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It is a difficult task to explain because its classification has been done on many grounds.

(A)Classification by duration:

Social change can be divided into two categories based on duration-

1.Short-term changes: These include changes that affect the social system for a short time.

2.Long-term changes: These include changes that have affected the social order over many generations.


(b)Classification on the basis of planning:

On the basis of planning also classification can be divided into the following two categories-

1.Unplanned social change: This type of change is not controlled in any way and if it does not pose any threat to the social system, then there is no attempt to curb it.

2.Planned social change:


(c) Classification by Source: Depending on the source, changes can be divided into the following two categories-

1.Embodied change: If the source of social change is in its own culture, then this type of change is called intergenerational change.

2.Externalized change: If the source of change is external culture or society, then it is called as exogenous change.



(d) Classification on the basis of results:

On the basis of the result, social change can be divided into the following categories-

1.Social development

2.Social Development

3.Social progress

4.Social spread

5.Social Movement

6.Social revolution

7.Social Mobilization

8.Social spread and

9.Social Back generation

MacIver and Pages have tried to explain the forms of social change in the forefront-

1.Difference in relationship                     changes

2.Fixed Continuous Change                    Process

3.Continuous change in certain direction

(a) Quantity-based, size-related

(b) Qualitative basis, difference in structure or functions           Evolution growth

(c) Qualitative basis, progress according to desired or valid values ​​Decadal decadence Adaptation cohesion

(d)according to the context of the object or system:


Meaning and definition of evolution:


English version of the word ‘evolution’ is Evolution.The word ‘evolution’ is derived from the Latin word Evolvere.  The letter E of the word Evolvere means ‘outward’ and the word volver means ‘spread’.  Thus the word Evolvere came to mean ‘spread outward’.  This is what ‘evolution’ means the spread of internal powers outward.  Explaining the term ‘development’, sociologists have said that when internal properties begin to appear towards the Vahr, then an object this way, the object’s appearance changes when it develops.Evolution is a process in which hidden or obscure aspects or characteristics within an object reveal themselves.  This is a change in which the internal aspects of the changed object are clearly visible and they can be seen in a specific direction.  From the social point of view, the inner qualities of the members (individuals) of the society are to appear in external form.  This is a major process leading to simplicity in complexity.  Major scholars have given definitions of evolution as follows


1.According to Herbert Spencer – ‘Evolution is the coherence of the element and its associated motion during which the element changes from an indefinite unambiguous equality to a definite associated heterogeneity.


2.According to MacIver and Page – ‘Evolution is a direction of change in which many conditions of a changing substance are revealed and that reveal the reality of that substance.


3.According to Ginsberg-people say that evolution is a movement that moves from simplicity to complexity is very controversial.


4.According to Hobhouse – ‘Evolution’ refers to growth of any kind.  It is clear from the above definitions that evolution is a continuous change that has been happening in every stage and age and is happening even today.  It is a process of the elimination of the internal aspects of an object.


Key Features of Evolution: 

Development is a complex and continuous process.  Its main features are-

1.From savagery to civilization: The process of development always leads to civilization from savagery. the meaning of evolution is that an object easily changes into complexity, that is, it moves from civilization to civilization.


2.Universal process: The process of social development is found equally at all places.  There is no time or place where development process is not found.  That is why it is said that the process of growth is a universal process.


3.A definite sequence: Just as scholars have a certain order in the process of development, just as in human life, from childhood to youth and old age comes.  Development in society happens at certain stages.


4.Continuous process: Development is a continuous process.  But one of its main features is that through this process, the path of an object is always towards progress.  Evolution is considered at the same time when an object moves from its former position to a good position.


5.A sense of unity in differentiation: There are many committees and institutions in the society.  They all have different purposes.  Therefore, there is variation in society.  But the purpose of all these committees and institutions is to maintain social order.  This system is formed by the process of evolution. therefore it is said that evolution is a process that produces unity in differentiation.


6.Changes as needed: Scholars state that necessity is the mother of invention.  As the needs of the person grow, new schemes are born.  The development of these schemes is called development.


7.Neutral change: Evolution is a neutral change because it has nothing to do with social values.  Also, it does not depend on one’s desire or reluctance.  It continues to happen automatically as a neutral change.


Criticism of the theory of social evolution:


The views which the scholars have proposed regarding social development have been criticized as follows-

1.Lack of universality: The process of evolution is not the same in all places.  Geographical conditions have an impact on the process of development.  Not all places have the same climate.  Hence the process of growth is never the same in all places.  From this point of view, we cannot consider social development as a universal process in the absence of uniformity.


2.Ignoring Cultural Development: Scholars who are advocates of the process of social development are also aware that the process of cultural development is the same in all places.  This ideology of social development is opposed to cultural development in every form.  Cultural elements do not remain the same at all places.  Geographical elements influence culture.  The customs of one place were different from the customs of other places.It is therefore good to say that social development is a universal process in the field of culture.

3.Ignoring Scientific Inventions: The process of social evolution is not driven by any natural law but social evolution is a process which is definitely affected by scientific invention.  Therefore, technology will inevitably have an impact on social development, which scholars of social development ignore.

4.Ignoring the importance of the person: In the process of social development, social life has been considered as a great factor of development.  But the scholars who are advocates of this theory forget that the person is a major part of the society and the person can take the society in any direction on the strength of his intellect and ability.  If you can control your social environment by keeping control over the circumstances.  This importance of human beings has been neglected in the process of social evolution.


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