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Generally, we keep using the word culture continuously in our day-to-day life.  Also, the word culture is also used in different meanings.  For example, it does not happen in our culture and it is accepted in Western culture.  As a sociology science, any concept has a clear meaning that reflects scientific perception.  Therefore, culture means “learned behavior” as a sociological concept.  That is, whatever a person has learned since childhood, for example on the basis of food, way of talking, knowledge of language, writing – reading and other abilities, this is culture.


What is man’s behavior culture?  Human behavior has many aspects

 (A) Biological behavior like – sleeping, walking, running.

 (B) Psychological behavior like thinking, fearing, laughing etc.

 (C) Social behavior like – Greeting, reading – writing, talking etc.

We do not take biological behavior or psychological behavior under culture.  Culture is the aspect of human behavior that a person learns as a member of society such as – wearing clothes, religion, knowledge etc.  An important difference between human and animal society is that human culture could create, whereas animal society lacks it.


 Do you know how humans were able to build culture?

 Leslie A White mentions five distinct abilities in humans, which humans have acquired from nature and as a result of which they have been able to create culture:

The first feature is – the ability of the human to stand, this allows the person to do useful work with both hands.

Second – Man’s hands are designed, as a result of which he is able to move his hands freely in any direction and through him create various things.

Third – A sharp vision of a human being, due to which he is able to observe and observe nature and events and make various discoveries and inventions.

Fourth – Developed brain, with which human beings can think better than other beings.  It is due to this brain that he presents logic and is able to establish work-cause relationship.

Fifth – the ability to construct symbols.  Through these symbols, a person is able to transfer his knowledge and experiences from one generation to the next.  Language development was possible only through symbols and people have been able to exchange their knowledge and ideas.  Thus it is clear that symbols have a huge contribution in the creation, development, change and expansion of culture.



  Do you know ?


Regarding culture is first mentioned in the book Primitive Culture published in 1871 by the famous anthropologist Edward Banart Tyler (1832 – 1917).  Tyler is primarily known for his definition of culture, according to him, “Culture is a complex composite that encompasses knowledge, belief, art ethics, law, practice and all other abilities and habits that humans acquire as a society.  It makes sense. Tyler has used culture in a broader sense. According to him, being a social animal, everything a person possesses and learns is culture. In this definition only non-material elements are included.


  Meaning and definition of culture

The definition of culture given by Robert The Social Order is that “culture is the total complexity, which includes all the things that we consider, act and keep as members of society.  Culture includes both sides physical and non-physical in the definition.

In the words of  Herskovit ,Man and His Work, “Culture is a man-made part of the environment. This definition shows that the environment has two parts – the natural and the second – the social. The social environment contains all the physical and material things.  , Which are created by humans. For example, chair, table, pen, register, religion, education, knowledge, morality, etc. Harshkovits has called this social environment, which is created by human, as culture.


 According to Bogardus, “culture is the name of all the ways of working and thinking of a group.” You may note that Bogardus, like Beersteed, has emphasized both his physical and non-physical aspects.


 Malinowski – Culture is man’s work and a means by which he achieves his goals.  You say that “Culture is a total way of life that fulfills the physical, mental and other needs of a person”.

 Defining culture, Redfield said that “Culture is the style of life of members of any society.”

Looking at the appropriate definitions, it is clear that various sociologists and anthropologists have given a definition of culture based on their respective perspectives.  In fact, culture is the way of life of the society and in this form it continues to be passed down generation after generation after necessary changes and scraps.  All kinds of thoughts and behavior come under culture.  Therefore, it is clear that the complex whole of physical and non-physical elements in a culture, which a person receives as a member of society and through which he / she lives.





Nature or Characteristics of Culture

After knowing the views of various sociologists in relation to culture, some of its characteristics are clear, which is also helpful in knowing and understanding its nature.  Here are some of the key features being discussed


  1. Culture is learned behavior – Culture is learned behavior.  One does not acquire it through the inheritance of his ancestors, but learns through the process of socialization in society.  This learning goes on continuously throughout the life, from birth to death.  You need to know that culture is learned behavior, but not all learned behavior can be called culture.  The behavior learned by animals cannot be called culture, because what animals learn cannot be taught by any other animal.  Culture includes habits and ways of behavior that are commonly learned by all members of society.  In this context, Lundbarg has stated that, “Culture is not related to one’s innate tendencies or zoological heritage, but it is based on social learning and experiences.


  1. Culture is social – Culture has the virtue of sociality.  The whole society and social relations are represented under culture.  Therefore it can be said that the behavior learned by any one or two or four persons cannot be called culture.  No behavior can be called a culture until it is learned by most individuals of the society.  Culture represents the way of life of a society.  This is the reason why every member of society adopts culture.  Culture is also social in the sense that it is not the property of any particular person or two or four persons.  This happens for every member of society.  Hence, its expansion is wide and social.


  iii.  Culture is transmissive – It is due to this quality of culture that culture goes from one generation to the next, so experiences and ideas are added to it from generation to generation.  Due to this, there is little change and scouring in the culture.  Due to this quality of culture, man further invents new things on the basis of his previous knowledge and experience.  You have to understand that – animals also have the ability to learn something.  But they are not able to teach their learned to their children and other animals.  This is the reason that despite having the ability to learn a lot, culture has not developed in them.  Through human language and symbols, it develops and expands its culture very easily and also transfers from one generation to the next.  This also maintains the continuity of culture.


  1. Culture is Man – Made – Culture refers to all those elements which have been created by man himself.  For example, our religion, belief, knowledge, ethics, manner of behavior and means of various needs ie chair, table etc. have been constructed by humans.  In this way all this culture Harshkavits says that “Culture is a man-made part of the environment.
  2. Culture fulfills human needs (Culture Satisfies Human Needs) – Culture has the property of fulfilling human needs. Even the smallest unit of culture directly or indirectly meets or helps to fulfill human needs. Sometimes a unit of culture appears to be outwardly meaningless or unworkable, but it has an important place with the entire pouch.


  Malinowski’s views: –

The famous anthropologist Malinowski states that the survival of even the smallest element of culture depends on its quality of supply.  When any element of the culture has no quality to supply it, then its existence also ceases.  For example, the elements of culture in ancient times were eliminated because they were unable to fulfill the need, in which Sati Pratha can be seen as an example.  Similarly, a unit in the system sometimes appears to be very small, but that unit is also very important for the system.  Thus, none of the elements of culture is non-functional but rather fulfills the human need.  Does.  I


vi Every society has its own distinct culture (Culture is Distinctive in every Society) – Every society has its own specific culture.  We know that any society has a specific geographical and natural environment.  Accordingly, the social environment and culture is created.  For example, the geographical environment of the people living on the mountains is different from the geographical environment of the plains.  Similarly, people living in these two places have different requirements.  Such as – food, way of living, dancing, singing, religion etc.  Therefore, the culture of both develops according to the need relative to the geographical environment.  When there are changes in the behavior and needs of the society, the culture also changes.  The rate and direction of change in behavior of people of different societies varies.  Due to which the rate and direction of change in culture is also different.


 vii.  Culture has Adoptive Quality – An important feature of culture is that it is adapted to the needs over time.  Culture is according to the environment and condition of the society.  When the environment and situation changes, culture also adapts itself accordingly.  If these characteristics and qualities are not there, the culture will cease to exist.  Uraki usefulness is not lost due to change in culture according to time and situation.  The main purpose and function of every culture is to fulfill the physical, mental and social needs of the singing.  Culture has to be molded according to these needs. Do you know – the requirements of people have been different in every age.  In place of the old requirements, new requirements have been born and these also change from time to time.  Adaptation is accompanied by culture.  This is why culture changes, but culture changes are very slow.


  viii.  Culture is super – organic – Human has created culture by using his mental and physical abilities, which is above the savvy.  By developing in culture a person develops and then builds a human culture that goes above human.  The basis of all the abilities of human beings is always, but this culture becomes above all.  In this sense, culture has been called super-organic.

ix. Culture is super-individual – Both the creation and continuity of culture is not dependent on a particular person.  Therefore it is Super – individual.  Culture is not created by any individual, but culture is created by the whole group.  Each cultural unit has its own history, which goes beyond any one person.  Culture is the fruit of social invention, but this invention is not a product of any individual’s brain.  Thus, no person can be the creator of the entire culture.  The ability to change and scrape it is not a matter of any individual control.  Thus culture is more individual.

 x Culture has the Integrative – Culture has many elements and sections under the culture, but they are not separate among themselves, but in them interconnection and interdependence are found.  Of culture.  Each unit does not work apart from each other, but all work together.  This type of balance and organization creates a cultural structure.  Every unit has a fixed position and function under this structure, but it is all based and related to each other.  In one part or unit of the culture.  The change also has an effect on the other side or the other entity.



You need to understand that – according to Emile Durthim, culture is a symbol of collective consciousness, that is, it does not represent a person but a group, so it is considered ideal, that is why it is disregarded against collective consciousness.  It is condemned and the person who respects it is praised.


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