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Human needs are endless.  A variety of committees and organizations have been formed to meet these needs.  Some rules and procedures are made for the efficient functioning of these committees, these are called ‘social institutions’ in the language of sociology.  It is clear that a social institution is a system of rules and procedures that meet the specific needs of humans.  – The term Institution was first used by Herbert Spencer in his book ‘First Principles’.  According to Spencer – “The institution is the organ through which the execution of works in society.  ”

In the language of ordinary speech, people use the word committee and institution in the same sense.  People call any organization of society in the name of institution.  But in sociology, both society and society have different concepts and they are also used in different ways.  The committee is a group of individuals and concludes the rule of the institution.  The committee is the organization for the fulfillment of certain objectives and the rules are arranged to achieve these objectives, which is called by the institution.  That is, the rules of the committee or the system of work is called the institution.  Take for example hospitals, families and colleges etc.  When they pay attention to their members, then it is definitely a committee, but when they pay attention to their rules and procedures, then it will be an institution.  When the hospital is seen as a group of doctors, nurses and patients, it is definitely a committee and when it looks at their procedures and rules, it is an institution.




Meaning And Definition Of Institution

The word “institution” was first used by Spencer (Spencer) in his book ‘FIRST PRINCIPLES’. Later on (SUMNER) in his book  FOLKWAYS, the term institution was broadened. Explained formally. According to him the institution  Origin is not one, but it develops slowly. The initial form of any institution is an idea. That is, the institution begins with the idea of ​​a human being. Fulfillment of the idea comes from the idea. By repeating this idea again and again.  It becomes a habit (Habit. When an idea succeeds in attaining a need, it repeats itself again and again, it becomes the habit of the person. This habit gets collective acceptance and society  When many people of it start repeating it then it becomes a Falseways. If the collective sentiment is added to the generals, then it is transferred from one generation to the next generation.  If it goes, then it becomes stereotyped (ethics). Most people of the society follow it.  Gradually, many of the orders and prohibitions are included in the tradition.  This leads to widespread acceptance.  And ignoring it is considered a social crime.  Then it turns into customary custom (custom), the violator is given social punishment.  In its repentance, there are some rules, laws and procedures – a dacha of the system, which we call an institution (institution).

According to MacIver and Page, “We call an institution the form or state of an established practice that expresses the characteristic of a collective action.”  ‘

 According to Green, “the institution is an organization of certain publicities and localities, which as a unit carries out many social functions.  ”

In the words of Ogburn and Nimkoff, “established methods for meeting certain basic human needs are called social institutions.

“According to Robert Bierstedt,” the institution is an organized methodology.  Institution is the way of doing formal, accepted and established work in society.

According to Merril and Elridge,” social institutions have patterns of behavior that are built to meet the central (basic) needs of humans.

According to Bogardus, “a social institution – is the structure of society that is organized mainly by established systems to meet the needs of the people.”

On the basis of the above definitions, we come to the conclusion that the institution is the first organization of procedures.  All scholars have a view on this matter.  The second thing is that the requirements are fulfilled by them.  Green, Bogardus, Augburn and Nimkoff and Merrill and Alridge have highlighted this in their definitions.  According to these people, the organization of the organization is only for the fulfillment of basic needs of human beings.  Robert Beerstad mentioned an important point in his definition that the acceptance of the institution should also be obtained.  That is, it is not enough to just set up procedures.  It is also necessary for these taraka to be accepted and recognized by the society.  It is clear from all these things that the institution is an organized form of society-recognized modalities, rules and procedures etc. through which the needs of human beings are met.  If every person starts fulfilling their needs arbitrarily under the society, then the system of the society will be destroyed.  Therefore, society does not allow any person to be arbitrary.  This is the reason that such methods and rules are developed in society that get the approval of most people.  As they are accepted by the society, they are transferred from one generation to another.  Thus the established established rules and procedures are called institutions.



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Characteristics of Institution

Some key features of the institution are being mentioned based on various definitions.

  1. System of laws or Norms – Organization is a compilation of rules. These rules are organized and organized.  Such rules and procedures are clear in the form of people’s views, generalities, localities, rules and laws.  It is through these that the characteristics of a social work organization are made.  For example, hospitals have some rules and by-laws, colleges have rules for education and examination, banks have their own rules and laws, on the basis of which these institutions run.  That is, the first feature of the institution is the system of rules.


  1. Symbol (SYMBOL) – Every organization must have some symbol. These symbols can be both physical and non-physical.  Through these symbols, special institution is known to be differentiated.  For example, the symbol of the institution of marriage is the urn, pavilion etc.  The symbol of the Life Insurance Corporation is the symbol on both sides of the burning person.  A similar Patna University is also symbolized which clarifies his identity.  The symbol of the institution has a symbolic function.
  2. It is also necessary to have cultural equipment related to the institution of CULTURAL EQUIPMENTS. These devices can be physical as well as non-material.  Through cultural tools the institution gets a definite form and is articulated as an influential entity.  For Hindu marriage, it is necessary to have some things – Mandap, Havan Kund, Kalash etc.  In other communities and religions, some things are used at the time of marriage.  These types of things become an essential part of the organization.
  3. Exchange Transfer (HERITAGE) – Exchange gaps from one generation to the next due to the recognition of institutions, useful and collective recognition. The institution develops only after the welfare and usefulness of any rules and procedures and after gaining practical experience of the people.  Therefore, the transfer of any particular institution takes place in the same form over many generations.


  1. BINDING OF LAW – It is also necessary to follow the rules for situations. When any rules and practices take the form of an institution, then following them does not depend on the will of the person.  Following these rules is mandatory for each member.  Hospital rules have to be followed by Dr. Noor and the patient.  In this way the rules of all resources are followed.  This is why the institution plays a major role as an instrument of social control.


  1. CHANGEABILITY -One of the main features of an institution is its variability. The institution has the quality of decoration.  This does not mean that there is no change of any kind.  Social objectives and interests change from time to time.  Changes of purpose and requirements also change the manner of their fulfillment, often – methods and procedures.  That is, the rules and regulations are amended from time to time and it also receives collective acceptance.  Therefore, the institutions are not rooted, but there is variability in them.


  1. Abstract in Nature – Due to the compilation of rules, the institution is of abstract nature. These rules cannot be seen and touched.  We live our lives through these rules and procedures, but we cannot touch them.  Hence, it is an abstract and imperceptible organization.


  1. Well-defined objective – The organization has certain objectives. It is not possible to manufacture without purpose.  These objectives are clear and useful.  These institutions control and direct group-specific behaviors.  They overcome mutual conflicts between people.  This always keeps the utility of the organization.  In this way, every organization must express some kind of objectives.  And based on these, its development is also possible.


  1. Group Sanction – Till a group of rules and procedures are given collective approval, it cannot be called an institution. When an idea is useful, it is repeated by more and more people, which gives them collective recognition.  If some rules satisfy individual interests and lack of collective welfare is found, then such rules can never get collective acceptance and neither such rules and procedures can be called an institution.  It is clear from this that only after getting the collective acceptance and recognition, some rules and practices take the form of an institution.









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Function Of Institution


Social work is performed by the institutions, which keeps their ambitions.  Every institution fulfills some or the other requirement of man.  Due to the work of fulfilling the requirements, the conditions are developed.  Some of the major functions of the situations are as follows


Conditions develop for the fulfillment of human needs.  In situations when the quality of human needs is diminished, those institutions gradually disappear.  Due to the need of the people, the institutions continue to be accounted for from generation to generation.  This created his social ambition.  lives.  Take for example the institution of marriage.  Through marriage, human sexual needs are realized and the sexual relations of a woman and a man are regularized.

 Simplification of WORK

The organization of rules and practices is called institution.  These rules are based on useful and experience.  It helps to work.  It is easy to do any work with fixed rules and procedures.  All the facets of life are related organizations which also direct the individual to work under different circumstances.  By this the person does not have to face much confusion.  He is able to work with ease and ease.

  Carrier of culture (vehicle of culture) – Institutions are carriers of culture.  Culture is passed on from one generation to another through institutions.  The quality of understanding various elements of culture is gained by institutions.  This maintains the continuity of culture.

 Position and Role Determination – Institutions determine the status and functions of individuals.  Who is going to do the work related to which post, it is already decided.  With this, each person performs certain tasks related to their position and position.  From the institution of marriage, husband and wife get their status and position and they also perform certain tasks related to them.  This shows that the institution also determines the status and functions of individuals.


Assistants in social change There is usually no quick change in resources, but our institutions and methods of their fulfillment change with time and situation.  It also seeks to bring changes in social conditions.  As a result, social change also arises in many aspects of society.  Institutions carry out the ambitious functions of the society, thereby maintaining their ambitions.But these institutions sometimes prove to be obstacles.  Institutions are conservative.  Changes due to conservative nature cause problems in adjustment to the situation.  This leads to a hindrance in social progress.

 To bring Conformity in Behaviour – Conformity in a person’s behavior is brought about by the determination of the systems and rules.  Institutions direct rules and procedures related to various aspects of life.  The actions of individuals are controlled and guided by these rules, which creates uniformity in everyone’s behavior.  Organization status in society is found only when there is uniformity in the behavior of individuals.  If every person starts doing his own arbitrary work, then there will surely be a situation of disintegration in the society.


 Social Control– Institutions play a major role as a means of social control.  Institutions are related to all aspects of life.  It is through these rules that a person performs his social work.  For violating these rules, one has to suffer social reproach and punishment.  As a result, the person is not able to dare to go against these rules, so that society’s control over the behavior of individuals remains.  Institutions are informal means of social control.  It is not a legal offense to disregard them, rather a person follows them ethically.  In this way, we see that institutions also perform social control.

  Institutions are conservative.  Therefore, their followers also become blind believers.  They do not soon recognize any new ideas and practices.  In such a situation, the development of personality of the person is also hindered.  The person is soon unable to adjust to the new situation.  In spite of being important and useful, some organizations – despite being useful in progress in some circumstances, prove to be a hindrance and detrimental to progress in some circumstances.



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