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The meaning of globalization or globalization literally means to make the whole earth or the whole world a circle.  This means a central system.  In the new context, the global system is that in which capital freely moves across national boundaries and promotes the free market system. Globalization is a new process which started in the mid-1980s and actually started in 1990.  In the editorial of International Sociology, Goran Theraban has called it a very close heritage of social sciences in the 21st century.  Amit Bhaduri and Deepak Nayyar said that the liberalization policy that India has adopted is in itself a conservative system.  Its practical form should be a kind of equality in food, living and housing in one village of the whole world, ie it wants to give production and consumption a shape in the whole world.  According to economists and sociologists, three important aspects of globalization

  1. Globalization has opened up the international market.  A person from any one country can invest in another country.
  2. International investment can be made easily.  A person from any one country can invest in another country.
  3. International financial assistance can be used in the economy.  Thus, there are two pillars of the nature of globalization.  Which is how 1. Make the border of the country economically unhindered, that is, the border of the country should not become a hindrance in trade of goods, capital-investment and other activities.  2. The role of the state should be limited to law and order i.e. the state should not interfere in economic activities.  Technology plays the biggest role in enabling and succeeding the process of globalization as it transcends the society of the country without any alum and its expansion is the key to its success.  In the process of globalization, we not only describe a new industry but also accept new thinking, new ideas and new culture.  As a result of globalization in 1991, new processes have also started in the Indian market 1. Open international trade 2. International investment 3. International finance 3. The above mentioned new processes and the effects of globalization are also on Indian society, whose discussion is embedded in the impact of liberalization.  Liberalisation: Liberalization is the process in which there is a system of tax-free trade and government control over imports, exports and capital investment etc. is minimal.  Adam Smith first discussed it in the theory of ‘laissez-faire’ and also supported it.  Liberalization is an economic strategy in which the entire economic system is based on the open market system.  Two main concepts operate in the liberalization economy.  Which are as follows
  4. Stabilization and
  5. Stabilizing structural adjustments are programs that are adopted to avert socioeconomic crises in which short-term installments are repaid by increasing inflation.  goes .  Its second important concept is the structural adjustment under which economic adjustment and some economic reforms are to be done, which are mainly related to policy rules.  The objectives of which include 1. Trading of impractical goods
  6. Privatization and encouraging private sectors
  7. Providing more openness to the economy and
  8. Relying more on market forces etc.  The process of liberalization is different from the process of universalization in the sense that universalization speaks of concentration whereas liberalization talks of least control.  Some of the important facts of liberalization are
  9. Removal of government control over imports
  10. Changing the tax structure
  11. Creating new policies that help in marketing of industrial power.
  12. To encourage capital investment by increasing foreign exchange policy.  The process of industrialization in India started in 1840 according to BB Mishra, but due to the imperialist domination before independence, their status remained more shabby.  Those who tried to revive by adopting a mixed system of economy from 1948 and a new industrial policy were announced in 1956 under which the basic and some important industries were reserved for the public sector and the rest was left for the private sector.  But this policy did not succeed due to various reasons and by the late 70s, India got stuck in the debt trap by sinking in foreign debt and the process of liberalization and privatization started slow and in the 90s 1991, the booming economy and debt international  Liberalization and privatization became the compulsion of India under pressure from financial agencies.  Therefore, in 1991, India announced a new economic policy in which liberalization and privatization were given priority, which have serious effects on Indian life.  Which can be discussed as follows

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  1. Social inequality: The distance between rich and poor has increased considerably.  The rich have become more wealthy and the poverty of the poor has also increased.  According to government figures, 36% of the people are still living below the poverty line while the actual situation is far more frightening.  In the 70s and 80s, poverty was decreasing by 2% every year but between 1991 and 97 it did not decrease but it has increased.  Today, every third Indian is cursed to live in a state of severe poverty.

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  1. Loss of small and cottage industries: Due to shrinking of opportunities and unemployment, the condition of workers and farmers associated with them is pathetic and they are victims of starvation.  The rate of employment of unemployed was 6.6% in 1986-87 which decreased to 3.7% from 1995-96.  In the last 10 years, 36% of small-scale industries have closed down and another 20% is expected to be closed in the next 2 or 3 years.

Rural traditional industries have been completely destroyed and mechanized products from the West have started replacing them and from April 1, 2001, 1429 goods have also been removed from the ban.  This will make the situation even more frightening day by day.


  1. Less importance of rural community: Due to new policies, the importance of rural community has decreased more than before and the attraction of people towards cities has increased.  Due to this, different types of problems are arising in cities, which neither the government nor the general public will have the will to solve.


  1. Stress in the family: Not only has this increased pressure on joint families, but single family has also come under stress.  The attraction of women towards marketization has increased and they have moved out of their homes in search of employment, which has reduced their obligations towards the home and not only the family but also the society is facing stress and disruption.  The rates of searches have increased and women outside the home have also fallen victim to a distorted mentality.  This has reduced the groupistic tendency of Indian culture which Madhukishivar has positively changed


  1. Cultural Impact: If seen from its cultural point of view, it seems more dangerous.  Today, new relationships are being told to young men and women through TV.  Culture is being manipulated in the name of education and entertainment.  Needless to say what kind of impact the nagannata and violence are being shown in foreign-held films.  This thing is not limited to organized films only, but in the serials of the native channels, the youth are being made to be intimidated by new methods of violence, loot and rape.  In the name of fashion, girls are being shown half-heartedly and condoms etc. are being openly publicized, which is changing our attitude towards women and seeing them as mother, daughter-in-law and daughter, not only to understand the object of use  This has resulted in murder, looting and molestation on the way


  1. Impact on educational system: Today we are not proud of our history and literature, but we do not get tired of talking about foreign literature.  Media too has moved away from its responsibilities and it has now become only a means of earning money.  Education is not meant to be a mirror of society but has become a bread earner.

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  1. Impact on Agriculture: In this journey of liberalization, agriculture, which was once considered the backbone of our economy and symbol of traditional culture, was not untouched.  Foreign companies are poisoning the whole system.  They are eager to bring this entire agricultural system under their control through patents and other means.


  1. Fiscal deficit: Not only this, after liberalization, our fiscal deficit continues to grow.  We are constantly getting entangled in the debt-trap team.  Our national growth rate has also been unstable, the effect of which is being seen in the form of falling standard of living.  Pointing to this, American thinker Noam Chelmsky has also defined it as profit at the expense of the public.


.  9. Political influence: The economy of the country has become foreign-oriented and politics is seen turning towards the lower strata of society, due to which, a situation of tension is seen in many places, whose lava sometimes appears to burst.  The influence of regionalism has increased in politics and the goal of the politicians is only to reach power, which is reducing their accountability to the public.  A conflicting trend is arising in economic policy and politics, which is giving rise to an odd new crisis.


  1. Casteism, communalism, corruption: Due to the expansion of urbanization and consumerist tendency in the tour of liberalization, the increase in materialism and feudalism like feudalism, communal mentality, corruption, terror and violence is happening.  Which will ultimately prove harmful not only for the nation but also for humanism.  Therefore, it is clear from all the above analysis that although liberalization was adopted with the aim of creating a healthy, industrializing competitive environment and technological development, which has got some success, but its faults have started to become clear and visible.  That is, liberalization has not benefited us as much as it has done so far, which has required more attention.

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