing some food in its mouth, folding hands, taking prasad from the priest and singing aarti etc. all these elements together form a religious cultural complex. Piddington called cultural complex as functional association of cultural elements.

3. Cultural Pattern – When cultural elements and packages together become related to each other in functional roles, then a cultural pattern is born from them. Culture – The study of the pattern gives knowledge of the main characteristics of a culture. For example – Gandhism, spiritualism, caste-system, joint family, ruralism are cultural complexes of Indian culture which introduce the characteristics of Indian culture.

Clark Wissler has mentioned 9 basic cultural elements that give rise to culture-pattern
1. speech and language
2 . Physical Elements – 1 Food Habits Habitat iii Transport iv . Utensils etc. v. Arms viBusiness and Industry
3. art
4. mythology and scientific knowledge
5. religious ceremonies
6. family and social species
7. property
8. Government
9. war .

Kimble Young has included 13 elements of culture in universal patterns
1. Models of Movement: Sign and Language
2 . Things and riots for the welfare of humans
3. quantity and mode of transport
4, Exchange of goods and services – trade commerce
5. Types of Property – Real and Personal
6. Sexual and family patterns – marriage and divorce, types of kinship relations, succession, guardianship.
7. Social Control and Governing Institutions – Ethos Public Opinion Law War
8. Artistic expression: building arts, painting, culture
9. leisure time activity
10. religious and magical ideas
11. mythology and philosophy
12. science
13. The cultural structure of foundational interaction processes.


functions of culture

1. for person
for 2 groups

1. for person

Culture makes man human.
ii. Solving complex situations.
iiiSatisfaction of human needs
iv. personality building
V: Provides values and ideals to human beings.
vi determines the habits of human beings.
vii. determines morality.
viii Brings uniformity in practices.
ix Increases experience and efficiency.
x. Provides security to the individual.
xi. solves problems.
xii. Contributes to socialization.
xiii Determines status and role.
xiv. instrumental in social control

, for 2 groups

It keeps social relations stable.
ii. Broadens the outlook of the individual.
iii Creates new needs.

, Phase of Culture

Dr. Dube has discussed six stages of culture.
1. early stone age
2 . paleolithic age
3. neolithic age
4. copper age
5. bronze age
6. iron Age

Normative Bases of Culture

Emile Durkhim said in relation to the need for regulatory bases to maintain the unity and stability of the society. W. G. Sumner stressed the need for regulatory bases for the effective functioning of society. When we talk about regulatory bases of culture, we are talking about all those abstract forms that control social behavior in one way or the other. You guide and influence. Example – rules – values, customs, conventions, laws, customs etc. Let’s do

Social Sanction There are two types of social discipline
1. Positive Sanction
2 . Negative Sanction: Positive discipline is that which makes an action expected and the doing of which increases social respect. For example, reaching office on time is a good thing and those who do so are considered good. Negative discipline, doing such work which brings down reputation, is punished. For example, raising hands on women in India is considered bad, and brings down prestige.


cultural lag

This concept was discussed by W. F. Ogbum in his book ‘Social Change’ in 1925. According to Agibern, culture can be broadly divided into two parts.
1. physical and
These two parts of material culture do not change at the same rate. For some reason a part moves forward. The other one is left behind. As a result, a situation of cultural delay arises. Due to this diseases arise in the society. As soon as the left behind part is brought forward, there is a change in the society. Thus, according to Ogvern, Sanskrit. Logical delay is a mantra in the hands of sociologists by which society changes. All the examples given by them make it clear that material culture moves ahead and non-material remains behind. He was criticized a lot for this. Accepting these criticisms, in 1957, in his book ‘On Social and Culture Change’, while defining cultural delay in full, it was made a principle.

Presented as According to them – a culture lag occurs when end the two parts which are co – related or change before or in greater degree than the other part does their by causing less adjustment between the part then exist its previously. It is clear from this definition that following conditions are necessary for cultural delay. Any two variables whether both physical or one physical one non-physical. II. There must be correlation between the two variables. III. Adaptation between the two variables is necessary at a particular point in time. IV. For some reason, one moves forward and the other back. As a result, there should be delay in both.




There are four factors causing cultural lag
1. conservatism
2 . allegiance to the past
3. fear of new ideas
4. Vested interests

Criticizing this, Mackiwar and Page have said that Technological Lag should be used instead of Cultural Lag. Culture Lag is unimportant in today’s sociology because it only talks about two variables whereas today in any science there is talk of Multiple of factors.

Culture Change – The question arises why culture changes. Sumner has given three reasons for this
1. 100% transfer of culture is impossible. 2 . Change in external conditions 3. Attempt to adapt

Culture Contact – When two different cultures come in contact with each other, it is called cultural contact. Sanskritization due to cultural contact or on –

The process of acculturation begins. Accultraltion (Para-Sanskritisation) – According to Harshkavitsa, “When the elements of two cultures intermingle – meet. It is a two-way process (Two Way Process) like – Indian Muslims and Hindus have adopted each other’s elements.”

Cultural Relativism (Cultural Relativism) – Harshkovitas has mentioned this. Cultural relativism means the coexistence of different cultures. We can express cultural relativism by the example of greeting. In India, people join hands to greet, in Western societies they shake hands and take off their hats, in Japan the body is bowed, and in Africa, the Maasai tribe spit on each other. Every human’s experiences, decisions and behavior are according to their culture, this is called cultural relativism. Therefore, Harshkovitas says that no culture should be compared on the basis of values of other culture, rather each culture should be evaluated relative to its own culture.

Ethnocentricism (Self-Culture Centricity) – It was discussed by American sociologist W. G. Sumner did it. When people of one culture consider their culture as superior and evaluate all other cultures on the same basis, it is called Ethnocentrism.
Discussing Temperocentricism Bierstedt said that the relation of the past of each aspect is considered more important.

TransCulturation (Para-Culturation) The process in which two or more cultures exchange themselves. It is called Trans-Culturation.

Cultural Pluralism Cultural Pluralism refers to a society where many people live together. Everyone respected each other, no one considered anyone inferior. Indian culture for example.

Education has tremendous scope as an instrument of social and cultural change. It should be kept in mind that through education not only knowledge is imparted, but skills, interests, attitudes, aspirations and values are developed, social and cultural progress is facilitated, and at the same time the social status of the people is improved. And the cultural level also rises.

Education brings about cultural changes which can result in many changes and transformations in the society in many forms. It can be seen in every aspect of human culture such as variation in norms of values and ways of thinking, changes in material culture, ideas, family relations, political culture, patterns of administration
changes in the status, participation in social activities, capabilities and attitudes of personnel at the local, state, regional and national levels; in every aspect of human activity

Education and culture are closely and inextricably linked. The cultural pattern of a society determines its educational pattern. For example, if a society has a spiritual character of culture, its educational processes will emphasize the attainment of moral and eternal values of life. On the other hand, if the cultural pattern of a society is materialistic, then naturally its educational pattern will be shaped towards the attainment of material values that promote sense pleasures and material comforts. A society devoid of any culture will have no definite educational organization. Therefore the culture of a country has a very powerful influence on its educational pattern.

The ultimate connection between culture and education is evident from the fact that one of the major aims of education is to impress upon the child his cultural heritage. In any human group, various elements and parts of culture develop over thousands of years of experience, and these are passed down in their entirety to subsequent generations. So every person is born in a particular culture which teaches him how to behave.

and provides certain patterns of values which guide his conduct in different spheres of life. Thus they have saved the necessity of doing new experiments every time. Obviously, then, culture plays an important role in man’s life, in his adaptation to the natural environment, in his adaptation to the social environment, in the development of personality and socialization.

Every society has a culture or a way of operating that is unique to it. To live harmoniously in a given culture, its members must be aware of the various modes of conduct acceptable to that culture. It is through the process of education that children and new members are exposed to these facts. Also, in order to survive, one must be familiar with the nature of these things in one’s environment that one may encounter. In very general terms, it can be said that universally, the purpose of education is to inform the individual about the nature of his culture and its acceptable methods.

Coping with that culture. The implication, clearly, is that education should teach students from a particular country how to view the world and act according to their country’s way of doing things.
(i) Influence of culture on education
As mentioned above, culture and education have a transactional relationship. Both compliment and complement each other in various aspects. The following are some of the effects of culture on education.
1. The aims and ideals of education are mostly determined by the values and norms of the society.
2. Curriculum is conditioned according to the culture of the society. It is designed according to the ideals and needs of the society to realize the cultural values.
3. Methods of teaching and culture are closely related. The changing cultural patterns of the society also exert a powerful influence on the methods of teaching. The change from old teacher centered pedagogy to child centered pedagogy is an example. Social methods like project method, seminar, symposium, discussion etc. are widely used in the teaching-learning process due to the influence of culture.
4. Discipline is also influenced by cultural values. Current cultural patterns of thinking and living are directly linked to our concept of discipline. The concept of oppressive discipline of ancient and medieval times has been replaced by modern values of life.
5. Text books which are written as per the prepared syllabus and promote and promote cultural ideals and values are welcome.
6. Only a teacher who imbibes the cultural ideals and values of the society can successfully achieve his goal. Only such teachers are capable of inculcating high ideals and moral values in the children.
7. School is a miniature form of society. The total activities and programs of the school are organized according to the cultural ideals and values of the society. Hence the school is the center to promote, mold, improve and develop the cultural patterns of the society.

(ii) Effect of education on culture
Wherever there are human groups there is culture, i. I. A man-made part of the environment and learned patterns of behaviour. Wherever culture occurs, it is spread and transmitted to future generations through education. Since humans live in groups, we can say that wherever there are humans, there is culture and learning in various forms. Schooling is mainly confined to literate cultures. The role of education is very less in illiterate groups.

Just as culture influences education, education also exerts a powerful influence on the culture of a country. Following are the various ways by which education affects the culture of the country.

1. Protection of culture: Every country recognizes and exhibits the superiority of its culture

He rests. So it tries to preserve its culture in its original form. Education is the only means to accomplish this task. Thus education preserves the culture of the society.
2. Transmission of culture: The process of preservation also involves the process of transmission. The transmission of culture from one generation to another is the best guarantee of its preservation. In the words of the famous sociologist Ottaway, “The function of education is to transmit social values and ideals to the young and capable members of the society”.

3. Development of Culture: The function of education is to bring about necessary and desirable changes in cultural ideals and values for the progress and continuous development of the society, without which the social progress will be stratified and come to naught. Education cultivates individuals, modifies cultural processes through research and deep inquiry into all areas of human need.

4. Continuity of Culture – Culture is the life blood of the society. Without culture a society is bound to decay and die sooner or later. Education maintains the continuity of culture through its diverse activities and programmes. A society establishes schools to preserve and transmit its culture from generation to generation. It has been found that some schools try to develop in their children an undesirable cultural extremism and a sense of superiority.

Let’s try Children should be motivated to learn more and more from cultural interaction between different cultures. Ideally education should help them to develop the qualities of tolerance and accommodation along with an attitude of reciprocity. This cultural integration and cultural synthesis is the dire need of world society in modern times. Dr. S. Radhakrishnan says that an important aspect of Indian culture is its enduring nature. he saw; The more Indian culture changes, the more it remains the same. The strength of the Indian spirit has sustained us in difficult times. It is the intangibles that give a nation its character and vitality.”

5. Development of Personality: Education employs diverse cultural patterns of thinking, behavior and objects of cultural values so that the child may develop physically, mentally, socially and emotionally to the maximum extent. Thus the aim of education is to develop the personality of the child.

6. Removal of cultural backwardness: Material culture develops at a rapid pace due to scientific researches and innovations, whereas non-material culture consisting of ideals, values and norms lags behind creating a gap between the two. Education is the only means of bridging this cultural gap through its activities and programs of development.
7. Achieving Unity – For the unity of mankind there should be spread of culture of different groups in the world. Cultural isolation must go, and there should be no iron curtain between one culture and another. Dr. Zakir Hussain believes, “The characteristic of an educated person should be a positive attitude towards the goals of culture, i.e. towards ultimate objective values. Attitude should be a nurtured product of educational and institutional activity”.

8. Rectification of cultural evils: Education is corrective to cultural evils. Education cures ego and false personality by explaining the dimensions of culture. Educational enlightenment does not only mean an aesthetic appreciation of art and beauty, it also means having a kind and generous heart and soul. Culture frees the mind. Literacy and moral education and education in the arts constitute real techniques for the attainment of cultural values.

9. Education and racial prejudice and animosity: Education reduces racial prejudice and animosity, which stems from ideas about other cultures. It is a patriotic act to imbibe our culture, be proud of it and preserve it. But resisting any change in it shows nationalism by closing the doors for the entry of other cultural patterns and maintaining a strong iron curtain to preserve our own culture. It is not conducive to cultural development. Cultural diffusion is good for individual cultural groups and for humanity as a whole.

10. Human culture as a whole: Too much emphasis on one’s own culture will lead to inequality and lack of international understanding which is one of the functions of education. This is possible by bringing about the diffusion of different cultures. Education should consider human culture as a whole, “like a flower with different petals, and each petal represents a cultural group”. Education should strive for unity in diversity and should not overemphasize diversity.

11. Function of School: School is a simplified environment to understand the current culture of the society and school education teaches the child the same and also contributes. The school (in its broadest sense) determines the quality of culture with a view to playing the role of cultural construction-agency.
Tea. Education, being the absorber and reflector of culture, is the best medium to initiate the rising generation into the cultural norms and process of the society. Due to the concerted efforts of the government and other agencies

In the field of education, people have started understanding the importance of education. More and more people are taking interest in education. Parents want to send their children to school. Of late there is an increased demand for English education. More and more English Medium Schools International Schools, ICSE, CBSE and State Board Schools are opened and all of them get enough and more students. This is a clear indication of the trend in momentum. This is the result of a renewed demand for quality education. It has also accelerated due to the effect of globalization. Co-education, now a days, gets better acceptance by the society. The intensity of the resistance against sex education in schools is now facing less opposition. All these can be considered as positive results of education.

12. Inter-cultural understanding: Education can promote inter-cultural understanding among different cultures. Dr. S. To quote Radhakrishnan, “the greatness of a nation is not measured by its material power and wealth but by the inter-cultural relations of its people”. Intercultural understanding refers to the development of insight and perspective in individuals who, rising above their own self-interest and narrow self-interest, find what is truly valuable in cultures other than their own. It is now realized by educational planners and educationists alike that we must provide educational experiences and programs that develop an understanding of the other’s culture and thereby

The development of mutual understanding will lead to cooperation and through the process of transaction there will be a cultural synthesis. Education will be able to achieve the goal of national integration and national culture essential for national integration. Clausmeyer states, “Intercultural education is concerned with helping students understand the differences and similarities of the individuals who comprise our society and world”.

13. Education of culture and for culture: Culture enables a person to appreciate good ideas and art. It animates human interests and social efficiency. A cultured person is neither too dogmatic nor too dogmatic and aggressive. He does not reveal the extremes of passion or the violence of emotion or the profusion of language. Education plays an important role in building such individuals.

14. Flux in Traditional Culture: Culture is in constant flux. It changes as the society changes. No nation has had continuous cultural traditions. India too is not an exception to this. Every generation adds something new and improves something old. The family bond in India is considered to be one of the strongest in the world. The joint family system is gradually disappearing, giving place to the nuclear family, bringing freedom, though at the same time stressing loneliness and insecurity. We can see that the pattern of nuclear family and its culture is being accepted among the educated

Rapidly, progressively in the semi-educated and slowly in the illiterate. Due to education and exposure to other cultures, our food habits are changing, our dress is changing, our standards of appreciation for art are changing from time to time and our religious beliefs are changing. . Despite resistance from some quarters due to vested interests or pressure from some religious sects etc., most of the people have come to welcome these changes without any resistance.

The development in the field of education has given a impetus in the socialization of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes by giving them a sense of oneness with all other castes in India. Another result of educational development is that the number of inter-caste marriages is increasing. This has resulted in a sustained campaign against the dowry system, with several state governments passing laws to ban it.

Technological advancement, education result has helped them to change their life style. Machines are dominating more and more mechanical activities of man. Now he has more free time. There is a tremendous explosion of inventive skill.

Scientific approach and training is relieving the Indian from the inherited static background of dogma, superstition, inflexibility, and weighted moral values and pre-determined behavior patterns. The Indian mind today carries not only its own racial and cultural memories but also the technical and scientific truths of others.

Population explosion is the single biggest factor responsible for the breakdown of environmental patterns and social and economic practices. Its effect is visible in every aspect of life. The norm of small family is widely accepted among the educated class. Media especially visual media has helped

Worked to educate even the illiterate about the ill effects of having more children in a household and undermine the wrong cultural notion of having a son to light the pyre and many other cultural evils of the society.

15. The status of women in Indian society is increasing. More and more people are beginning to accept the equality of the sexes. The laws of the Central Government and State Governments and programs of governmental and non-governmental organizations have promoted this objective. Right to education, equal right to parental property, right to employment, equal pay for equal work, etc. have brought about tremendous changes in the status of women and have had far reaching effects on social, family, cultural, economic, political and other aspects Huh. Of life The recent attempt to pass the ‘Women’s Reservation Bill’ in both the Houses of the Central Government is a clear indication of the changes taking place in this direction.

Education has brought a cultural change in the distribution of wealth and rewards to women. Women now have equal rights in ancestral property. Equal pay for equal work is the accepted norm at all levels. Certainly resistance can be seen from various quarters. But further spread of education is sure to bring about a change in the mindset of the people and positive attitude will become an integral part of our culture.

16. Human Realization of Common Culture Education is closely linked with the intellectual, emotional, cultural and social life of mankind. On the one hand it enables the individual to realize the qualities with which he is endowed and on the other hand it enables him to realize that all human beings share a common culture, which contributes to the common good. In Addison’s words, “Education, when it acts on a noble mind, draws out to view every latent virtue and perfection”. Education derives its meaning and power from the environment around objects and human beings. Therefore it cannot ignore the cultural values that give meaning to the environment. Man learns from the circumstances in which he lives,

From the experiences he meets, the ideas he receives and from the geographical conditions and times of history he learns. Education is an important configuration of the social system, which prepares the personality and culture of the young generation for life and prepares them for the kind of society in which they live and should live.

17. Attitude towards child labor is another area where we find a great change in values. Indian society has developed a culture against employing children in the carpet industry and other sectors. Due to the efforts of the government, making a law to make education free and compulsory for children of 6 to 14 years, positive role of media and voluntary organizations in this direction and various programs of the government involving local people like Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan Education programs have also educated the general public about the need and importance of education. As a result, more and more children and adults are attracted towards education. They are becoming more and more aware of their rights and duties. Welfare programs are widely accepted and spread easily. There is still a long way to go and a lot needs to be done in this regard.

18. Teacher as an agent of cultural reconstruction: A resourceful teacher can develop new models of culture in line with the emerging aspirations of the society through formal and non-formal education. This will enable the youth to develop adaptive capabilities and adjust to the changes in the society. In the final analysis the teacher is the custodian and democratic arbiter of culture. he is the architect of culture-to-culture by drawing

Rebuilding on old cultural experiences and on new experiences thus produces innovations.

The above discussion confirms the fact that education has tremendous influence on various aspects of culture. Development in education brings about progressive changes in the culture of a society. Education makes the learner uncomfortable in the obsolete and irrelevant prevailing system in the society and constantly strives to bring about change for the better.







This course is very important for Basics GS for IAS /PCS and competitive exams




*Group c*

*Forest guard*






*Complete General Studies Practice in Two weeks*




**General science* *and* *Computer*


*Must enrol in this free* *online course* xxx76D77B987A




**English Beginners* *Course for 10 days*







समाजशास्त्र का परिचय











Beginners Urdu Learning Course in 2Weeks



Hindi Beginners Learning in One week



Free Sanskrit Language Tutorial



Follow this link to join my WhatsApp group:


Join Teligram group


Join What app group for IAS PCS


Join Facebook


Instagram link

Leave a Comment

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.