Influencing factors of quality of population and India

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Influencing factors of quality of population and India

The status of the major influencing factors of the quality of life of the population in India can be assessed as follows • Income level is an important factor in the quality of life. The income level of the people in India is low. The per capita income in India in the year 2011 was 1.509 US. The dollar was , while in the Netherlands , 50,085 , the U.S.A. 48,112 in Japan , 45,903 in China and 5.445 in the US . dollar was It is predicted that India will achieve an average growth rate of 13 percent per capita income in the period 2011-20 and will reach $4,200 by 2020.

• Employment has an important place in a person’s life. A large part of the total labor force in India is unemployed. It has definitely improved over the years. The average unemployment rate in India between 1983 and 2011 was 76 percent. It reached its high of 94 percent in December 2009, which has come down to a record low of 3.8 percent in December 2011. This rate is Even less than countries like Spain, South Africa. Daman and Diu (0.6 percent) and Gujarat (1 percent) are the states with the lowest unemployment rates in India. In this situation, the possibility of qualitative improvement in the life of the citizens of the country has increased. Figures from the US dollar per day show that 29.8 percent of the country’s people live below 2010. In rural areas this figure was 338 percent living below. United Nations Development

Even after many decades of independence in India, a large part lives below the poverty line. Statistics show that one third of the world’s poor currently reside in India. According to the World Bank report , in the year 2010 32.7 percent of India ‘s population was below the International Poverty Line ( US $ 125 per day ) while 68 7 percent of the population was under the 2 Program ( UNDP ) . ) is 209 percent of the national poverty line in urban areas. Also, the Oxford Poverty a and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) data shows the alarming state of poverty in the states of India. According to this, the number of poor in 8 Indian S states (Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Orissa and Rajasthan) is 42 crores, which is one crore more than the poor of 26 African countries. The latest UNICEF figures also paint a grim picture of poverty in India, one of which is malnourished. Whereas according to Initiative 2, out of the total five-year-old children in the world, 42 percent are underweight.

In the case of Global Hunger Index (GHI), India has gone from 226 to 228 between 1996 and 2012, while countries like Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Kenya, Nigeria, Myanmar, Uganda, Zimbabwe and Malawi are hungry. succeeded in improving the situation.

Children are the future of the country. To increase the quality of life, it is necessary that proper direction should be given to child development and welfare in the country. At present, 13 central ministries contribute for arranging the necessary resources for this in India. Through them various policies and action plans like National Health Policy-2002, National Education Policy-1986, National Child Labor Policy- 1987, National Child Policy- 1974, Communication Strategy for Child Development-1996, National Action Plan on Nutrition -1995, National Nutrition Policy-1993 Efforts have been made to prepare and implement National Children’s Charter-2003, National Children’s Action Plan-2005 etc. Along with this, 30 thousand non-government organizations are also constantly trying to find solutions to the problems related to children and get them implemented.

• In order to improve the quality of life, the Government of India operates various schemes, as well as takes the cooperation of various non-governmental organizations in this work. The government has run many programs to provide food, clothing, housing, freedom, education, health and employment facilities to the people. The National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGA) started from the year 2006 is the main one to increase the purchasing power of the people in the country and now it has been renamed as Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MNREGA). These schemes and programs are helping people to reduce poverty and lead a better quality of life.

• Life expectancy is a major factor in quality of life. There has been a steady increase in the life expectancy in India but this pace has been very slow. The life expectancy of the people in the country was 229 years in 1911 which increased to 32.1 years in 1951 and 59.9 years in 1991. It has been estimated at 68.89 years in the year 2009. In the same year, the life expectancy of men was 67 46 years and that of women was 72.61 years. Life expectancy in India is also low as compared to developed countries. For example, life expectancy is 81 years in Japan, 79 years in Canada, 78 years in Australia and 77 years in America and England, and 71 years in Arab countries, 81 years in the Euro area, 74 years in Latin America and the Caribbean, and in the world This is 70 years.

For a quality life, the people of the country need to be physically and mentally healthy.

Yes it is. For this, adequate nutrition is required, but in India, people get an average of 1900 to 2000 calories from food, whereas they need to get at least 3000 calories per day. Due to non-availability of adequate medical facilities, there is a high incidence of diseases which hinder the quality of life of the people.

High literacy rate and training status in the country is helpful in increasing the quality of life of the people. The literacy rate in India was only 18.3 percent in the year 1951, which increased to 64.83 percent in the year 2001. India’s literacy rate is 74.04 percent according to the 2011 census. Male literacy rate in the country has increased from 75.26 percent in 2001 to 82.14 percent in 2011. Similarly, female literacy has increased from 53.67 percent in 2001 to 65.46 percent in 2011. With the development of education facilities in the country, the gap between male and female literacy rate has also reduced.

Kerala is the state with the highest literacy rate in India with 93.91 percent, while the lowest literacy rate is in Bihar, where it is only 63.82 percent. • Birth and death rates in a country greatly affect the quality of life of the population. In India, the birth rate recorded an increase till the 70s, but now it is continuously decreasing. In India it was 49.2 per thousand in 1901-10, which became 41: 7 per thousand in 1951-80. After this, due to the focus on population planning, it came down to 29.5 per thousand in the year 1991. At present it is 2222 per thousand.

Due to the development process in India, the birth rate as well as the death rate are decreasing. In the period 1941-50 it was 274 which has now come down to 64 per thousand. Infant and maternal mortality rates are very important among various mortality rates. The infant mortality rate in India was its highest level of 159.3 per thousand live births in the year 1960, which has come down to its lowest level of 48.2 per thousand live births in the year 2010.


With development, it is likely to decrease further in the future. This rate is much lower in developed countries. For example, in the United States in 2010, the rate was 6.15 per thousand live births. Similarly, the maternal mortality rate in India in the year 2010 was 2 per thousand live births. This rate is higher in rural areas than in urban areas • Human rights are fundamental universal rights of human beings. Various efforts have been made in this regard in India before and after independence. For example, after the reform movement launched by Raja Ram Mohan Roy during the British Raj, the practice of Sati was abolished.

Citizens got various rights when the Indian Constitution came into force in 1950, Panchayati Raj was established in 1992 by constitutional amendment, in which women and scheduled castes / tribes were given representation. The National Human Rights Commission was established in 1993. In 2005, the Right to Information Act was passed to ensure citizens’ access to information organized under the jurisdiction of public officials, the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act was passed in 2005 to solve the problem of employment, etc.

Making positive impactful efforts 1 Analyzing the factors affecting the quality of life of the population in the context of India, it is clear that the quality of life in India is still in a low condition. Government efforts are being made at various levels to improve the lives of citizens in the country and the results of those efforts are also coming, but more and more is needed in this direction. Various international organizations are trying to improve the quality of life at the world level as well. Major international organizations such as the World Bank have declared the goal of “a poverty-free world so that people have access to food, clothing, housing, education, access to health care and employment, and to improve their quality of life.” World Bank Neoliberalism Efforts are being made to reduce poverty by means and help people to live a better quality life.

Difference between population quality and standard of living

The concepts of quality of life and standard of living of a population are often seen in the same way as the economic and social prosperity of a country and its inhabitants, while these are two different concepts and there is a substantial difference between the two. On the one hand, the standard of living is generally related to the availability of money, comfort, material goods and necessities to the people in a given geographical area. It includes those elements that can be easily measured and can be expressed in numbers, such as GDP, poverty rate, life expectancy, inflation rate, average number of holidays given to workers per year. e.t.c . The standard of living is often used to compare geographic areas. Like the difference in standard of living between two countries or two cities, on the other hand, quality of life is more subjective than standard of living. This includes wealth and employment as well as the built environment, physical and mental health security, education, entertainment, happiness, leisure and social relationships, and a poverty-free life. It also includes elements that are typically qualitative and difficult to measure.

Such as equal protection of law, freedom from discrimination, religious freedom etc. Thus, standard of living is an objective and narrow concept whereas quality of life is a subjective and comprehensive concept. But, both help in presenting a general picture of life in a particular area at a particular time, which helps policy makers to formulate and change policies.

The quality of life of a population is related to the quality of life of individuals and societies. This is a broad concept. Its influencing factors include quantitative as well as such factors which are particularly qualitative and which are difficult to trace. These can be divided into different parts from the point of view of study, such as – economic factors (income, wealth, employment, living and poverty level, infrastructure etc.), social factors (life expectancy, physical and mental health, education and training, housing etc.). , birth and death rates, social relationships, leisure, gender equality and crime etc.), psychological factors (levels of happiness and satisfaction) and other factors (human rights, political stability, environmental security, child development and welfare, etc.).

United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948 to evaluate the quality of life on various factors such as freedom from slavery and oppression, equal protection of law, freedom from discrimination, equal treatment, right to privacy, freedom of thought, religious freedom, free choice of employment, education The right to human self-esteem etc. has been told. Evaluating the status of the major influencing factors of the quality of life of the population in India, it is known that the quality of life in India is still low.

To improve the lives of citizens in the country. Government efforts are being made at various levels and positive results are also coming from those efforts, but more and more effective efforts are needed in this direction. Various international organizations are trying for this at the world level as well. India is also benefiting from these efforts. The concepts of quality of life and standard of living of a population are often seen in the same way, but there is a substantial difference between the two. The standard of living is a narrower concept that includes elements that can be easily measured and expressed in numbers, whereas quality of life is a broader concept that includes quantitative as well as qualitative factors whose measurement is It’s hard to do. But both help to present a general picture of life in a particular area at a particular point of time, which helps the policy makers in formulating policies.


Unemployment rate: Under the unemployment rate, the relationship between the total power of the country and the people who do not get employment for livelihood is seen. People who are looking for employment. This rate is obtained by dividing their number by the total labor force of the country. This rate changes mainly to those currently looking for work. Depends on the new people who left the job and joined in search of work. Poverty Line : UNDP According to it, those families are poor who have to live on one dollar a day. Under the definition of poverty in India, those families who get food or food items of 2400 calories in rural areas and 2100 calories in urban areas are not poor.

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