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Scholars conceptualized modernization in order to understand the changes in western societies due to changes in traditional societies or industrialization and to reveal the differences in both.  On one side he kept the traditional society and on the other side modern society.  Thus he gave birth to traditional versus modernism.  In addition, when Western scholars discuss the changes taking place in the colonies and developing countries, they resort to the concept of modernization.  Some people have considered modernization as a process and some as a byproduct.  Eigen Stand considers this to be a process, writing that “historically modernization is a process of transformation towards social, economic, and political systems of that sort in Western Europe and North America from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century, and South America Asian in the twentieth century.”  And developed in African countries. “The process of modernization does not reveal changes in any one direction or region, rather it is a multi-direction process.  Also, it is not tied to any kind of values.

But sometimes its meaning is taken from good and desired change.  For example, when someone says that social, economic and religious institutions are being modernized, then their purpose is not to criticize but to show goodness.  To clarify the concept of modernization, so far many Western and Indian scholars have expressed their views from time to time and addressed this concept by many names.  Some of the prominent scholars who have expressed their views on modernization are Wiener, Aytor Lerner, Beck, Alex Inklax, AR Desai, Y Singh, MN Srinivasan, Edward Shill, WC Smith etc.  The words modernization, Englishization, Europeanization, Westernization, urbanization, development, development, etc. have also been used as synonyms of the term modernization.  Like industrialization, urbanization and westernization, modernization is also a complex process.

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 Modernization Definition and Meaning:

Till now various scholars have written a lot on modernization and defined it in many ways.  Here we will mention the definitions and ideas presented by some scholars.  Massmin J. Levy has defined modernization as a technological tree.  I consider each of these two elements to be the basis of continuity.  It is clear from the above definition that Levi has considered inertial sources of power such as petrol, diesel, coal, hydropower and atomic power and the use of machines as the basis of modernization.  How much a particular society will be called depends on how much root power and machines have been used there.



Dr. Yogendra Singh has stated that the meaning of being modern is generally taken from ‘fashionable’.  They consider modernization to be a cultural endeavor that includes rational attitude, universal outlook, perceptive scientific world view, humanity, technological progress etc.  Dr.  Singh does not consider modernization to be the ownership of any one ethnic group or cultural group, but the right of the entire human society.  Daniel Lerner in his book The Passing of Traditional Societies Modernizing the Middle East has accepted modernization as a Western model.  He mentions the following features inherent in modernization


(a) Increasing urbanization

(b) Increasing literacy

(c) Increasing literacy Participating in meaningful thought regulation of educated people by using various means like newspapers, books, radio etc.  Enhances

(d) All of these increase the efficiency of human beings, economic benefit to the nation which contributes to increase per capita income.

(e) It helps in improving the characteristics of political life.

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Learner expresses appropriate characteristics as strength, youthfulness, dexterity and rationality.  They accept modernization primarily as a state of mind, inclination towards growth rather than progress, and readiness to adapt to change.  Paranubhuti is also a main element of modernization in which the tendency of other people to participate in happiness and misery and to help them in times of crisis increases.  Eisenstadt in his book Modernization: Protest and Transformation has expressed the modernization in various fields as follows


(a) In the economic field: high level of technology.

(b) In the political arena: spread power in the group and provide power to all adults (by suffrage) and participate in democracy through means of communication.

(c) In the cultural field: increase in the ability of adaptation with different societies and increase in sensitivity to the circumstances of other people.

(d) In the field of structure: Increase in size of all organizations, increase in terms of complexity and differentiation.

(e) In ecological zone: increase in urbanization.


Dr. Raj Krishna has shown modernism to be more comprehensive than modernization, showing the difference between modernization and modernity.  Accordingly, modernization indicates a civilization in which high level of literacy and urbanization as well as vertical and geographical mobility, high per capita income and high level of economy from initial level to level of scarcity (beyond the point of origin)  Has gone).  Modernity, on the other hand, refers to a culture whose characterization is characterized by rationality, a broad-based liberal approach, diversity of opinions and various decision-making centers, truthfulness of different fields of experience, secularism, ethics and the personal world of the individual.  As a respect for

CE Blake historically accepted modernization and considered it a process of change that developed in Western Europe and North America in the seventeenth century, in social, economic and political systems of the twentieth century.  America and Europe etc. have been moving towards countries.  Modernization is the result of an attitude in which it is believed that society can and should be changed and change is desirable.  Modernization involves adjusting to the changing functions of a person’s institutions, thereby increasing the knowledge of the person resulting in control over the environment.  According to Blake, modernization began with Europe and America, but by the twentieth century it spread throughout the world and changed the nature of human relations.

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Dr. S.C. Dubey considers modernization to be full of values.


1Use of root power to solve human problems.

(2) It is done collectively rather than individually.  Complex organizations are created as a result.  Education is considered as a powerful means of modernization because education enhances knowledge and brings changes in values ​​and currents which are very necessary to reach the objective of modernization.  Dr. MN Srinivas has expressed his views regarding modernization in ‘Social Changes in Modern India (1966) and Modernization: A Few Curies’ (1969).  You do not consider modernization to be a neutral term; according to you modernization is mostly taken to mean ‘goodness’.  Modernization is the prevalent term for changes in non-Western countries due to direct or indirect contact with any Western country.  You include the following things in modernization: increased urbanization, spread of literacy, increase in per capita income, adult parenthood and development of logic.

Dr. Srinivas has outlined three major areas of modernization


  1. the field of material culture (it also includes technology)
  2. the field of social institutions, and
  3. the field of knowledge, values ​​and attitudes. 


On the top, these three areas seem to be different, but they are related.  Changes in one area also affect another area.  BV Shah has given his views on modernization in an article titled ‘Problem of Modernization of Education in India: (1969)’.  Shah considers modernization to be a multipurpose process that pervades all areas of economic, social, political etc.


(a) Modernization in the economic sector means: increasing industrialization, increased production, mechanization, monetization and urbanization.  Distinction is made between individual and collective property.  The places to live and work are different, people have the freedom to choose a business.  There is an increase in logic and mobility.  A new approach develops in the fields of income, purchases, savings and capital.


(b) In the political field, a secular and welfare state is established which provides education, health, house and employment.  All are provided equality before the law and have the freedom to express their freedom to choose or change the government.


(c) There is an open system of distribution in the social sector.  The positions earned in place of the paid positions are important and equality of opportunity is given to all, personal freedom is emphasized in the fields of marriage, religion, family and business.


(d) Believe in human efforts for social change in the personal field.  Secular, logical, scientific and cosmopolitan approaches develop.  An egalitarian and independent approach to social problems is adopted.  AR Desai considers the use of modernization not only limited to the social sphere but to all aspects of life.  Modernization in the intellectual field means the increase of reasoning power.  Physical and social events are logically interpreted.  No event is accepted as the basis of God.  This is the result of secular rationality, as a result of which the outlook of this world takes place in place of the supernatural race.

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 In the social sector:


(a) Social mobility increases.  By intensifying old social, economic, political and psychological perceptions, a person is presented to adopt new types of behavior.


(b) Changes in the social structure – There is a change in the business and political functions of the person, the importance of the posts earned in place of paid increases.


(c) The expansion and expansion of the central legal, administrative and political institutions of the society.


(d) Adoption of public welfare policy by the administrators.


In the economic sector: (a) Use of root power in place of animal and manpower in production, distribution, traffic and communication etc.  (b) Separation of economic activities from the traditional form.  (c) Use of machines, technology and tools.  (d) Growth in industry, business, trade etc. due to the impact of high technology.  (1) Increased specialization in economic functions, as well as production can be called consumer characteristic.


(2) Increase in production and consumption in the economy.

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In the cultural sector

: (a) Increasing industrialization which we can call the main feature of economic modernization.  Urbanization increases in the ecological classical region.


(b) The expansion of education and increase in institutions providing special types of education.


(c) Development of new cultural approach which emphasizes progress and improvement, merit, pleasure and experience.  Increase of knowledge, respecting others, instilling confidence in knowledge and technology and rewarding one’s work and belief in humanism.


(d) To develop such institutions and abilities by the society to adjust to the constantly changing demands and problems.  In this way, Mr. Desai has seen modernization in the context of a wide area that covers all aspects of the same culture.


It is clear from the above views of Indian and Western scholars on modernization that they have used this concept to compare traditional, backward and colonized countries with western, capitalist and industrializing and urbanizing countries which  That indicates more of the new changes happening in them.  Modernization in the intellectual field means to make logical interpretation of physical and social events and accept them on the basis of work reason.  Modernization in the social sector increases mobility, new practices are replaced by old values, complex institutions are born, family blood relations are relaxed.  In the political arena, the army is not considered to be a supernatural power, the government is selected by decentralization of power and adult suffrage.  The use of machines increases in the economic sector and production takes place using inertial power.  The means of transport develop and industrialization increases, urbanization increases in the ecological zone.  Modernization in the cultural sector refers to the development of a new cultural outlook and the emergence of new qualities in the individual.  From the above views of various scholars, the following characteristics of modernization reveal the rational interpretation of events, increase in social mobility, secularism and liberalization, transfer of political power by adult suffrage, increasing urbanization, scientific approach, increase in income towards industrialization.  Dissemination of education, emancipation, use of inertial power, development of new personality, importance of earned posts in place of paid, money-regulations in place of commodity-regulations, specialization in businesses, development of traffic and communication system, in medicine and health  Growth and use of new methods in place of ancient agricultural method.  In this way we see that modernization is a complex process involving many elements and which is related to all the material, economic, political, social, religious and intellectual things of life.  This concept allows us to understand the changes occurring in traditional societies.  Today, a traditional society is seen somewhere in the world and a modern society somewhere.  This concept is useful in comparing them and understanding the nature and direction of change.

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Forms of Modernization

The question arises that we will call it modernization when changes are made, what situation arises or what process starts.  Generally, the ideal of modernization has been the westernized countries and the changes that take place in them.  As Bandyx states “modernization refers to the kind of social changes that arose during the Industrial Revolution of England in 1760–1830 and the French Political Revolution in 1789–1794.” The current democracy, education system, and industrial revolution  Started mostly in Western countries.  So if the changes that took place in western countries in social, economic, political and other areas.  If there is imitation in other countries, it will be known as modernization.  Therefore, it cannot be denied that initially the modernization model has been the western countries, now whether the form is the ideal of modernization in China, Japan or any other country, Rudolfak and Fui Luff also confirmed the same.  Has  Learner’s is that the Western model is only historically western, sociologically world-wide.  Modernization vs. Tradition: A common concept is to consider modernization and tradition as antagonistic to each other.  These are accepted as a pair.  Rudolf and Rudolph write: “Modernization has been commonly used as an antithesis to tradition in analyzing the current social and political changes.  Both these concepts have also been used in comparison to Western and non-Western similarities.  The progress, change and development of the society have been considered towards modernization in the tradition.  Benedix has developed in place of modern and used the following words in place of traditional.  It is true that traditional society has no significance in the modern society, in the social, economic, political, cultural, intellectual, educational fields, imitation society.  Edward Shiels writes, “Traditional society is not completely traditional in any way, modern society is not traditional in any way. Any modernity is also built on the shoulders and experiences of tradition. That is why it is between the past and the present  There is a link. Prof. Shiels accepts tradition and modernity as a continuum. Modern society is also not completely modern, like science, modernization is an open-purpose process. Its nature is evolutionary, which automatically changes and  It keeps moving forward. So no society can claim that it has been completely modernized or it is completely modern, but there is a quantity of modernization.


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