Population quality

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Population quality

Every country in the world aspires for rapid economic development. To fulfill this aspiration, it is necessary to have two elements in the country, first natural resource and second human resource. In fact, the greatest contribution to economic development comes from human resources, that is, the population available in that country. The goal of economic growth and development cannot be achieved without the active cooperation of the population.

Human efforts are required to put natural resources and capital etc. in production work. Man exploits material resources with his intellectual and physical strength, develops the process of production through innovations and thus paves the way for economic development. Clearly, population is not only a means of economic development but also an end and it plays an important role in development, but in the present time, rapidly increasing population and its low quality have emerged as a major problem, which is considered as a hindrance to economic development. form is being seen. In such a situation, the population should play the role of a contributor, not an obstacle in the economic development, for this it is necessary that along with controlling the quantity of the country’s population, its quality should be increased.

Concept of Population Quality – Richard T. Gill states that economic development is not only a mechanical process but also a human enterprise. Its result ultimately depends on the human qualities, his efficiency and his attitude. This statement makes it clear that the development of a country is the result of human efforts. Qualified population can lead a country on the path of progress.

In fact, the quality of life of the population is taken to mean the quality of life of the individuals and the society. In a broader sense, it is related to the areas of international development, health and politics etc. Naturally, people associate the quality of life of the population with the concept of standard of living, while these two are different concepts. While standard of living is a narrower concept based primarily on income, quality of life is a broader concept. Standard indicators of quality of life include not only wealth and employment, but also poverty-free living with built environment, physical and mental health security, education, entertainment, happiness, leisure time and social relationships. In order to provide quality life to the people in the world, the governments of different countries as well as NGOs and global organizations are making their contribution.

The World Bank has also set the goal of making the world poverty free so that people can get food, clothing, housing, freedom, access to education, health care and employment facilities and improve their quality of life.

Indices measuring the quality of life of a population

The population of any country is its real asset. The basic objective of development is to create an environment for the people in which they can enjoy long, healthy and creative lives. Data is needed to measure the development of human beings. In this context, indices are used to measure the quality of life of the population of a country, out of which two majorly prevalent indices are the first physical quality of life index and the second human development index.

physical quality of life index
The Physical Quality of Life Index (POLI) as an indicator of human development was propounded by the famous sociologist Maurice David Morris in the year 1970. Under this index, a composite physical quality index of life is drawn based on the achievement of three important points of a country.

1. Life Expectancy Life expectancy refers to the average age of living of people. It is an indicator of the health and civilization and economic development of the citizens of a country.

2. Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate refers to the number of children dead per thousand live births before the age of one year.

3. Literacy- It means the number of literate people per 100 persons. Process of Normalization To construct this index, all three indicators of the index (life expectancy, infant mortality rate and literacy) are normalized by measuring them. Since these three indicators are not of the same nature, they are measured separately, e.g. life expectancy in years, infant mortality rate as per thousand live births and literacy as percentage. For generalization, Maurice has assigned maximum and minimum values ​​to each indicator. This can be clarified from the table

Construction of Physical Quality of Life Index The following two steps are completed for the construction of this index:

Phase One of Component Indices Construction In the first phase of index creation, three component indices are constructed. In this, different formulas are used to find the achievement level of positive and negative indicators. The following formula is used to find the achievement level of positive indicators i.e. life expectancy and basic literacy rate: Real value – Minimum value Achievement level = • Highest value Minimum value Similarly, find the negative indicator i.e. achievement level of infant mortality rate. to do

The following formula is used for

Highest Value Actual Value Achievement Level = Highest Value Lowest Value II Stage Average Determination In the second stage of PQLI construction, the above three components are averaged after creating an individual index. LEI + BLI + IMI POLI 3 6.5.12 Example for construction of Physical Quality of Life Index (POLI) Let us assume that life expectancy in India is 70 years, infant mortality rate is 50 per thousand and basic literacy rate is 75 percent. With this, the construction of POLI construction will be like this, the first phase


If the physical quality of life index is high in a country, the quality of life of the people (population) of that country is also considered high. This index is an important effort by Maurice which focuses on three important areas – life expectancy, literacy rate and infant mortality rate, ignoring GDP and other possible indicators. It is a simple measurement compared to other measures of quality of life. At present its place has been taken by the Human Development Index.

human Development Index

The Human Development Index HDI, commonly used in the measurement of international development, was presented in 1990 by the famous Pakistani economist Mehboob-ul-Haq associated with the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and Indian economist Amartya Sen etc. . The purpose of creation of this index was to shift the economics of development from national income accounting to people-centred policies.

These indices are prepared and published under the United Nations Development Programme. A Human Development Report is issued by UNDP every year since 1990, in which different countries are ranked on the basis of their Human Development Index. This index is also used to differentiate between developed and underdeveloped countries and to measure the impact of economic policies on quality of life. According to the Human Development Report 1990, development is not merely the expansion of people’s income and capital, but it is the process of upgradation of human’s functioning, way of working and capabilities. This ideology of development has been given the name of human development. The Human Development Index is based on three social indicators, longevity, educational achievement and standard of living. These identifiers can be expressed as .

1. Longevity or Life Expectancy at Birth Longevity or life expectancy at birth is currently considered by economists to be a minimum of 25 years and a maximum of 85 years.

3. Educational Achievement (Educational Attainment is done by the following two houses) Measurement of Academic Achievement

(i) Adult Literacy Ratio (ALR) The number of people who can read and write simple statements out of 100 people of the age of 15 years or more is called adult literacy rate.

(ii) Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) Gross Enrollment Rate is the ratio of the total population of the country and all the enrolled students. In other words, Gross Enrollment Rate is that part of the total population that is enrolled at a primary, secondary, higher secondary school or a university level. The higher the Gross Enrollment Rate in a country, the higher the quality of life of its population. The following formula is used to find this rate: Number of students enrolled for education Gross Enrollment Rate (GER) = Total Population To find the Educational Achievement Coordinate (EAI), 2/3 weighting is given to the adult literacy rate. whereas the Gross Enrollment Rate is given 1/3rd weightage.

Subsistence Level or Per Capita Real Gross Domestic Product or Income: Through this the ability of people to buy goods and services i.e. purchasing power or the standard of living of the people is known. . For this the following formula is used: Gross domestic product at constant prices Real GDP per capita = Total population

Manufacture of Human Development Index (HDI)

The following two steps are completed for the construction of Human Development Index: I Phase I Construction of Individual or Dimensional Indices For the construction of Human Development Index, first of all three indicators (longevity, educational achievement and standard of living or real GDP or income per capita). Different dimensional indices are known. The maximum value of each insurance is one

(1) and the minimum value is zero ( 0 ). Points to be noted while preparing the personal index Two things must be kept in mind while determining the personal index, first the normalization of the indicators and secondly the calculation of real GDP per capita income.

1. Normalization of indicators is essential for the correct formulation of Human Development Index. That its determinants have the same units of measure of all three identifiers. But all three of its indicators are measured in different units, such as life expectancy in years, literacy as a percentage and per capita real GDP or income in dollars. To solve this problem, all three indicators can be converted into a common unit of measurement.

It is This is called normalization of identifiers.
The values ​​set by the United Nations for the formulation of the Human Development Index are given in the following table.

2 : Minimum and Highest Value of Indicators of Human Development Index Minimum Value Highest Value Life Expectancy
academic achievement
(i) Adult Literacy Rate
(ii) Gross Enrollment Rate
3. Real Per Capita GDP based on Purchasing Power Parity

Calculation of real GDP per capita income It has been told earlier that the standard of living is measured by real GDP per capita income for the manufacture of this index, but two amendments have to be made in this, the first amendment is to compare at the international level and To make this comparison logical and convenient, per capita income is converted into ruble dollars. For this change of per capita income, purchasing power parity is used in place of the prevailing exchange rate in the international money market. Purchasing power parity rate is the rate that is determined between the currencies of two countries on the basis of purchasing power of one unit of their currency. For example , in America a group of goods is available for 1 dollar while in India the same group is 10 . If available in Rupees then the exchange rate based on Purchasing Power Parity would be 1 Dollar = 10 Rupees. As a person’s income increases, the Second Amendment, a well-known law of economics, states that as the stock or savings quantity of a commodity increases, the utility derived from that commodity decreases. The same rule applies to currency (dollar). That is, the satisfaction goes down. It gradually becomes zero after a limit that a person’s happiness or standard of living cannot be measured by a variety of parameters of the amount of money a person has, so the United Nations Development Program provides per capita income for indicators of living standards in different countries. The utility received from each next unit of currency in the same way is adjusted for purchasing power parity.

Clearly the method does not accept. For this, it takes into account the central level of small coefficient transformations, such as == log or small multiplier (per capita income in PPPS) • Step II To calculate the simple average of all three indices • standard of living, life expectancy, educational achievement and real per capita After constructing the GDP index separately, the Human Development Index is constructed by taking the simple average of the three indices. The following formula is used to construct it Life Educational Achievement Index — Real Per Capita GDP

Example for construction of Human Development Index (HDI) Construct Human Development Index from the following data.

1. Life Expectancy at Birth
2. Educational Achievement

(i) Adult Literacy Rate (ii) Gross Enrollment Rate Per Capita Gross Domestic Product (Based on Purchasing Power Parity) Calculation:
real life expectancy

Limitations of Human Development Index
The following are the limits of the Human Development Index (HDI):
1. The indicators of the index are life expectancy, literacy rate (educational achievement) and standard of living, all three are basically related to income. In case of high per capita income in a country, the life expectancy, literacy rate and the standard of living are all high. For this reason, countries with high Human Development Index are mostly wealthy countries.

The level of inequalities prevailing in a country is not known through the Human Development Index. It does not help in removing the inequalities found in that country.

3. Human Development Index includes only three indicators, life expectancy, literacy rate (educational achievement) and subsistence level, while other important social indicators of human development, maternal mortality, infant mortality, nutrition etc. are left out.

Influencing Factors of Population Quality

The quality of life of a population is related to the quality of life of individuals and societies. This is a broad concept. Its standard indicators include not only wealth and employment, but also environment, physical and mental health security, education, entertainment, happiness, leisure time and poverty-free living with social relations etc. The influencing factors of the quality of life of the population can be divided into different parts from the point of view of study, such as economic factors (income, wealth, employment, level of living and poverty, infrastructure etc.),

Social factors (life expectancy, physical and mental health, education and training, housing, birth and death rates, social relationships, leisure, gender equality and crime etc.), psychological factors (levels of happiness and satisfaction) and other factors (human rights, political sustainability, environment, security, child development and welfare etc.).

Economic factors Influencing the quality of life of the population Economic factors refer to those factors which are related to wealth. These are the following:

income level

Income level is an important factor in the quality of life. Generally, the quality of life of that society, class and individual is considered to be high, whose income level is high. In the case of low income, a person has less purchasing power and is unable to meet the necessities of his life, which hinders his way of living a quality life.

is generated.

level of wealth

Along with the income level, the level of wealth is also another important factor in the quality of life. If the level of wealth is high, it is possible for the quality of life of a person to be high because through this a person is able to enjoy more facilities to make his life happy. Level of Employment Employment plays an important role in the life of an individual. Through employment, a person can be successful in getting the means for subsistence for himself and his family and can make a qualitative improvement in his life. In the absence of employment, a person struggles to get enough resources to improve his life.

living standard

The quality of life of a person also depends on the quality of his life. High standard of living means quality of life The standard of living depends on the level of income, employment and wealth of a person and his way of living.

poverty level

In a society where the poverty level is high, the quality of life of the people is low. In the state of poverty, people are unable to meet even their minimum needs of food, clothing and housing. In such a situation it is not possible to get the necessary facilities for a quality life.

basic infrastructure

Adequate availability of basic infrastructure enriches the life of human beings. Its availability helps in the success of the economy’s infrastructure i.e. agriculture and industries, as well as it brings qualitative improvement in life through water, sanitation, health and education services, energy, housing, transport, communication technology etc.

social factors
Following are the various social factors influencing the quality of life

Life expectancy
Life expectancy refers to the average age of living of people. It is an indicator of the health and civilization and economic development of the citizens of a country. This expectation of survival is called life expectancy or expected life or average age. Life expectancy is a major factor in quality of life. The country or society in which life expectancy is high, the quality of life of the people here is high.

physical and mental health
For a quality life, it is necessary for the people of the country to be physically and mentally healthy. Healthy manpower is a huge wealth for a country by which high amount of per capita production can be achieved. Low levels of health and nutrition adversely affect the quality of manpower. To improve the quality of population, it is necessary that adequate and nutritious food should be provided to the people. Expenditure on these items should be treated as human investment as this investment tends to increase the efficiency and productivity of the people.

education and training

The high literacy rate and training conditions in the country are helpful in increasing the quality of life of the people. In fact, education is considered as the stepping stone of development, the medium of change and the harbinger of hope. Education is considered one of the most powerful tools in reducing poverty and inequalities and laying the basis for economic development. The United Nations has also recognized that the greatest progress will be made in countries where education is widespread and where it encourages experimental attitudes among people. The studies done in the context of the development of developed countries make clear the fact that a large part of the development of these countries is the result of the development of education, research and training. Appropriation is because it increases the efficiency of the people as a means of production. It is clear that high literacy and training status in the country enhances the quality of people.

accommodation facility
Accommodation means such shelter which is comfortable and necessary for the persons, where their family members can lead a happy life. Housing is one of the basic needs of human beings. Availability of proper housing enhances the quality of life of the people. Without this, a person cannot make his life happy. The development of housing is also an important part of the development of human resources because a comfortable life makes people a good means of production. This increases the efficiency of the people.

birth and death rates

Birth and death rates in a country greatly affect the quality of life of the population. In the case of low birth and death rates, it is believed that adequate facilities are available to the citizens in the country, so life is more quality here. High birth and death rates mean that the availability of various facilities in the country is low. In such a situation, the quality of life for the people of the country cannot be imagined.

social relations

Man is a social animal. It is a part of the society and society is also formed from it. In this context, social relations have a special significance. It is necessary to have strong social ties to enhance life.

holiday time
Due to continuous work without quality leave, the productivity of the person decreases. if the person

If a person has the availability of a certain amount of leisure, it increases his efficiency and which increases the quality of life of the person. It is also important from the point of view of strengthening the social relations of the individual.

gender equality

The status of gender equality in the society is an indication of the quality of life of the people. In places where women and men are not discriminated on the basis of gender and they have equality of opportunity without discrimination, the life of the people there is in a better condition. The concept of gender equality is based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of the United Nations.

In a society, if crime occurs in large quantities, the people there will not be sure about the safety of their life and property and in such a situation people cannot imagine living a quality life. In conditions of extreme crime and anarchy, people are not able to carry out their functions in an independent manner. The condition of a crime free society enhances the quality of life of the people.

psychological factors

The various psychological factors influencing quality of life are those which depend on the internal factors of the individual and cannot be easily measured. These factors are the following

Happiness is an important factor among the psychological factors influencing quality of life. This is a subjective factor and is difficult to measure. It has great importance in the life of a person. Without this, a person cannot complete his work with full devotion. The quality of life of a person will increase only when the environment around him is such that he can experience anand (happiness). It is to be mentioned here that it is not necessary that the happiness level of the person should also increase with the increase in income.

satisfaction level

An individual’s level of satisfaction is also an influencing factor of quality of life. If the satisfaction level of the individual or the society is high then their quality of life will be high and if the level of satisfaction is low then the opposite situation will happen. The level of satisfaction is an intrinsic factor which can vary from person to person.

Other factors Other influencing factors of quality of life may include the following:

Human Rights For a qualitative life, it is necessary that individuals get various human rights. Human rights refer to the fundamental rights and freedoms to which all human beings are entitled. These include the right to life, the right to freedom of expression, the right to equality of law, as well as the right to food, work and education etc. Human rights are fundamental universal rights of human beings from which human beings cannot be denied on any grounds like gender, caste, race, religion, nationality. In countries where people get human rights, the quality of life of the people here is high.

political stability
Political stability is an effective factor in quality of life. In such countries, where there is a state of political stability, the trust of the people remains in the government. The schemes for the development of citizens are run smoothly here. In this way the quality of life of the people increases. In the event of political instability, the quality of life decreases.

environment clean
Availability of environment is helpful in improving life. Natural and man-made environmental resources such as fresh water, clean air, forests etc. provide a basis for human livelihood and socio-economic development. With a clean environment, individuals can be more productive by being more physically and mentally healthy.

A safe life is the basis of high quality and development. Without security, the country, society and individual cannot progress towards development. With the addition of life, property and various types of security, the quality of life can be improved.

Child Development & Welfare
Children are the future of any country. They are also the real pillars of the progress of the nation. Every child is born to fulfill certain expectations, aspirations and responsibilities, but if these children are deprived of the necessary facilities of development, then along with them the prospects of future betterment of the country also decrease. In order to increase the quality of life, it is necessary that proper direction should be given to the welfare and development of children in the country. It is necessary that the children in the country

The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948 described various factors for the evaluation of the quality of life. These factors can be used in the measurement of quality of life. These factors are the following
Freedom from slavery and oppression Equal protection of law Freedom from discrimination Right to travel Right to reside in one’s own country Right to marriage Right to family Behavior on the basis of gender, language, religion, political belief, citizenship, socio-economic status etc. Right to equal treatment without tax • Right to privacy Freedom of thought Religious freedom
Right to free choice of employment, right to fair payment, equal pay for equal work, right to vote, right to rest, right to education, right to human self-respect.

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