Factors of social movement

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Social movements occur from time to time in every society.  The factors responsible for this can be described as follows-

1.The antiquity of customs: customs prevail in every society, but society is dynamic. If customs do not move according to the society and stick to the antiquity, then they do not fulfill the needs of the society, so some section of the society tries to agitate against them so that by changing those customs. be able to adapt to society and make society progressive


2.Imbalance in Status and Work: Every person wants his place in the society according to his ability and ability and does his work accordingly, but when in position (position) and work  If there is an imbalance, then there is a feeling of discontent in the society and the result is a social movement.  This often happens in societies from tradition to modernity.


3.Cultural Delay: There are two physical and non-physical elements of culture.  The meaning of material element is derived from inventions and material achievements and non-material elements include customs, social ideals, practices and social values.  Often our physical inventions develop at a rapid pace, while the customs of society do not change at such a rapid pace.  Thus, one side of the culture (material side) transcends the other (non-material side).  Augburn calls it cultural delays.  Due to this delay, discontent arises from the backward class and that disgruntled class organizes and agitates to advance their position.  The position of women in India was high, but the position of women in society was not high.  To rise high in this situation, women have organized and organized a movement.  The reform movement of women in India has received considerable help.


  1. Discontent in the economic sector: As the feeling of dissatisfaction in the economic sector intensifies, the poor class is dissatisfied and agitates for a change in the economic condition.  Economic discontent affects all other aspects of life.  The economic condition of the workers and women in India was poor, so they started various movements to improve their condition.


  1. Materialism through education: The movement of the movement will be rapid only in those places where there will be an educated society.  Only the people of an educated society can create awareness in people, because they themselves are also awake.  Therefore, the spread of materialism through education is the real factor of social movement, ie if the educated person is unemployed or has risen in opposition to any government policy, then in such a situation the movement can be quite frightening.


  1. Discontent among social classes: Different classes are found in the society.  These classes are divided on the basis of age, status, gender, religion, education etc.  There is a feeling of discontent in all the base-built classes.  Women do not allow men to advance, young men are stopped by the elderly, the poor are persecuted by the rich.  In this way, dissatisfaction develops in social classes as well.  This dissatisfaction also encourages the movement.


  1. Changes in the functions of social institutions: The functions of social institutions are determined by the society and culture, but when these institutions change their functions and take over other institutions, a situation of uncertainty develops at times.  Due to which a situation of social movement arises.


  1. Apathy towards social values: There are certain beliefs in the society.  If each person walks according to the prevailing beliefs in the society then the organization remains in the society.  But even when there is a difference or apathy in the beliefs prevailing in the society due to any reason, Exercise Books, Long


Discontent is generated in a section of the society and movements start in search of new values ​​in the society.


  1. Contact with different cultures: When people of one culture contact people of another culture, the process of exchange of culture starts in both.  Cultural exchanges lead to new ideas.  These new ideas give rise to social movements.  A predominantly dominant culture affects the weaker culture more, whereas it affects itself less.

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  1. Opposition of the evils by enlightened persons: In every society there are some educated and knowledgeable persons who attract public attention against the evils prevailing in the society.  The public is influenced by their views and agitates to change the ancient customs.  Raja Rammohan Roy, Kabir, Nanak, etc. Social reform movements are examples of this category.


  1. Convenience to travel abroad: A person gets a new experience or new knowledge by traveling abroad.  Meeting other people ends his narrowness.  The influence of customs prevailing in foreign countries brings changes in the culture of other countries and from that the situation of social movement is born.  The reason for improvement in the condition of women in India is the result of foreign cultures.  To overcome the old social practices in India, the knowledge of the leaders of the social reform movement had developed due to traveling abroad.


  1. Impact of Technology: The use of different types of machines in the society also encourages social movement.  Due to these machines, factories develop tomorrow, causing tension between the capitalist class and the working class in the society.  The working class agitates for its demands.  Due to technology, there is a difference in living in society.  The use of more machines gives a particular class authority over the means of production.  At the same time unemployment increases in the society and there is an increase in the exploitation of workers, due to which the movements are created for the fulfillment of different kinds of objectives in the society.  The student movement in India is the result of this kind of unemployment and it is a product of unemployment technology.


  1. Development of means of transport and conveyance: Due to scientific inventions, the means of transport has developed.  Such devices have also developed, through which news can be sent from one place to another.  Due to this system, the circumstances of one society have an impact on the other.  If there is a movement in one society due to any reason, then they also have an impact on the other society.  Therefore, if there is a student movement in one corner of India, it cannot be stopped from spreading to the other.


  1. Creation of organizations on the basis of caste: The formation of many organizations on the basis of caste in the society intensifies the pace of social movement, as these organizations try to develop their own regions and as a result  Various movements are organized.  Many examples of ethnic conflicts are found in Indian society.  Ethnic organizations have played an important role in the movements of backward castes.


  1. Indifference towards the female world: In the societies where restrictions are placed on the freedom of women, there are feelings of indifference in women.  One reason for apathy in the female society is that they are given equal rights as men.  Under these circumstances, the women’s society has to agitate for their rights.  Many women’s movements in India are examples of this.  Conclusion: Based on the above discussion, it is said that there are many reasons for social and cultural movements in the society.

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