Social Movement

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Meaning and definitions of social movement:


Movement means to collectively change or oppose social change by individuals.  Its main purpose is to solve some social or political problem.  Social movement can be defined as follows-

  1. According to the Oxford English Dictionary: ‘The social movement is an attempt by individuals to achieve a goal.  But if this meaning is accepted in sociology, it will be difficult to separate the movement from any other collective behaviour.
  2. According to Herbert Blumer: ‘The collective effort made to establish a new system can be called a social movement.  ‘
  3. According to Aldridge and Merrill: ‘Social movements are more or less conscious efforts to change stereotypes.
  4. According to Horton and Hunt: ‘The social movement is a collective effort to bring change or oppose the society or its members.  ‘It is clear from the above definitions that the social movement is an organized effort to bring changes in society or to oppose it, which is based on a common ideology.

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Salient features of social movement:

The salient features of social movement are as follows-

  1.Based on organized schemes: Whatever the nature of the movement, social, religious and political, it is run by some organized public group.  In India, many organized political parties are carrying out the movement against inflation.  The movement against sati and child marriage was organized by organized organizations like Arya Samaj, Brahma Samaj etc.


  1. The fulfillment of special objectives: Every movement has a specific objective.  To fulfill which a program has to be presented.  It is mandatory to put this objective clearly in front of the public, otherwise it will not get public support.


  1. Nature of Movement: The movement is organized and starts in all the areas where it happens, but if the movement does not end soon, then the movement in other areas and classes or organizations in sympathy of the movement.  It spreads.  It may also be that other organizations do not take an active part in the movement, but demonstrate sympathy towards it and indirectly help the agitators.

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  1. Based on sentimentality: The movement is a psychological process.  It requires skilled leadership.  If the leader due to his influence or eloquence, public opinion


If the nature of social change is successful in communicating 59 sentiments, then the movement begins in an instant.  The more emotionally connected you are to a movement, the more emotionally connected you will be to the movement.


  1. Emphasis on demonstrations and slogans: The form of movement is organized and planned.  It has a central governing board.  Through this mandal, instructions are given to the workers of the movement.  The activists of the movement are scattered here and there and take out a procession by influencing the masses.  They write their demands on cloth or cardboard board so that everyone knows the purpose of the movement.  Slogans are chanted loudly during the procession, so that the sentiments of the people are communicated or the public is also aroused.


  1. Emphasis on non-violent means: The agitators use only non-violent means.  They propagate the movement through their efforts through newspapers, radio, speeches and do their utmost to do Lokmat in their favor.  Many times in their program, strike, picket, hunger strike, boycott, satyagraha etc., using the means, attract the attention of the agitating people and the government towards their difficulties.
  2. Pre-informed and determined: Before starting the movement, the outline of the movement is determined and fixed.  The government is informed of the exact date of its commencement.  If the demands are not considered by the fixed and fixed date, then the movement is started.  The cow protection movement in India was started at that time. All the government did not pay attention to the prayers of leaders or teachers of religious organizations.

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  1. Shelter of any religious or political organization: Whatever may be the form of the movement, but it is necessary to have a religious, economic or political organization for its success, because both the mass groups and the government bow to the power of these organizations.


  1. Attempt to influence public opinion: The purpose of the movement is to create public opinion by drawing public attention against any evil or law, so that the anti-social or anti-class law or practice of that society is abolished.  For this purpose, newspapers, radio, television or other means of communication are used.


  1. Leadership of enlightened persons: Some enlightened person leads the movement.  This leadership work can also be done by a group of individuals.  The purification movement inIndiawas led by Shri Dayanand Saraswati, Mahatma Gandhi led the social reform movements, the National Movement was led by the All India National Congress.

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