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Marriage has different objectives in different societies: as in Christianity, the main purpose is sexual satisfaction, then in Hindu society, to protect religion or to perform religious rituals, the purpose of marriage in Muslim societies is to give birth to a legitimate progeny, while the tribal purpose  Living together is a social compromise.  But the sociological purpose is to give roles to the man and woman, according to them, to discharge roles.  Marriage is a system of union between men and women.  This union is based on social acceptance, which is accomplished through various rituals and ceremonies.  For balance in this system, husband and wife have to perform many roles (tasks) in their lives.  Its meaning can be known more clearly through some key definitions,


 Definitions of Marriage:


Bogards “Marriage is the institution of entering the family life of man and woman.”


In the words of Westermark (E. Westermarck), “Marriage is the association of one or more men and women who are recognized by practice or law and include the rights and duties of both parties to this organization and the children arising from them.”  “This definition has revealed four facts – (a) marriage is a relationship between a woman and a man, (b) this relationship is recognized by practice or law, (c) a marriage relationship is between a woman and a man  May be between or a man may be from many women or a woman may be from many men or many women may be from many men, and (d) there are relations of rights and duties between husband and wife and children.


According to R. Lowie, “Marriage reveals the sanctioned associations that continue to exist even after the satisfaction of sexual relations and later come as the cornerstone of family life.”  “This definition reveals four things – (a) Marriage is an organization in which men and women meet as husband and wife, (b) this organization is accepted by the society, (c) it justifies sexual satisfaction  Is a medium, and (d) it is the basis for entry into family life.


Gillin and Gillin wrote, “Marriage is a society’s (recognized) method of establishing a reproductive family.  “This definition mentions three things – (a) Marriage is a method of mixing men and women,


Majumdar and Madan “Marriage receives legal, religious and social acceptance. By this, the recognition of sexual intercourse between two different persons of sex is given.


 “Johnson” marriage is a permanent relationship in which a man and a woman gain social acceptance to produce children without losing their status in the community.  ”


  Murdock refers to “regular sex and financial co-operation while living together.”


Gillin and Gillin “Marriage is a socially acceptable medium for the establishment of a reproductive family.”

Malinowski “defines marriage as a contract.”


 Lowy “Marriage is called a firm relationship rather than a legitimate partner.” “Marriage is the fountain pen head of the kinship system.” Marriage is not just a sexual relationship, but a licensing system to become paternity.

 Lacy Meyer “Marriage is a yoga of man and woman in which the woman-born child is considered as the legitimate child of the parents.  “” Marriage is a contract for the birth and care of children.  ”

Against and Grovey “Marriage is public acceptance and legal registration to be a partner.” Reverse “The means by which human society regulates sexual relations can be termed marriage.”


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 Features of marriage:


-social Security

 – Transfer of culture from one generation to another

 – Valid progeny

 –  To give birth to new rights, responsibilities and roles in parents and children.

  –  It serves religious, social and cultural purposes.  Westermark considers marriage to be an economic institution in addition to a social institution.

 Marriage is a relationship of two heterosexuals.

 – Marriage is a universal social institution.

 – Through this, regulates marriage relations.

 -.  Parenting and Socialization of Children

– Economic Cooperation

  – Mental protection



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  Marriage objectives:


  Murdock has given a comparative study of 250 societies and stated the three purposes of marriage.


(i) Sexual satisfaction

  (ii) Economic Cooperation

  (iii) Parenting and socialization of children.


Gillin and Gillin have stated the five purposes of marriage.


 (i) Regulation of sexual relations

 (ii) progeny

 (iii) Economic Cooperation

  (iv) emotional relationship

  (v) Establishment of dynasty and kinship


 Malinowski has stated three purposes of marriage


  (i) Administrative objectives

 (ii) cultural purpose

  (iii) Psychological Objectives Robin Fox has also given the following three objectives.

 (i v) Legitimate sexual satisfaction

 (v) Protection of culture

  (vi) emotional satisfaction



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Majumdar and Madan have stated the following four objectives.


  (1) Establishment of house

 (ii) entry into sexual relations

 (iii) Reproduction

 (iv) Parenting of children


Majumdar and Madan, while discussing the objectives, wrote that “Marriage leads to attaining children at the personal level or physical level at the sexual satisfaction and psychological level, and at the social level.”






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Hindu Marriage


Marriage has been accepted as a ritual in Hindus.  Kapadia writes, “Hindu marriage is a ritual.  ‘Aims of Hindu Marriage’ Kapadia writes, “The objectives of Hindu marriage, religion, subjects (children) and rati (joy) have been stated.”


The objectives of Hindu marriage are –

 (i) the fulfillment of religious functions,

  (ii) son – attainment,

 (iii) Rati Anand,

 (iv) development of personality,

  (v) fulfill the obligations of the family,

 (vi) discharge of duties towards the society.






 Forms of Hindu Marriage


Eight forms of marriage are considered among Hindus:

  • Brahma Vivah – In this, ShilwanVara, the master of Vedas, is called home and a girl equipped with clothes and jewelery etc. is donated.


  • Divine Marriage – In this, Yajaman donates his daughter to the priest who performs the yajna.



  • Harsh Marriage – In this, father takes a pair of cow and bull and donates his daughter to the sage.


  • Prajapati Marriage – In this, the girl’s father orders that the two of you should live together and conduct lifelong religion. Then bestows


 (5) GandharvaVivah – This is the current love marriage.

  (6).  Asura marriage – In this, the groom marries by giving money to the father of the girl.

 (7) Rakshasa Marriage – In this, the girl is forcibly picked up and married to him.

 (8) Passover Marriage – In this, a sleeping, frantic, frightened, drunk girl is raped and married to her.





















  Marriage among Muslims


Nikah is a social settlement.  In these, marriage is called ‘nikah’, which literally means male-female sexual intercourse.  Muslim marriage is not a religious rite but a compromise.  The purpose of which is to settle the house, raise children and declare them valid.  ”



 Aims of Muslim Marriage


 – Granting legal approval to men and women to have sex.

  – To give birth and nurture children.

 – To grant mutual rights of husband – wife by ‘meher’.

 – To give husband and wife the right as a contract that if one party does not abide by the contract, the other party can leave it.

 – Keeping in mind the upbringing of children, multi-wife marriage practice has been recognized in Muslim society.












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Types of marriage


Marriage is universal, but its nature, purpose, ideal and nature are not the same.  The common types of marriages found based on the number of husband and wife are:


  1. Monogamy: When a man or woman establishes marital relations as a life partner, it is called a marriage.  Today, a marriage is considered the most important.  The current Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 has recognized a marriage itself.


 2 .  Polygamy: When more than one man or woman establishes a marital relationship, it is called polygamy.  There are three forms of polygamy –


(i)polygyny  marriage,

(ii) polyandrous marriage, and

(iii) group marriage.


 (i).  Polygyny: When a man has a relationship with more than one woman, it is called polygamous marriage.  It was practiced in early Hindu society.  Hindu Marriage Act, 1955.  .  It has decreased significantly since.  It is prevalent among Muslims.  It is also prevalent among some tribes of India (Naga, Gond, Baiga, Toda etc.).

 (ii).  Polyandry: When a woman establishes marital relations with more than one man, it is called polyandry marriage.  An important example of this is the marriage of Draupadi with the five Pandavas in the Mahabharata period.  In modern times this practice is prevalent in the Nairs of South India.


There are two forms of polygamous marriage (a) fratricidered marriage and (b) unfriendly marriage.


  (a).  Fraternal Polyandry: When a woman establishes marital relations with more than one man, who are brother to brother, it is called fraternal marriage.  The marriage of Draupadi and the five Pandavas are examples of this.  Also, it has been prevalent in the Khas and Toda tribes of India.


 (b).  Non-Fraternal Polyandry: When a woman establishes marital relations with more than one man, if the men are not monogamous, then it is called an indecent marriage.  Its practice has been in the Toda and Nair castes.  Group Marriage: When a group of men establish a marital relationship with a group of women, it is called a group marriage.  Evolutionary thinkers believe that this form of marriage may have been in the early stages of family and marriage, but today it cannot be found anywhere.  Thus many types of marriages have been found, but in the present times only one marriage is prevalent among Hindus.  Polygamous marriages are seen under special circumstances.



  Causes to monogamy


  (i) Equal number of women and men in the society.

  (ii) Avoiding family conflict or stress

 (iii) Economic factors

 (iv) Acceptance of others in married life is not acceptable

 (v) Hindu Marriage Act,


A marriage by 1955 essentially enforced.  Benefit from monogamy (i) Best marriage (ii) Husband-wife personally responsible for children (iii) Maintenance of mutual support between men and women.  (iv) The position of women is elevated.  (v) Reduction in the number of children.  (vi) Husband – wife away from mental stress and conflict.  According to evolutionary theory, the practice of monogamy is the most recent and modern practice.  Westermark considers monogamy to be the form of marriage.


According to Malinowski, monogamy is the true form of marriage, has been and will remain.  Polygamy Nama Polygamy is a marriage in which a man or woman establishes marital relations with more than one woman or man.  There are four types of this.



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 Benefits of polygamous marriage

 (1) Due to polygamous marriage, sexual desires of Kami men are fulfilled in the family.  Therefore, corruption and immorality are not increased in the society.

 (ii) It is possible for everyone to get married when the number of women is high.

 (iii) In the case of many women, the upbringing of children and maintenance of the home is done easily.

(iv) Polygamous marriages are found in most of the rich and affluent people of the society.  Therefore, the children born from such marriages are physically and mentally strong.


 Disadvantages of polygamous marriage

(i) The time of women is often destroyed in conflicts.  (ii) Increase in population.  (ii) Due to many issues, the husband is not able to take care of everyone properly.  (iv) The social status of women falls.  (v) Increase in the number of widows.  (i) Sexual activity thrives in society due to the inability of the male to have sexual satisfaction of all the palms.


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  Causes to polygamous marriage


(1) The main reason for this is economic activity or poverty.  When a single man is unable to support women and children, many men together take care of him.

(ii) Excess of bride price.  Girls in the ‘Ho’ tribe remain virgins for the most time due to bride price.

(iii) Due to the desire to keep the population restrained, polygamous marriages are practiced because children are less in such marriages.  Granddaughter

(iv) To prevent division of property.  Of

(v) Geographical conditions – Toda and Khas are inhabited by lack of arable land.

(vi) Religious reasons – The Khas of Dehradun consider themselves as descendants of the Pandavas and these people follow the Draupadi marriage practice.

(vii) According to Westermark, the main cause of polygamous marriage is the unbalanced form of sex ratio.  (viii) ‘Samner’, ‘Cunningham’ and ‘Saxena have considered poverty as the main reason for polygamous marriage.




 Benefits of polygamous marriage


 (i) non-partition of property

  (ii) diminishing of children,

  iii) Economic Cooperation –



Disadvantages of polygamous marriage


  • Evolution of sterility.
  • The number of boys is more, which reduces the number of girls. – Tani
  • The condition of women is pathetic.

 (iv)      Increase in the number of widowers in the society.

 (v)       Sexual diseases arise in women.

(vi)        Willing siblings marriage











Importance or Functions of Marriage


 Basis of Family Life: A family is formed on the basis of marriage.  That is why marriage is called the gateway of the family.  In the family environment, exchange of love and affection is possible.  The family established through the institution of marriage is a unique place where a person fulfills all his physical, mental, social and economic desires and becomes a worthy citizen of the society.


  Helpful in Satisfaction of Sex: Sexual desire is the natural quality of human, which a person gets with birth.  The fulfillment of this desire is necessary in the context of a healthy human being.  This desire of man is possible through the arrangement of marriage.  The fulfillment of sexual desire without marriage is the creation of Kamachar.  Hence marriage is a society-accepted system of fulfilling sexual desire.


 Legitimization of Children: Through the marriage system, children gain legitimacy.  In this system, children who are born as a result of sexual relations between two men and women are accepted by the society.  Also, the child and their parents get a certain social status.  Children can be given birth without marrying, but this child will be considered illegal.  Then the child and related parents do not get social status.  Therefore, children born through marriage are considered legitimate.


  Helpful in social continuity: Every society arranges to bring the next generation to maintain its existence and continuity.  The marriage system performs this important function of the society.  In Hindu society special importance has been given to genealogy and fertility and this work has been linked to religion.


  Development of Kinship Relationships: New kinsmen develop through marriage arrangements.  This increases the scope of kinship relationships of the person.  A premarital person belongs to the parent family (in which he was born and raised).  After marriage, he belongs to the reproductive family.  As a result, a person joins his blood relatives as well as other relatives after marriage (mother-in-law, brother-in-law, sister-in-law, sister-in-law, etc.).  H. M. Johnson has accepted marriage as the determinative element of kinship co-arrangement.


  Social Prestige: Marriage is a sign of social prestige.  Marriage-celebration is the most important celebration of life.  The pomp with which the ceremony is organized on this occasion signifies that marriage is a means of achieving social prestige.  Also, the biggest yajna of the family is considered marriage.  After completing this yajna, the family’s reputation is protected.


  Helpful in Socialization of Individuals: Marriage teaches to adapt from two different ideologies, tradition, lifestyle, lifestyle etc.  It also promotes renunciation and generates loyalty to mutual duty.  When two men and women are related as husband and wife through the marriage arrangement, then their socialization starts.  On the one hand, family life is healthy and strong, on the other hand healthy personality is built.  Thus marriage plays an important role in socialization of the individual.  0 8.  Helpful in Transmission of Culture: Culture Society



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