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There is no society in the world where there is no family name.  It is definitely found in some form in every society.  Whatever needs of human beings are fulfilled by family, it is not possible by other groups or institutions.  This is why man feels the need of family and stays in the family.  A person is born helpless in this world, but he is nurtured in the family and gradually he learns the customs of the society.  That is, socialization of a person takes place in the family itself and becomes a social animal.  By the way, a person keeps on learning something for a lifetime, but in the family, he gets the initial education of social life.  Therefore, the family is the most important center.  The existence of a society depends to a large extent on an institution called family.  Each society has its own culture, which the family transfers from one generation to the next.  The work of maintaining the continuity of society and its culture is done by the family itself.  Thus the family as a universal institution is found in every society.



  Meaning and Definition of Family


The word family has originated from the word ‘Famulus’ in the Latin language under which parents.  Children, servants and slaves are also included.  In general, parents and their children are included in the family.  Different words have been used for the family in different societies.  There is no consensus among sociologists regarding the definition of family.  Various scholars have expressed their views in their own words.  Some important definitions are mentioned here.

 According to Maclver and Page, “A family is a group based on sexual relationships. It is small in size and it arranges for the birth and upbringing of children.”  There have been –

  • groups based on sexual relations
  • limited size
  • birth of children and


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This definition also gives information about the family structure and its functions.

According to (Ogburn and Nimcoff), “The family is a permanent union of spouses with children or a permanent union of a woman or man living alone with children. In this definition the family is defined as a union in which the spouses are  And there are children or a woman or man lives with a child, that is, a union with children is called a family even if one of the husband and wife is not there.

 Kingsley Davis has given the definition of family, stating that the family is a group of individuals, in which people are related to each other on the basis of marital relations and they are also related to each other.

Gisbert also defined the family as similar to Augburn, stating that “generally in the family a man and woman have a permanent relationship with one or more children.”

  According to Burgess and Locke, ‘a family is a group of individuals, organized by marriage, blood, or adoption relationships, forming a householder, consisting of husband – wife, parent, son –  Daughter and siblings interact with each other for their social work and build and maintain a common culture.

It is clear from the above definitions that family is a group of persons organized by marriage and blood relations.  There are direct and primary relations between them.  It is a permanent organization, in which the needs of the people are fulfilled and they are bound by the spirit of each other.  In its definition, Makeiver described sex as the basis of family.  Marriage – Through the institution, the husband and wife are allowed to have sexual relations in the family, which results in the birth of children and the continuity of society.

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Characteristics of Family

  Emotional Basis – Emotional relationships are found between family members.  There is a feeling of love, cooperation, sympathy, sacrifice and affection among them.  These qualities are not seen in any other committee or organization.  The family rests on these emotional grounds.  It is also the basis of close relationship between all the family members which gives it stability.


 Limited Size – Family size is limited.  Generally, the family consists of husband and wife and their children, but in addition to these there are other nearby blood-related people.  The size of the family depends on the structure of the society.  The size of the family is relatively large in rural and simple society, but in modern and complex society the size of the family is getting smaller by the day.  Only husband and wife and their unmarried children lived in it.


Eormative Influence – Family has constructive effect.  The family has a big role in the creation of the element of the person.  Every society has its own rules and methods which one learns through family.  Family makes the person friendly to the society.  It transforms a person from a biological being into a social animal.  At the initial stage of life, a person does not forget the habits and behaviors he adopts throughout his life.  It becomes a quality of his personality.  All members of the family exert constructive influence over each other.

 A mating relationship – It is only through marriage relationship that men and women form a family.  This relationship is for a short time or for a lifetime.  There is a form of marriage in different societies of the world.  Through marital relationship, men and women are tied up as husband and wife and fulfill the obligations of the society.  Disintegration in the family arises when marriage is broken


  A form of marriage – Every society has a form of marriage.  It is found in different forms in different places.  For example, in a society there is a prevalence of a married family and in a society a polygamous family.  It is clear that marriage is a form of institution, which is prevalent in a particular society.  (


 A system of nomenclature is known by each family name.  This name is called a surname or ancestry.  Family is the basis of a person’s descent.  This dynasty runs on the basis of ancestry of father and mother.

 A common habitation is the common residence of each family, where all its members reside.  Only by residing in the common place, mutual relations and intimacy between them remain.  A sense of duty and responsibility also remains active among them.  Due to residing in the common place, the husband and wife are able to birth and raise children.  All members of the family act inspired by the spirit of we feelings.


 Universality – The family is a universal group.  Any society in the world, whether modern or traditional, urban or rural, complex or simple, a family is definitely found there.  There can be differences in the form of family in different places, but it is definitely found in some form or the other.  Without family, human society cannot be imagined.  Through this, the basic needs of man are met, which is not possible by any other group.  Hence the family is a universal group.


  Permanent and temporary nature of the family When a family is considered a group of individuals, then it is temporary and if it is considered a collection of rules then it is permanent.  Keeping in mind the rules of the family, such as the rules of marriage, succession of property, etc., we find that these rules are always present.  In this sense the family is of a permanent nature.  But when keeping the membership of that person, then its members can be destroyed and destroyed, such as marriage, separation, death etc.  From this point of view the family is temporary.  This is to say that the family is as permanent as the institution and as temporary as the committee.



Types of Family

The family is a universal group.  It is definitely found in some form in every society.  Different forms of family are seen in different societies.  According to the culture of the society, 48 forms of family are determined.  The family can be divided on various grounds in the society.  Some of the major types are mentioned here


 Types of Family on the basis of Number of Members


 Central or Nuclear Family – This type of family consists of husband and wife and their unmarried children.  In the modern era, the trend of the central family is increasing steadily.  Generally their member numbers are limited to 5 – 6.  Under this, other relatives are not included in the family.  As soon as the children become adults, they become a separate family.  The central family is actually a product of industrialization and urbanization.


 Joint Family: Joint family includes close relatives and blood relatives in addition to the central family.  Ordinarily, members of several generations live in a common place in such a family, their food is also made in a kitchen and their property is also collective.  Joint family follows socialist ideology.  Its members earn wealth according to their capacity and power, but it is consumed equally by all the family members.  This is to say that all members spend money according to their requirement.  Whether a person produces more or less, everyone is allowed to consume equally.  Joint family is a major feature of Indian society.  Such families are still found in rural areas.  In the joint family, the entire power of the family is concentrated in the head.  The head takes the final decision in every kind of case.  The decision of the head has to be accepted by each member of the family.  Regarding the division of property, marriage and education of children, the parents do not take the decision, but the decision of the head of the family is final.  The size of such a family is large, because the number of members in it is quite high.


 Extended Family – When the joint family is very dispersed, it is called extended family.  The inheritance remains the same.  The spirit of inheritance keeps them tied together in one sutra.  In the extended family, some of the next generation can live in a residence and an economic unit, but some are also divided as separate units.  This type of structure is loose and scattered.  This family is quite prevalent in African society.

 Mixed Family – Mixed family has mixed characteristics of both a single family and a joint family.  In industrial and urban areas, the family functions as a central or isolated one.  But theoretically he is tied to a joint family.  Living as a member of a joint family, one lives alone in cities.  As a result, their attachment to the joint family gradually decreases.  But at the mental level, there is a consciousness of joint family.  Due to this, they participate jointly on marriage, marriage, social, cultural and religious occasions.  Thus a mixed family is similar to a central family at the economic level and a joint family at the mental level.  The number of such families is increasing in urban areas of India.  Their organization and size is of medium level.



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  Types of Family on Marriage Basis


 Monogamous Family – In this type of family, a woman has a marital relationship with a man.  A woman or man is allowed a second marriage only after the death or separation of the spouse.  The size of a married family is quite small.  Only husband and wife and their children are involved in this.  This family is more prevalent in civilized society.  Most of the society in the world is seen as a married family.  With the advancement of civilization, the number of single families is also increasing.  Vidhahi Family (Polygamous Family) – In this type of family, a woman has a marital relationship with many men .


Polygynous Family: In such a family, a man has many legs.  That is, one man at a time establishes marital relations with many women.  In this type of family, rights and power rest in the hands of men.  Men have higher social and economic status than trenches.  Generally, such families are visible when there are more women in tribal society.  Such families are found more in Muslims because they have religious approval to have more than one wives.  Due to the passage of the Marriage-Law of 1955 among Hindus, such families have been banned.  But even today there are more number of Bahwatni married families than Bahupati.


 Polyandrous Family: In this type of family, a woman has many husbands.  At present, the prevalence of such family is found in the Khas of Jaunsar Babar region (Dehradun) and the Tod tribe of Nilgiri.  If all the husbands of a woman are brother-in-law, then it is called Fraternal Polyandrous family and if they do not have brother-brother or blood-related relationship, then it is called non-Fraternal Polyandrous family.  family).  In such families, women do not go to their husbands’ home.  Hence, these families are also generally native and matrilineal.  In AbhakaBahpati marriages, men go to the woman’s home together or on different occasions at the will of the woman.  The polygamous married family prevails in a society where the number of females is much less than that of males.

 Group Punaluan Family – This type of family is called group Vivahi family when many brothers or many men get married with many women.  In such a family, all men are equally husband to all women.



   Types of Family on the basis of Authority


  Patriarchal Family -In this type of family, the father is the head of the family.  The father and the man take the final decision regarding all the issues of the family.  Other family members obey him.  In general, the patriarchal family is the patriarchal and patriarchal family.  After marriage, the wife resides at her husband’s house.  The right to property is transferred from father to son.  Most of the families in India are patriarchal.  Hindus especially have more such families.


 Matriarchal Family – In this type of family, women are paramount.  Women have a higher status than men in the family.  The final decision on all matters regarding the family is taken by women and that decision is accepted by all the members.  In such a family, women often do not go to their husband’s house after marriage, but the man stays at the wife’s house.  Direction and control in any discipline is through mother.  This does not mean that men are deprived of all rights.  Men do the work that men deserve.  The matriarchal family is also the matriarchal and maternal family.  In matriarchal family, property is transferred from mother to daughter.  Man does not have the right to property.  In such a family, the man gets the right, but the man is not the husband of the woman but his brother.  The man gets the rights from his sister not from his parents.  It means to say that in such families, the woman or mother has predominance.  The Khasi tribe of Assam has a prevalent matriarchal family.  Matriarchal families are found in the Nairs of Garo and Malabar.  In such a family, the socio-economic status of women is higher than men.




   Types of Family on the basis of Descent


 Patrilineal Family – The patrilineal family follows the father’s lineage.  After marriage, women assume the surname of their husbands.  .  The family of Hindus is a ancestral family.  is


 Matrilineal Family – The matrilineal family runs under the name of the mother’s clan.  The father’s lineage does not matter in this.  Their children are known by the surname of women and mothers.  In such a family, women do not go to their husband’s house after marriage, instead the man resides at the wife’s house.  Dynasty is derived from mother to daughters.  Such family prevails among the Nayars of Malabar.  Here the descent of mother is more important.



 Types of Family on the basis of Locality


Patrilocal Family – In a patriarchal family, all the family members live at the residence of father or man.  After marriage, the wife moves to her husband’s house.  Family Residences – The tradition operates on behalf of the father or male officer.  Such families are prevalent among Hindus, Muslims and Bhil, Khadia tribes.  Such a family is also patriarchal and patriarchal.


Matrilocal Family – In the matriarchal family, all the family members live at the residence of the mother or the woman.  After marriage, the wife does not go to her husband’s house, but the husband comes to live at the wife’s residence, this type of family is also matrilineal and maternal-ruling.  Maternal family is found in the Nairs, Khasi and Garo tribes of Malabar in India.  (iii) Neo – Local Family – Such families settle neither at the residence of husband nor at the place of residence of wife, but they settle at different place from both.  In the modern era, such families live in employment, jobs and industrial centers where the person works.  For example, nowadays urban families, where the person gets work, they settle there.



Types of Family on the basis of Relations


Consanguineous Family– In this type of family, people of the same blood establish a marriage relationship among themselves.  Hence it is called equal blood family.  This type of family is found in Muslims.

Aide family (Conjugal Family) – Individuals of different blood in the associate family establish the relationship of husband and wife.  Hence it is called a collaborative family.  This type of family is considered good from the point of view of Suprajan Shastra.  Similar family prevalence among Hindus.  In other civilized societies, there is the prevalence of supportive family.







Functions and Importance of Family


The family is a unique organization.  It is made automatically and is also mandatory for humans.  Such tasks and needs of the person are fulfilled by the family, which is not possible by other organizations.  Therefore, the family has a very important place in human life.  The importance of family has been accepted since ancient times.  Till date, no such organization has been formed, which can replace the family.  Hence it is indispensible.  Human being today has reached the pinnacle of civilization as a result of various functions of the family.  Important family functions are being mentioned here.

 Social Functions – Family is the smallest unit of society.  As a fundamental unit of society, it performs many important functions.  First, socialization – the person from a biological being.  The process of socialization is the process of socialization.  The process of socialization starts from the family itself.  The parents raise the children and introduce them to the customs and ideals of the society.  Children follow their parents as they see them.  Gradually children learn the rules of society and become functional as social animals.  Second, social control – Every society has its own rules and methods.  The society expects its members to behave according to these modalities. By human nature, there is such a creature, which gets arbitrary on getting a little relaxation.  If everyone starts doing things in an arbitrary way, a state of chaos will arise in the society.  Therefore, society imposes restrictions on the behavior of its members, so that they act according to the rules.  For this, society pressures the behavior of individuals through various means.  Family is one of the main means of social control.  When a person works in a society friendly manner, then he is appreciated by the family.  If a person acts against society, then the family members do not recognize him.  Therefore, he is motivated and encouraged to work in accordance with social customs.


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 Cultural Functions – Cultures elements from one generation to another.  Children are aware of their culture within the family.  The elders in the family learn the parental characteristics and then teach the new generation.  This transfers the culture of one generation to another and keeps it flowing.  The family tries to teach cultural characteristics to its members.  Therefore, according to the culture, a person’s personality is created.


 Psychological Functions – The most important function of the family is to provide mental protection and satisfaction to its members.  Along with physical security, mental protection is also essential for human life.  Love, sympathy, sacrifice, patience and harmony are found among family members.  This provides emotional security to the person.  They support each other a lot in happiness and sorrow.  They never feel lonely.  It gives mental satisfaction to a person.  In other groups, the person is not able to mentally ascertain himself nor does he get mental satisfaction.


 Recreational Function – The center of family entertainment.  All members of the family are entertained.  Young children listen to stories from grandma in the evening, this entertains them.  When the young person returns home tired from outside, the small voice of small children removes half their fatigue.  People are also entertained by the festivals, festivals, bhajans – kirtans etc. under the family.  All members of the family entertain themselves in their own way.  In rural and urban areas, family is equally important from the point of view of entertainment.  Now with the prevalence of television, all the members enjoy it together.  Even today, the family is completing the task of entertainment as before.  Apart from this, the family also has a role in political fields.  The task of making an ideal citizen is that of the family.  The family also gives instructions to its members regarding voting.  The family also provides religious education to its members.  Every family has to have some religion.  In relation to this, the family provides knowledge to the members so that their life is moral and sacred.


 Biological functions – The family performs three important functions in biological work.  Fulfillment of entire needs – Family is the place where social acceptance is fulfilled.  If the person arbitrarily starts fulfilling their sexual needs.  So a state of disorder will arise in the society.  Human like animal Will be made.  The family through its marriage institution regulates sexual behavior of men and women and maintains order in the society.  Second, progeny – not only fulfilling the sexual needs in the family, but also the work of procreation of children.  The society recognizes only the children born in the family.  The continuity of society remains from the origin of the child.  In this way, the family works to maintain the existence of society through child production.  Third, the continuity of the ethnic elements – through the family, man maintains the continuity of his ethnic elements.  Mankind has become immortal as a result of the origin of children.  In this way, the family performs the task of keeping the ethnic elements alive.


 Functions related to Physical Security – In addition to biological functions, the family also performs physical security related work of its members.  There are many types of tasks under it. First, physical protection – physical protection is provided to the old, helpless, orphan, widow and patient members under the family.  If a family member becomes crippled and handicapped, it is not removed from the family, if the parents die, then their children are not helpless, but other members take care of them.  Women do not have to wander from rate to death on the unnatural death of their husband.  Other family members support him.  In this way, we see that the family does the work related to the physical defense of its members.  In no other group or organization does the person get this kind of protection.  Secondly, when the child is born, the child is just an effigy of flesh and flesh.  In the family, the parents prepare him for nourishment.  If there is no family, raising children will be difficult.  It takes a long time for a human child to stand on his or her feet as compared to other creatures.  In such a situation, there is a maintenance work in the family.  In addition to parents, the elders also take care of the children.  Third, the arrangement of food – Food is very important for the survival and efficiency of the body.  The family undertakes the arrangement of food for its members.  The family has been doing this work since time immemorial.  Thus the main function of the family is to arrange food for its members.  Without this, neither a person can survive nor the creation of society is possible.  Fourth, the arrangement of residence – The family arranges residence for its members.  When the residence is managed, the person’s body is protected from cold, heat and rain.  The person feels more secure due to the arrangement of residence by the family.  Fifth, the arrangement of clothes – along with the arrangement of living, it is also necessary to have the arrangement of clothes.  Warm clothes during winter and light clothes for summer season are managed by the family.  This shows that it is the family’s job to arrange weather-friendly garments.


 Economic Functions – A family is an economic unit.  Economic means are used by the family in the society.  In the financial sector too, while important work is being done by the family, first, the production unit – the work of production is done by the family.  Family is still the center of economic production in primitive society and rural society.  All the family members participate in economic activities together.  The importance of the family as a unit of economic production has begun to decline in urban and industrial areas, but even today it is important in a simple society.  Second, division of labor – The family performs the task of division of labor among its members.  In the primitive society, the family used to distribute works among its members on the basis of extreme and gender differences.  Often women used to take care of home and children and men used to take care of hunting and outside work.  Baby chores


 Used to do and perform tasks of great responsibility.  Even today, there is division of work in the family.  The person who deserves the work is assigned the same task.  Often, women do household work and men do outside work.  Third, the determination of succession – succession of property is determined by the family.  Every society has its own rules.  The family transfers property according to the culture of the society and its ideals among members from one generation to the next.  This is to say that the family decides who is the real heir to the property.  In matriarchal matriarchal and matasthali families, property is inherited from mother to daughter.  On the contrary, in patriarchal, patriarchal and patriarchal families, wealth is received from father to son.  In this way, the family has been doing the work related to the succession of property.  Fourth, the management of income and property – There is also a provision of income and property in the family.  It is the head of the family that determines the income and how much will be spent.  If property is to be built, what will be its nature, ie it will be cash or jewelry or land.  This is to say that the family arranges to spend its income properly.


Bierstedt has divided the family’s work into two parts to make it more clear.  In the work that the family does, it does some work for the individual and some for the society.  The work done for one also affects the other.  The work done by them can be understood in the following way.



  1. Providing facilities for life. Work for society
  2. Reproduction and continuity of the systems.

 3.Young control.

  1. Providing livelihood.
  2. Cultural transfer.
  3. Grant of social posts.
  4. To provide sexual opportunities.
  5. Providing security and support.
  6. Socialization.
  7. Social identity of the person




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Problems of Family


In the present time, there have been some changes in the family which have caused many problems in front of it.  These problems have questioned not only the social life, but also the existence of the family.  The ties between family members have started to weaken.  These people are internally overcome even when they are seen together externally.  All these things have changed the attitudes, values ​​and views of the family members.  As a result, the family is disintegrating, which is why family disintegration produces a state of social disintegration.  Elliot and Merrill have written – In family dissolution it is possible to procrastinate, disharmony and dissociation of the bond between the family members.  That is, a feeling of unburdenment arises among the family members and a situation of disharmony arises, which is called family dissolution.

Martin Newmeyer stated that family disintegration is a situation in which unanimous ends between family members, feelings of self-sacrifice, cooperation and love are not found.  They are each other.  Feel different.  Family awareness ends between them.  Some of the major problems facing the family today are as follows

   Enhance the feeling of individualism and selfishness – The modern era is the era of individualism and selfishness.  The basis of family life is not selfishness, but sacrifice and sacrifice.  Today people have become selfish.  People do not think of general interest and profit but think of personal interest and profit.  In such a situation, there is a decrease in familiarity and intimacy among the members in the family, family bonds are becoming weak, as well as kinship ties are getting loose.  As a result various problems are arising in the family.  The person separated from the joint family and started taking interest in a lonely family.


  Competition of material comforts – urbanization, industrialization and pluralities of businesses have provided different types of opportunities to the people and on the other hand have also affected the normal way of life.  Today, husband and wife work in corporate house.  There is no definite period for his work there.  By late evening or night, when they return home, communication with each other and with the children is not enough.  The children should not get the care and pampering from their parents.  His children came.  .  Crete grows and grows with the help of baby sitting and boarding schools.  That kind of emotional in such children.  Relationships do not develop as in children with family members.


 Divorce problem – There is a fundamental change in the basis of marriage in the current family.  Earlier marriage was considered a religious rite.  But today this agreement has been made.  This has weakened the marriage relationship and the chances of separation between husband and wife have increased.  Census data shows that the process of divorce in India has accelerated.  Earlier the divorce was limited to the lower castes, but today it is being found in every section of the society.  The separation of the family weakens the marriage and eventually leads to a state of dissolution.


 The limited family size is becoming smaller by the day.  The joint family system was prevalent in ancient and rural India.  Due to industrialization, urbanization, modern education and women’s liberation movement, people’s faith in the joint family system has started declining.  Due to abundance of employment and business opportunities, people started working in different areas.  As a result of this type of mobility, the joint family has started to break up and the nature of the family is limited to the husband and wife and their child.

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 Development of Alternative Institutions -Many such organizations have emerged in the society today, which do traditional work of the family.  Fulfillment of sexual desires, fulfillment of children and social security needs are now being done not only in the family but also outside the family.  This leads to a lack of emotional and emotional connections between family members.  In the end it causes a state of family disintegration.


  Differentiation of Social Values ​​-When the values ​​of different members of the family vary, a situation of family disintegration arises.  In the present era, there is a conflict between the new generation and the old generation in relation to social values ​​in each family.  The elders of the household emphasize the old traditions, ideals and values ​​of their time, while the new generation of youth considers them as useless, irrational and unhelpful.  These types of conflicts create a situation of family dissolution.

Apart from the above problems, there is another serious problem facing the family today – old age and = disability.  In a large family, the responsibility of taking care of sick, helpless, handicapped, orphans, widows and destitute people was considered collective responsibility rather than individual.  Older persons and all persons with disabilities lived a normal life with 2 people.  Lack of feeling of desolation, emptiness and contempt was found in his life.  They used to feel a sense of love and sympathy from the members who inspire them to live, to be happy and to be busy.


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