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The concept of Sanskritization was used to describe the process of cultural mobility in the Indian social structure.  In the analysis of social and religious life of the Coorg people of South India, the famous Indian sociologist, Prof. Shri Niwas first used this concept.  While studying the Coorg people in Mysore, Prof. M.N Sri Niwas observed that people belonging to the lower castes followed the Brahmins in imitating certain practices and giving up some of their own practices like eating meat, using alcohol and animal sacrifice etc.  Were engaged  They were doing all this so that their position in the system of ethnic variant could be elevated.  They were trying to elevate their status by adopting the costumes, food habits and rituals etc. of the Brahmins.

He followed the way of life of the Brahmins by presenting a demand for achieving higher status in the system of caste transmission in one generation, Prof. Srinivas initially used the word ‘Brahmanisation’ to describe this process of mobility.  .  But later it was considered more appropriate to use the concept of ‘Sanskritization’ in its place.  Prof. Srinivas in his book ‘Religion and Society among the Cougars of South India’ used a suffix called Sanskritization to express the dynamics.  According to him, “Caste status is far from the rigid system in which the status of each constituent caste is fixed forever.  Mobility has always been possible here, and especially in the central parts of the system of stunting, a lower caste is able to elevate its position in the system of stagnation by becoming a vegetarian in one or two generations, except alcoholism and by culturalizing their rituals and deities.  She goes.  In short, as far as possible, she would have adopted the practices, rituals and beliefs of the Brahmins.  Generally, the Brahmin system of life was often adopted by the lower castes, although in principle it was forbidden.  This process is called Sanskritization rather than Brahmanization.  “Dr. Yogendra Singh has written that Sanskritization is a more elaborate concept than Brahmanization. Prof. Srinivas himself felt that the process which inspired the lower castes to follow the customs of the Brahmins in Mysore, the following  Among the castes was a typical example of a general tendency to emulate the cultural practices of the upper castes. In many cases the upper castes were A Brahmins. They were Kshatriya castes, Vaishyas etc. in different parts of the country. Meaning of Sanskritization: Prof.  Srinivas, defining Sanskritization, wrote, “Sanskritization is the process by which a lower Hindu caste or a tribe or some other group, in the direction of a higher and often Dwij caste (Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas) their customs, rituals,  Processes of social change change ideology and way of life.  “Ordinarily, after such changes, the caste system in the system of low caste ethnic stratification has claimed a higher status than it traditionally enjoys in the local community. Dr. BR Chauhan wrote clarifying the meaning of the concept called Sanskritization.  Is, “It is a tool by which we can know the process in which the lower caste and tribes change their behavior and way of life according to the higher characters of Hindu society.”  According to Prof. Srinivas, along with Sanskritization generally and consequently, the caste concerned is moving upwards, but mobility is possible without Sanskritization, or Sanskritisation is possible without mobility.  But as a result of Sanskritization related dynamics, there are only transitional changes in the state and there are no structural changes ie one caste rises above the other castes and the other comes down.  But all this inevitably happens in a permanent institutional system, the system itself does not change.  To further clarify the meaning of Sanskritization, Prof. Srinivas wrote “Sanskritization does not only mean adopting new practices and habits but also expressing new ideas and values ​​which are related to purity and secularism and which Sanskrit literature  Karma, Dharma, Sin, Pranya, Moksha, etc. are words which are related to religious Sanskrit literature. When people are Sanskritised, they use these words spontaneously. It is clear from the above description.  That Sanskritisation is the process through which any lower Hindu ethnic group or a tribal group tries to elevate their position by changing their entire way of life towards the upper castes or varnas, claiming to be higher in the system of ethnic extension  Prof. Srinivas initially emphasized the Brahmanical model as the ideal of Sanskritization but later on realized that in addition to this the Kshatriya and Vaishya models were available.  , Vaishya and elsewhere the life pattern of any other Prabhu caste has also been followed.

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Features of Sanskritization


  1. The process of Sanskritization is related to the following Hindu castes, tribes and some other groups.  In order to elevate the social status of their group in the system of distribution under the Hindu caste system, suitable groups have resorted to Sanskritization.  The Bhil, Oraon, Santhal and Gond and hill people of the Himalayas are included among the tribal people who tried to elevate their social status through Sanskritization and become a part of Hindu society.  Those people come under other groups, which are related to other religions and cultures rather than Hindu religion and culture.


  1. Under the process of Sanskritization, the way of life of the upper castes is imitated, their practices, customs, food, beliefs and values ​​are adopted.


  1. There are more than one ideals or models of Sanskritization.  That is, the lower castes and some tribal groups did not follow the Brahmins as ideal only, but also


followed the Vaishya and any local Prabhu caste, adopted their lifestyle.  Pocock has stated that the ideal for the lower castes are those castes above which they are most closely related.  Prof. Srinivas has also accepted Pocock’s statement as correct.


  1. The process of Sanskritization involves the idea of ​​advance socialization.  Dr. Yogendra Singh considers Sanskritization to be an advance socialization, that is, a lower caste group socializes for two generations in the direction of a higher caste lifestyle so that in future it will get a higher status in its local community.  Any ethnic group can easily succeed in this endeavor at a time when its political and economic power starts increasing or it gets connected to a monastery, pilgrimage center etc.


  1. A key feature of Sanskritization is that it is a process expressing a gradual change, not a structural change.  This means that through Sanskritization, the status of an ethnic group rises slightly above the surrounding castes, but there is no change in the caste-state itself.  The process of Sanskritisation expresses social mobility.  This is likely to rise above any lower ethnic group.


  1. The process of Sanskritisation expresses social and cultural change.  Milton Singer has written “MN Srinivas’s theory of Sanskritisation is the most widely and widely accepted anthropological theory of social and cultural change in Indian civilization.” This is to say that Sanskritisation is not merely a process of social change.  Rather, it is also a process of cultural changes.  Changes in the field of language, literature, music, science, philosophy, medicine and religious legislation etc. as a result of Sanskritization are only under cultural changes.


  1. The process of Sanskritisation is related to the group and not to an individual or family, through this process any ethnic or tribal group tries to elevate its position.  If a person or a family does so, it has to bear the wrath of not only other castes but also other members of its own caste.


  1. Based on the studies of scholars named Bernard Cohan and Harold Gould, Prof. Srinivas has said that while the lower castes are culturalizing their lifestyles, the upper castes are moving towards modernization and secularization.  Prof. Srinivas himself felt that in his beginning the Brahminic ideal of Sanskritization was stressed more than necessary.  The reality is that Brahmins have not always been the ideal of Sanskritization.  Pocock discusses the Kshatriya ideal existence.  Milton Singer has stated that not only one or two ideals of Sanskritization are found, but at least three if not four exist.  People of the first three varnas are called Dwijs because they have Upanayana rites and have the right to perform Vedic rituals in which the mantras of the Vedas are recited.  According to Srinivasa, Brahmins in the “Dwij” classes are most careful with regard to carrying out these rites, and therefore they can be considered the best model of Sanskritization than others.  But we should not forget here that there is considerable variation in the Brahmin varna itself. Brahmins, Kshatriya and Vaishya varna have also been the ideals of Sanskritization.  In different parts of the country, all groups that claim to be Kshatriyas and Vaishyas have traditions of military work and trade respectively.  There is no tradition of Kshatriyas and all Vaishyas in different parts of the country.  Many of these people do not have all the rites that are considered necessary for the Dwij classes.  Some groups have imitated Brahmins, sometimes Kshatriyas and Vaishyas elsewhere, have adopted their way of life.  The castes like barber, potter, teli, carpenter, blacksmith, weaver, shepherd etc. are near untouchable or untouchable groups just above the desecration line.  These castes represent the castes of the Shudra class.  Based on the observation of Prof. Srinivas, it is a feeling that in the broad category of Shudras, the Sanskritization of some other castes has been very less.  But irrespective of whether they have been Sanskritised or not, the dominant cultivating castes present local ideals of emulation and as Paukak and Singer have observed, it is only through such castes that Kshatriya (and other) ideals have been adopted.  Local dominant caste (Prabhu caste plays an important role in the process of Sanskritization. If the local dominant caste is Brahmin, then the ideal of Sanskritisation will be of Brahmin type and if it is Rajput or Vaishya, then the ideal will be of Rajput or Vaishya type. Prof. Srinivas.  According to, though Brahmani rituals and practices spread among the lower castes over a long period of time, the locally dominated sovereignty was also emulated by the rest of the people and often these locally dominant castes are not Brahmin  It can be said that in many lower-caste castes, Brahmanical practices arrived as a chain reaction, ie each group received something from a group higher than its own and gave something to the group below it.


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Major Sources and Factors


1.Under the caste system, not only different castes are considered higher or lower than each other, but also some special types are not high and others in businesses, food, clothing, jewelery etc.  It is considered low.  In the system of storage, those castes are considered high, who do not eat vegetarian food, do not use alcohol, do not offer blood sacrifices and do not do any related business or trade to the things which bring impurity.  The status of the upper castes is considered high in this system of emanation, so the caste desirous of elevating its position imitates the higher caste and ultimately the Brahminical way of life.  Prof. Srinivas has stated that those conservatively accepted valid beliefs have helped in the spread of Sanskritization among the lower castes.

First, the Adivasi castes were allowed to perform rituals, but they were not allowed to pronounce Vedic mantras while performing it.  Thus rituals were separated from the mantras spoken on that occasion.  As a result, Brahminic rituals spread to all Hindus and even to the untouchables.  Secondly, a Brahmin priest performs marriages with these people.  The only difference is that he does not speak Vedic mantras on this occasion and speaks Mangalaptak sources, which are culture compositions after the Vedas.  These are two such conventionally accepted valid beliefs that helped the Adivaj castes to perform many rituals. .  These two beliefs led to the spread of Sanskritization among all Hindus, even among the untouchables.  During the process of Sanskritization, Brahminical institutions and values ​​also spread among the Adivaj castes.  When an ethnic group is Sanskritised, it becomes a higher caste entity, usually a Brahmin or any other local dominant caste.  When the Yogi is Sanskritised, then some words used in Sanskrit religious texts like Sin, Punya, Dharma, Karma, Maya and Moksha etc. are used in their conversation.


  1. Under the traditional caste stage, some amount of group mobility was possible, that is, there was a slight change in the status of the groups.  This was possible with the fact that among the castes that came in the middle region of the system of ethnic stratification, there was ambiguity regarding the mutual status, the status of Brahmins and untouchables at the two ends was fixed in the system of social stratification but mobility among the castes.  Due to the increase of opportunities to earn money during the British period, the mobility of this group increased, at this time people of lower castes got opportunities to earn money.  After earning a considerable amount of money, they claimed a high status for themselves and some groups were also successful in achieving it.


  1. According to Prof. Srinivas, improvement in economic condition, attainment of political power, education, leadership and desire to rise up in the system of expansion are the relevant factors for Sanskritization.  In each case of Sanskritization, all the above relevant or some of these elements remain in definite quantities in different quantities.  No group automatically attains high prestige through Sanskritization.  This group clearly has to submit a claim to be related to Vaishya, Kshatriya or Brahmin varna.  Such a particular group has to change its customs, food and way of life in the right amount.  If there is any kind of inconsistency in their claim, then they have to create a proper fictional narrative for it to remove the inconsistency related to their claim.  In addition, an ethnic group that wants to elevate its position in the system of storage has to wait indefinitely, ie, one or two generations.  After a generation or two, it is likely that the claim of high status should be accepted by the people.  But it is not necessary that the result of Sanskritization will always result in the high status of Sanskritization caste and this is completely clear by the example of untouchables.  Despite Sanskritization, the status of untouchables was not elevated.


  1. When any one part of a caste or caste attains secular power, it generally means the adoption of traditional symbols of high status, customs, rituals, thoughts, beliefs and way of life etc. It also means that different  The process of Sanskritization enabled some degree of mobility in the manner of obtaining the services of a Brahmin priest for performing the rites, observing the festivals of the Sanskritic Panchag, visiting the famous pilgrimage places, and acquiring more knowledge of the Dharma Shastras.  Anulom marriage is also responsible for this type of mobility.  An ethnic group wanted to include itself in groups considered to be higher than themselves, and the Anulom marriage made it

73 Institutional tools presented for social change processes.  It is necessary to emphasize here that as a result of the dynamics of caste in the traditional period only specific changes have taken place in specific castes or their sub-divisions and there are no structural changes, that is, different castes rise or fall, but the whole structure  Remained the same


  1. The development of means of communication and transport has also brought Sanskritization to different parts and groups of the country which were previously out of reach, and the spread of literacy has made Sanskritization reach to those groups which were very low in the system of ethnic distribution.  .


  1. City temples and shrines have been other sources of Sanskritisation.  Appropriate opportunities have been available to spread cultural ideas and beliefs among the people gathered at these places.  The Bhajan congregations, Harikatha and Sadhus – ascetics have given considerable amount in the spread of Sanskritization.  Trained priests in large cities, Sanskrit schools and colleges, raids and religious organizations have given yoga in the process.


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 Concept of Sanskritisation: A Critical Approach: We shall consider here some of the shortcomings of the concept of Sanskritization which are as follows


  1. Prof. Srinivas himself has accepted that Sanskritization is a quite complex and heterogeneous concept.  It is also possible that it would be more beneficial to consider the sum of several concepts rather than considering it as one concept.  They are of the opinion that as soon as it is known that Sanskritization is a hindrance rather than aiding in word analysis.  It should be left unsaid and immediately.


  1. Prof. Srinivas has said some conflicting things about the concept of Sanskritization and has written, “Sanskritisation can happen without any group, economic upliftment”.  In one place, he wrote, economic upliftment, accumulation of political power, education, leadership and the desire to rise up in the system of expansion, etc. are appropriate factors for Sanskritization.  “Written elsewhere,” no group automatically attains high status as a result of Sanskritization, constant Sanskritisation of the castes and structural changes “. Prof. Srinivas wrote elsewhere,” No untouchable group no matter how much Sanskritisation.  Otherwise, he will be unable to cross the barrier of untouchability.  “It is clear from the appropriate statements that many inconsistencies are found in the concept of Sanskritization, there are conflicting things.


3.Prof. Srinivas believes that vertical social mobility is possible through the process of Sanskritisation, by this process a low  The caste is able to elevate its position in the system of caste propagation by becoming vegetarian in one or two generations, renouncing alcohol and culturalizing their rituals and deities, but it is doubtful whether this actually happens.  In relation to this, Dr. D. N. Majumdar has written that such a situation can be imagined in theoretical and only theoretical form, when we focus on specific matters then our knowledge and experience of caste dynamics regency in terms of theoretical recognition  It does not get right. Chamar must have progressed a bit in his basic social position: whether he has become organized as a community, whether he has stopped drinking alcohol, widows – marriages, marriages and even eating meat.  Be given, but Is there any one example of vertical rise in the system of new social settlement?  The spread of the Chamars is of an inelastic type, and the same is true of the other lower castes.  The lower castes regard caste mobility as a horizontal movement (movement), while the Brahmins and other upper castes consider such mobility as an ascension.  Some of the facts that have been obtained in relation to caste dynamics express horizontal mobility rather than vertical mobility.  It is clear from these factual observations and views of Dr. Majumdar that through the process of Sanskritisation no lower caste is lifted up vertically.  Does not become equal to the upper castes.  Rather, she rises up from other castes of her own or in different disciplines of her own caste.


  1. Dr. Yogendra Singh considers Sanskritisation as a process of cultural and social mobility.  Sanskritization is a process of cultural and social mobility in these periods of relative Hindu social order.  It is an inherent source of social change.  Sanskritization from a social psychological point of view is a culturally specific case of universal motivation for advance socialization towards a higher group culture in the hope of improving its position in the future.


  1. B. Kuppuswamy considers the reference group ‘process of Sanskritisation as an example of moderation, but it is impossible to gain membership of reference group in Indian society because of the caste system based on birth.  In such a closed society it is impossible for a person to change his ethnic group and take membership of another ethnic group.  Advance socialization in a relatively closed social structure would be inappropriate for an individual because he would not be able to become a member of the group he aspires to become, in the absence of mobility.  We agree with B. Kuppuswamy when he says that something is possible, that only minor changes can be made under Varna.  It is clear that Sanskritisation is not a process by which structural changes are possible in Hindu society.


6. Prof. Srinivas himself believes that in the past, many dominating castes have achieved high positions in the system of emanation either by state order or by organization of independent political power.  KM Panicker believes that in the fifth century BCE, all the so-called Kshatriyas came into existence by taking possession of power by the lower castes and as a result they acquired Kshatriya – role and social status.  According to Dr. Yogendra Singh, the process of Sanskritization here expresses the rise or fall in the Indian history of groups dominated by struggles and war by the rise and fall of power and by political stakes.  All of these are examples of structural changes that are not fully understood by a concept like Sanskritization.  It is clear from the above description that it is not a very suitable concept to describe the process of cultural change.  In this regard, Dr. D. N. Majumdar has written that we are not happy with the tool we have used to describe the process of cultural change.  The same thing FG Bailey wrote in his book “Cast and ‘The Economic Frontier’.  Sanskritization expresses a pool of concepts and is an unsympathetic or loose concept that is without any special qualities.  The wide extension given by Mr. Niwas to this concept makes the justification of its use impossible, especially in the context of vertical and horizontal mobility.


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