Fertility : Meaning and definitions

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Meaning and definitions of fertility:

Generally, fertility refers to the total number of live births born by a woman or her group in a given period of time. Fertility is measured by the number of children, or the frequency of live births over a given period. The definition of this term has been given in different ways by different demography. A critical analysis of the major definitions is as follows: Bernard Benjamin has said that fertility is a measure of the rate at which a population increases in population by birth and generally the number of married couples of a given section of the population, the number of women of the age group of childbearing potential. The number i.e. the ability to reproduce can be a suitable criterion. “According to Georges Badale, there is a method of precise level. Fertility is a population based on the number of live births. In the words of Thompson and Lexie, fertility is generally defined as the total number of offspring produced by a woman or a group of them in a given period of time. From the analysis of the above definitions you will know that fertility has the following characteristics:
1. Fertility is related to the life event of birth.
Fertility is related to only one section of the population.

2. This group is related to the female population, which is under the reproductive age (ie between 15 and 49 years).

3. In this group study of children born is done.

4. In the measurement of fertility, live children are taken into account. It can also be referred to as the level of actual success or the number of live deliveries.

difference between fertility and fertility

Fertility refers to the ability of a woman to give birth to children, whether she has given birth to children or not, but fertility refers to the actual birth of children. That is, all women can be divided into two parts. Women who have the power to produce children are called progenitors and those women who do not have the power to produce children are called non-producers. Only women with child-producing power can have servitude. Women who get married and have children after marriage, they have fertility. Therefore, all those women who have fertility also have fertility, but it is not necessary for all child-producing women to have fertility. They must be married for fertility.


factors affecting fertility or fertility

There are many factors that affect fertility. Louis Henry has divided fertility into two parts for the purpose of studying the factors affecting fertility.

(i) natural fertility,
(ii) Controlled Fertility

(i) Natural Fertility It is such a fertility in which the individual is not conscious to control the size of his family. They are not at all concerned about the number of children. The number of children depends on the frequency of intercourse and physical ability. Therefore, the factors affecting fertility in such a society are only biological or physiological.

(ii) Controlled Fertility It is this type of fertility under which people accept the ideal of family planning. This type of society uses various methods of family planning effectively. Such additional practical elements are also included. The fertility of bodily elements in society is also a social subject and also a purely individual matter. Therefore, the factors affecting fertility have been classified separately. Following are some of the major classifications

1. Prof. Classification of Snake 2. Prof. Donald J. Classification of bog 3. Prof. Classification of Kingsley Davis and Judith Black

1 Pro. Classification of Snakes Prof. The snake has divided the factors affecting fertility into three parts. Biological elements: – Under these elements health conditions, various diseases, secret diseases or infertility, food habits, fertility etc. are included. These various elements are health related and depend on the health facilities available in the country. Expansion in health facilities increases the power of production and reduction in mortality rate. The main reason for the rapid increase in the world population in the last years is the expansion in health facilities. affect fertility. These are commonly called social elements. These various factors affect fertility indirectly. The main element among these elements is

(i) age of marriage
(ii) Divorce and separation,
(iii) Vaidya,
(iv) polygamy system,
(v) Separation between husband and wife due to social or religious reasons
(vi) Time period of postpartum separation
(vII) Temporary self-restraint etc. after marriage


Direct Social Elements: – Under this, those elements are included which affect population growth. Under these elements, various measures of population control are included. These elements directly affect fertility, the main elements of these elements are self-restraint, measures related to child regulation, termination of pregnancy, infanticide related to progeny, etc. age of marriage, married

Pro . Donald J. Classification of Bog :- Marital Level Unmarried Widow, Widow, Separation, Floor

The amount of salt, etc., affects the fertility. Level of Education Fertility declines with increasing level of education—”Whole the world there appears to be a strong inverse correlation between the amound of educational attainment and the level of fertility. Most fertility occurs in women who are illiterate and least in those who have maximum education. There is a negative relationship between urbanization and fertility in urban and rural dwellings. Studying the fertility data of town and village, it clearly shows that at each age of the city. Area of ​​residence: Climate also has an effect. Often in hot areas, fertility is higher than in cold areas.

This is the reason that the population of countries in the world, where the climate is hot, is relatively high. Occupation There is a close relationship between the occupation and fertility of the husband. If the husband has a high social status, then fertility is often low, while the low level is likely to have high fertility. Yet this relationship is not simple and clear. usually lower class This is the lowest in the upper middle class, whereas the fertility is found more in the upper middle class than in the lower middle class. The income of the place of residence on the fertility of the women of the class, the fertility of the village: Prof. Bog’s view is that there is a U shape between the income level and fertility. When it occurs, that fertility is minimal, but in higher Aap levels then the fertility is high, how is the relation of the husband to the K curve.

When the income level is very low, there is a tendency for the income level of the middle class to rise again. Eminent economists were of the view that there is a direct correlation between poverty and fertility, that is, the poorer the family, the greater the survival and the wealthier the family, the fewer children. But after 1945 there has been a change in ideology. The occupation of working women Generally, the fertility of working women is less than that of domestic women. Even among working women, fertility is particularly low in social scientists, accountants and auditors, designers, draftsmen, college professors and lawyers. Pro . Bog is of the view that fertility is less than normal in women who do mental work. Use of preventive measures: Preventive measures have a direct and effective effect on the level of fertility. As the use of preventive measures increases, the level of fertility decreases. Approach to the size of the family In relation to the family, in 1860, Halton studied America and made some important conclusions, which are as follows:
That every person wants children and most people want two, three or four children. But the percentage of those who want more children than that is very less.

Pro . Kingsley Davis Classification Prof. Kingsley Davis has classified all the factors affecting fertility into three categories. He was of the opinion that a child can be born only if:
(1) cohabitation, (2) cohabitation results in conception, and thereafter
(3) The pregnancy completes its period successfully. Therefore, these three stages encompass all the components of fertility.
These three states have been considered by Davis and Judith as ‘ Intermediate Variables , under which 11 components can be included .

1. Factors that result in cohabitation (i) Age at the time of initiation of sexual intercourse (ii) Permanent purity The proportion of women who are never able to establish a sexual relationship. The period of reproduction age group in which the affiliations were present. (a) The breakup is lessened by divorce, separation or separation. (b) When the separation took place due to the death of the husband.
(b) factors affecting cohabitation under coincidence (iv) voluntarily restrained, forced abstinence (sickness, inevitable, short-term, separation or unfit for cohabitation). (vi) Frequency of intercourse. 2. The factors that result in conception: (vii) the effect of involuntary causes in the inability or inability to produce children. (viii) Using or not using contraceptive measures. (a) Chemical or pharmaceutical or mechanical measures. (b) Other measures (ix) Effect of voluntary factors (sterilization or other medical work) in inability to produce a child.
3. Factors which affect the completion of pregnancy (x) Fetal death (xi) Fetal death due to involuntary causes. Although different scholars have classified the factors affecting fertility differently, we can study the factors affecting fertility broadly under three headings, as shown in the chart: Fertility Influencing Elements Indirect Social Elements Direct Social Elements Other Social Factors (i) Age of Marriage (i) Preventive Measures (i) Socioeconomic Situation (ii) Divorce and Separation (ii) Mortality or Death (ii) Social Status of Women (iii) Abortion (iii) Attitude towards children (iv) (iv) Sterilization (iv) (v) Separation due to menstruation and other reasons (v) Fetalicide (vi) Abstinence (vii) Frequency of cohabitation (viii) Polygamy Customs Postpartum Restrictions Social and Cultural Values

direct social influences on fertility Element

Progeny regulation measures are included in the direct social factors affecting fertility. Under this mainly the following measures are included. Preventive measures were assumed in ancient times as an effective means to control the fertility and fertility of unmarried life, but with the development of civilization, they are being replaced by means and methods related to prevention of conception and sterilization. Is . It is argued that these abstinence and unmarried life are painful and in the long run it does not have a good effect on health. Therefore, by contraceptive, a person can plan his family without being deprived of sexual pleasure. The means, methods and public awareness of family planning will necessarily control high fertility.

Mortality or death rate An important factor influencing fertility in underdeveloped countries is the death rate itself. It affects the three stages of the reproductive process. High mortality reduces the chances of embryo and survival after birth and thus children are not able to reach economically productive level. For this reason it becomes necessary to reproduce more in later years of married life to protect one’s old age, in order to be insured against death. A high fertility rate does not imply that fertility is also high, but rather suggests That reproductive work is as unskilled as other works in underdeveloped countries. In fact, three closely related variables, health and non-nutritional diet, high mortality and the need for more children to survive into old age, can ultimately reduce fertility and fertility rates. Survival does not necessarily have a negative effect on the initial desire to have children. But ultimately the survival ratio will degrade the fertility rate. Basically how many children do the parents want and what is the duration to get the number of these children . The fertility rate depends on these things. From this it can be concluded that a necessary condition of reducing the fertility rate is that the death rate also falls, there must be a time lag between the fall of the death rate and the fall of the fertility rate. Abortion Abortion is often the most effective acceptance method of family planning in civilized societies.

Abortion is considered legal in all the progressive countries of the world. Abortion has also been legalized in India. Pro . Chandrashekhar is of the opinion that the purpose of abortion is not to kill any living being, but its purpose is to save those babies from death, who are going towards death due to lack of security, service, food etc. “The incidence of abortion certainly reduces the future population population that was to increase the population as newborns. Sterilization is a permanent method of progeny regulation.
In men, vasectomy is called vasectomy and in women, it is called tubectomy. At present, in India, both men and women, sandhyakaran has been given special importance as a permanent measure of continuity regulation. Thus the fertility rate decreases due to sterilization. Feticide Even in ancient times, Greek thinkers had approved feticide for a healthy population. Even in primitive societies, the practice of feticide was often found.

It was also practiced in India, in many societies, such children were killed, who were unusual, such as those children who had teeth from birth, who were born at some time, who died in the house as soon as they were born. Was etc. But now this practice has reduced and such killings have no special significance in affecting fertility.

Other social factors affecting fertility
Socio-economic status: The socio-economic status of individuals also has an effect on fertility. It is often observed that the low status people have higher fertility rate than the high status ones. If we analyze the population of a society in hierarchical order of status, we will get it in the shape of a pyramid, in which the lowest status groups of individuals will have the largest population and the highest status groups will have the least population. The reasons for high fertility in low status people are as follows. Lack of foresight, (b) accepting children as property (a), (c) considering children as the support of old age and (d) accepting sexual intercourse as a means of entertainment, etc. Apart from this, the poor face the problem of their living, and they do not see the children as a burden, because the cost of their upbringing is very less.

Women’s Social Level Fertility is also greatly influenced by the social status of women. Societies in which women are considered the only means of child production and upbringing, they are restricted to housework, they often have high fertility. But where women play an active role in national work, step by step with men, women do not want to confine themselves to home. So she wants to limit her family.

This is the reason why the fertility of educated and employed women is uneducated.

less than women employed in housework. What is the difference between developed and underdeveloped countries in values ​​and attitudes, the traditional high fertility pattern, the modern low fertility pattern, man and nature, man is a slave of nature and God. What is the relationship between Man has no control over fate. Luck. Man can control nature. God works through man. optimism What is the relation between man and time? Future-oriented Present-oriented (live in the present) Not much planning.

The fundamentally sinful nature of sexual relations. Sexual relations either mutually for the gratification of duty or defined for the fundamentally good sexual gratification of carrying on a defined sexual lineage. Sexual relations for the maintenance and entertainment of the offspring. Task oriented individualist. In addition to siblings. What is alive and what is nature for living? Mental activities Work oriented Family oriented Sibling based. What is the nature of human relationships? Participation in second base social organizations Participation in municipal social organizations. Take .

Attitude towards children + number of children is a personal matter. To maintain the prestige of the family in the society, most of the societies consider children to be essential. In some societies, that family is considered to be more prosperous, which has more children. Even now boys are given more importance than girls. Therefore, the size of the family increases until the son is attained. Even today, only daughter-in-law women become the object of prestige in the society. Therefore, as long as social values ​​give special importance to children and sons, fertility will not decrease.

Social and Cultural Values ​​Social and cultural values ​​can have an impact on fertility rates either directly or through factors. The fertility rate in underdeveloped countries is high because of the traditional value structure of those countries. The difference between values ​​and attitudes between underdeveloped and developed countries is clear from the following table. It is clear from the discussion of the above table that the social system and cultural values ​​in these countries are not conducive to economic development, so it is not helpful in reducing the fertility rate. In these countries, the non-economic factors basically nullify the effect of the economic factors and these non-economic factors keep the fertility rate high.

Education Education brings newness to ideas and knowledge of the importance of factors affecting the family and the individual, so other things being equal, education and especially female education has a negative correlation with the fertility rate. There are many reasons responsible for decreasing the fertility rate through education, such as

(i) Educated women have a longer marriage age, which reduces their reproductive age, (ii) The activities of educated women are not limited to only coming home, but they also work outside the home, ( ii) They cannot be burdened with unnecessary motherhood; ) They successfully use different methods of progeny regulation.
Collin Clarke has concluded by collecting data in many underdeveloped countries that education has a definite effect on the fertility rate in urban and rural areas. Studies from Poona and Mysore in India found that the average number of children in women aged 45 years for literate women is 503, among women who have studied up to class VII, it is 5.5 and among women who have studied above 10th standard it is The number was 3.4.

Education According to the Mysore Population Study of University Shiksha Dandekar, there is a correlation between education and fertility rate. Dandekar’s study also supports the concept that education reduces the fertility rate. Type and Structure of Family It is generally hypothesized that joint families lead to higher rates of fertility. The entire cultural structure, which supports the large family, works towards raising the fertility rate. On the basis of preliminaries it can be said that the above statement is true.

It is natural for a joint family to be related to high fertility, because in this the age of marriage is low, there is no personal liability towards marriage and child. But there can be many reasons for reducing the rate of fertility in a joint family, such as the possibility of mating is reduced, the control of traditions is more, the frequency of sexual intercourse is less due to the above reasons, children in the family And due to the crowd of old people, the gathering is considered a shameful act. All these factors have the effect of decreasing fertility, especially in the older age groups. This is the reason that the fertility rate in these upper age groups is lower in the underdeveloped countries than in the developed countries. Employment and occupation Generally, the fertility rate of persons engaged in occupations involving physical labor is higher than that of persons engaged in mental labour.

The fertility rate of people doing business etc. is less. The reason for this is that they lack time and are so busy in life that there is no need to think in this direction.

Just don’t get the opportunity. According to Thompson, hand workers have a higher fertility rate than white-collar workers and farmers have a higher fertility rate than workers. Jaffi and Ajuni have pointed out that “despite the limitations of these available data, the employment, which is done in non-agricultural work near the residence of the woman, helps in raising the fertility rate significantly, i.e. it increases the fertility rate among those will be higher than women who go to work away from their home.In both their fields of study, ie Japan and Puerto Rico, women who do not join the labor force and who are engaged in cottage industries in the village. The fertility rate has been found to be similar.

Among the women who have left their homes for work, the number of children is half that of the above two categories. Thus cottage industry is not an unmixed boon, as it is understood in India. In the context of female population also, the fertility rate of women engaged in employment is found to be low. The reason for this is that the conditions and conditions of work also affect the reproductive behavior and the presence of children proves to be a hindrance in the work. It is generally seen that there is an inverse relationship between income and fertility rate. One reason for this is that higher income levels are correlated with favorable occupational level of education, balanced consumption composition, etc., leading to lower mortality rates. It is also envisaged that the higher the per capita protein consumption, the lower will be the fertility rate. There is a positive correlation between the rate of protein consumption and the rate of per capita income.

Lebenstein studied the effect of increase in income on the fertility rate by comparing the utility and cost of an additional child. He is of the opinion that in underdeveloped countries, the utility derived from the birth of a child is more than its cost, because in these countries the cost of raising children is equal to living only, whereas the children of rich have higher education and living. Tolerance has to cost more.


difference between birth rate and fertility rate

Often people use the terms birth rate and fertility rate in the same sense, but there is a significant difference between the two. The difference between birth rate and fertility rate is explained in the table. Table difference between birth rate and fertility rate Fertility rate The basis of the difference in the birth rate, the basis of calculation, the birth rate is determined on the basis of the number of births and total number of babies born at only one place. Thus, the fertility rate is determined on the basis of the number of babies born by women of reproductive age (15-49). Fertility rates are of three types general specific and total. Fertility rate is determined on the basis of females per 1000 fertile periods. Generally the fertility rate is relatively high. In order to remove the effect of inequalities in the fertility sex ratio and to study the status of women, there are two types of caste birth rates, quantified and un-measured. The birth rate is determined on the basis of per one thousand persons. The birth rate is generally lower than the fertility rate. Is performed . Pal Urla rate, a measure of the fertility rate, is related to the overall fertility of women in the age group of 15-40 years. Birth rate is talked about for the study of the number and growth of the total number of children born at a place. The birth rate is usually related to a period of time that occurs

Fertility or fertility rates The measurement of the fertility of a population has been the main focus of demographic studies since its inception. The following facts are important in the measurement of fertility:
(1) The incidence of birth is seen in proportion to the overall population at that time. (ii) Birth events are related to certain age groups only. Generally the age period of 14-15 or 49 years is considered as reproductive age. In (iii) birth events are seen as the proportion of the entire female population of reproductive age. (iv) The most recent trend in measuring fertility trends is to find out again the ratio of female population to female offspring and female population related to fertility, ie a mother spends her entire reproductive period, as per a scrape. After taking it, how many future mothers do they leave behind. Keeping in view the above facts, various rates have been established. There are generally two types of rates for fertility measurement, as shown in the chart below.

fertility rates

Fertility Rates Actual Reproduction Birth Rates History ( i ) Crude Birth Rate ( ii ) General Fertility Rate ( iii ) Specific Fertility Rate ( Age Specific Rate ) ( iv ) Total Fertility Rate Reproduction Rate v) Cumulative Rate (vi) Standardized Birth Rate (vii) Marital Birth Rate (viii) Corrected Birth Rate

crude birth rate

Children This is the simplest method of measuring fertility. What The total born in a particular year is often expressed in per thousand. Its formula is as follows: ER | CBR = -x1,000 or Total number of babies born in a given area in a particular year Crude birth rate x1,000 Total number of births in a particular region in the same year where CBR = Crude birth rate EB = Crude birth rate in a given year The total number of live babies in the given area 2B = the total population of that area for the same year (in the middle of the year) For example, if the population of a city is 20,000 and the number of births is 500, then the crude birth rate is 500 ( 28 ) ( CBR ) = -x1,000 25 per thousand 20,000 ( EP ) It is called crude birth rate because it does not take into account the differences in population formation i.e. age and sex of any community while calculating it. Therefore, although it is easy to calculate, it is not considered a proper measure of fertility. It has many drawbacks from the point of view of measuring fertility.

(i) Absence of sex difference While calculating the birth rate, the ratio of the total number of newborn babies is calculated on the total population, which includes both men and women, while the reproduction is done only by women, so the total number of births for the whole population. Instead, the number of females who fall in the reproductive age group should be considered as the basis.

(ii) Not giving importance to reproductive age (15-49 years) It is not proper to calculate the fertility on the basis of total population, because there is no fertility in the whole population. There is no fertility in children and growing individuals. Therefore, the measurement of fertility rate should include only women between the ages of 15 and 49.

(iii) To arrive at short term or short term rates of society. The special utility of a crude birth rate is simply by extracting what the rates of a single population population are from time to time, it will not make any difference in the formation of the population, because in this population there is no difference in age structure, sex ratio, married level, etc. does not happen . But even in the same population all these things change in the long run. Hence it is suitable only for short term study. It does not prove to be very useful in the long run.

(iv) Fixed Ratio: The crude rate can be true only if the ratio of the population of the reproductive age group to the total population remains constant.

normal fertility

Normal Fertility Rate refers to the total number of live babies born per thousand women of reproductive age or gestation period. This rate indicates the nature of normal fertility of total such women. The fertility rate is always expressed in 1,000. of any one year or period in the form of formula SB GFRx1,000 , SPP or Remaining Normal Fertility Rate 15-40 Age Group KBC -X1,000 Number where the total number of live babies born in 2B years 2Bf154 Age Group i.e. reproductive age Normal Fertility While calculating the rate, it is important to know what is considered the reproductive age of women. The reproductive period of women capable of producing offspring varies from place to place. To find the fertility rate, the method also includes those women who are unmarried widows or go in part of this age and even being in this age group is not able to affect fertility.

Age Specific Fertility Rate
The normal fertility rate is related to the entire reproductive age of women, while the fertility rate is more or less according to the age groups. For example, the fertility of women in the age group of 15-19 is low in India, but increases in the age group of 20-24. Therefore, the normal fertility rate does not provide proper parameters. Specific fertility rate is the fertility rate of a particular age group or age group. This rate is calculated by dividing the women of reproductive age into different age groups. For example, 15-19, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 40-44, 45-49 age groups can be made on the class interval of 5-5 and the fertility rate of a particular group can be found. If we want to find the fertility rate between 20-24 age, then we will calculate it as follows.

Total Fertility Rate ‘Total Fertility Rate’ is the sum total of the particular fertility rates of different age groups. This rate indicates that if a woman dies at the reproductive age . Then what will be the total expected number of babies born by 1,000 women in this period. This rate is based on the following assumptions

1. No woman dies at the reproductive age,
and 2. The fertility rate remains the same in different age groups of the reproductive age.

TERSpecific Fertility Rate (SFR) in the form of a formula xi where 1 The Interval of the Age Groups If the age specific fertility rates are determined after a period of 5 years, then the sum of the SFR is 5 (Class Expansion 1 ) The total fertility rate is found by multiplying by . TER = SER X5 Total fertility rate is related to the total number of children expected in the breeding season per 1000 females. When the fertility period is divided into different age groups, then after a woman enters that age group, that age group will remain in that age group for the number of years which is an extension of that age group. In this way, in that age group, that woman will continue to produce children for the number of years, which is an extension of that age group. Therefore, to get the number of babies born in the entire age group, it is necessary to do the specific fertility rate of the age group in the class expansion.

it happens . For example, if we are calculating the specific fertility multiplication rate for the year 1990 and the different age groups 15-19 , 20-24,25-29 , 30-34 , 35-39 , 40-44 , 45-49 Is . Now take the first age group 15-19. Its class extension is 5. Therefore, it becomes necessary to multiply the SER by 5 to find the number of children born in this (15–19) age group as a whole (assuming the woman will survive and the fertility rate will not change). Example Calculate Total Fertility Rate on the basis of example Solution: TFR = ESFR x 1 = 500×5 = 2.500 per thousand i.e. for every one thousand women, 2.500 babies are expected to be born in their entire puberty. In the above example the age group is the same, so the sum of the SFR is multiplied by the age group. If the total number of females and the number of children born is not given in the question, but the specific fertility rate was given, then the general fertility rate can be found by assuming an imaginary number of females in each age group.

Cumulative or Additive Fertility Rate

It is done on the basis of specific birth rate matching with total fertility rate. In this, the fertility rate of each age group is the corresponding fertility rate and it is also calculated by adding the fertility rate of the previous age group to the age rate. Thus, as we progress in the order of age groups, we add the age specific birth rates of each previous age group to the age specific birth rates of the succeeding age group Standardized or Standardized Birth Rate Fertility The rate is generally affected by the age structure of women and varies among women of different age groups.

It is often observed that the fertility is less in less than 20 years of age . It is highest in the age group of 20 to 35, then decreases again in the age group of 35-49. If there is a great disparity in this distribution of age in the population of two countries or societies, then there will be a difference in the fertility of both even if the population of both is equal, if the population of women of the two societies is different in the age group of 25-29, other groups Even if they are similar, there will be difference in their fertility. Not only the distribution of age but also the level of education, occupation, caste, religion etc. Therefore, by comparing the fertility of two societies, we cannot reach any definite decision. Therefore, in comparing the two societies, other factors must be kept constant in order to determine the difference between the two societies.

The certified fertility rate serves a purpose. To calculate this rate, we first accept a standard or population, then divide the population of societies or differences in the context of which comparative study is needed, on the basis of authentic numbers, into different age groups. According to the age specific birth rate of these age groups, we find out the number of children related to them. To do this, the age-specific birth rate is multiplied by the entire population, subject to the standard or standard population of the age group, and divided by one thousand. The total number of births related to different age groups thus obtained are summed up. This sum is divided by the measured population and multiplied by one thousand.

In this way per thousand measured population is known.
Marital Birth Rate The marital birth rate is the established per thousand ratio of children legally born in a population during a period of one year to the total number of married females belonging to the reproductive age of that population. In the form of a formula: The total number of Vaidya progeny produced in a year is . range . x 1,000 Total number of married women of reproductive age. Thus, to calculate the birth rate, in a given population, in a period of one year, the total number of legal births divided by the number of reproductively married women in that population is multiplied by one thousand. Are being given . Marital birth rate throws light on legal and illegal fertility trends. Revised Birth Rate When we start calculating the crude birth rate when we are unable to include the crude, then there are some births in that whose information is not registered. Often log births in rural areas do not register children. Therefore, accurate knowledge of fertility statistics is not possible. In such a case, the correct birth rate is added to the number. This estimated number may be a small part of the total registered number. Modified birth rate is always higher than crude birth rate B + b | [ Corrected Birth Rate ] = -x K P

Corrected birth rate where B = number of births registered in a particular year b = number of births unregistered in a particular year P = total population of a particular year K = constant 1000 represents.

total reproduction rate

For proper measurement of population growth, it is necessary to obtain information about the age-sex composition of the population. Since we want to measure the growth of population, it would be appropriate to consider the birth of a girl child, that is, the birth of a girl child, because today’s newborn girls are the mothers of tomorrow, so population growth in the true sense depends on the number of girls. Is . This is the reason why the reproduction rate is calculated as a measure of population growth. Gross Fertility Rate Women aged 15-49 years

That is the sum of the age specific fertility rates based on female birth only. “For Aggregate we can write the age-specific fertility rates based on the number of female births as -FIC -x1000 FP , where FB = number of girls born in a given time by women of age x of a particular community. FP = Total number of females of the given community of age x at a particular time. F1 = female birth rate at age x. It is called the Gross Reproductive Rate. According to the formula, GRR = -ŻA, (w) and w2 are respectively the lowest and highest age limits of female reproductive age. Normally w is 15 years and w : – 49 years.)

Thus, the Gross Fertility Rate refers to the number of female births, on an average, by females of each age group. That is, the rate at which mothers , daughters and the older generation will be replaced by the new generation if it is assumed that all women live to their childbearing age ( ie 49 years ) . does not migrate and maintains its current fertility rate FI . If the age-specific fertility rate is for the 5-year age groups, then it can be expressed as EI _EB , E.P. The value of GRR will be : GRR = 5 xYE ! Here the female fertility rate for all five-year age groups has been summed up. GRR can also be found with the help of TER. According to the formula, GRR = TFR x sex – ratio or GRR Total Fertility Rate x Sex Ratio If the value of GRR in a population is 1 then it means that the concerned sex (ie female population) is completely replacing itself and The population is stable. If GRR > | So it means population will increase in future and if GRR 1 then population will decrease because there will be continuous decrease in number of mothers in future.


net reproduction rate

If we look at the GRR, a significant drawback is seen in that it takes into account the current fertility. But the current mortality order is ignored, that is, the GRR accepts the faulty assumption that a woman “doesn’t die” until she reaches the peak of childbearing. While some girls may start their marital life. ie, before the age of 15 years, and the total may die between the age of 15 and 16. Similarly, some other females may die in the middle of the reproductive period. Hence the correct rate of fertility is known. It is necessary to adjust the die element in order to overcome this shortcoming of GRR, we study the NRR.

Thus, “net reproduction rate” refers to the number of girls produced by 1000 newborn chicks during their entire reproductive period, based on the current fertility rate and after adjusting for mortality rates. the extent to which mothers give birth to girls who survive them throughout the reproductive period to replace the mothers themselves. The NRR is generally calculated with the help of the following formula: NRR = FLE.P. where _ FI , = GRR [ F ] and F.Po = = female survival ratio FL ( 1 is the number of individuals who live to the right age and 4 is the total number of births. Clearly NRR ( GRR ) X ( Survival ratio ) In this way, NRR is an imaginary number which shows how many girls are born in a group of females during the entire reproductive period of birth and death, if it is noteworthy here that the NRR is taken care of. The value cannot be more than GRR i.e. GRR is the upper limit beyond which NRR cannot be exceeded because due to death the total number of women born decreases.

If the value of NRR is equal to one i.e. NRR 1 then it can be said that the present order of birth and death sequence is such that the newly born girls will completely replace themselves in the future i.e. the present generation will be equal to the next new generation. In such a situation, the population tends to remain stable. In case of NRR > 1 the tendency of population to increase and NRR < 1 to decrease in population is the replacement of population. Because in case of NRR > 1 the actual generation will be more than the current female population in case of female and in case of NRR < 1 the replacement of female population will be less than the current female population.

real reproduction history

Under this method a number of women is counted. This method of babies born in group is very simple and clear.
In this method, the calculation period (14-49) is 35 years. The final figures are presented as an average, that is, the average number of babies born per family, called the average family size. In this, there is no need for the creation of any kind of artificial cohort, rather the experience of any real cohort is observed, that is, the reproduction done by a group of women in their entire fertile age is measured. In this method data is obtained to measure fertility from the following sources:

1. To calculate the exact reproduction from the account of registration of the total number of babies born in the total reproductive age of the women.

2. Computation of traditional age specific birth rates in chronological order on the basis of annual data. If the birth rate for the period of at least 30 to 35 years is available, then it is calculated on the basis of simple registration and census.

3. Computation of reproduction history by obtaining information about the number of babies born in the past of each woman through a particular survey. The biggest difficulty in this method is that it has to account for the data related to birth rate for 35 years, which is not generally available. Janmantar and birth order The time period between two births is called Janmantran. In general, the higher the number of births, the lower the fertility rate. To find out the effect of birth on the fertility rate, the birth order related data are collected.

Births occurring in a year at a particular place can be classified according to the age and birth order of the mother in the following ways: can be done . If the classification of married women according to age and number of births is obtained, then the average birth order can be easily found. The rates of women who have exceeded the proportion of 35 births in the ratio of 35 births to which the average birth order is very suitable for a measure of their fertility, allowing for parity to compare women among themselves. It is such a list that the progression ratio is determined, the proportion of individuals of different age groups in this population remains unchanged, that is, the age classification of the population is not affected by the initial age classification and remains the same. This age-related classification is affected only by current fertility and mortality rates.

If the age classification ratio in a population is unchanging and the growth rate is zero, then such a population is said to be a stable population.
If age specific fertility rates in a population remain unchanged over some long period of time and age specific mortality rates change very rarely, the age classification will remain roughly the same. This classification is called Quast Age Distribution and the population is called Quasl Stable Population. The importance of fertility rate in this type of population becomes clear from the following figure:

Annual Exponential Growth Rate

The compound count represents the continuous growth in two populations between time periods, referred to the annual exponential growth rate. It is calculated to find the average annual growth rate in the population between two census years. In ( P2011 / 2001 ) 10 r = where annual exponential growth rate In = natural logarithm P2011 = population of the year 2011 • P2001 = population of the year 2001

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