Main Steps in Scientific Method 

Spread the love

Main Steps in Scientific Method


Scientific method is a systematic and systematic method. There are many processes involved in this. Different scholars have expressed their views regarding the ordering of these processes. These scholars have discussed the major stages of the scientific method. Following are the views given by some prominent scholars

According to Lundberg, the scientific method has four major phases (i) the working hypothesis, the observation and recording of data, the classification and organization of the collected facts. organization of data (iv) generalization.


P .V. Young has discussed six steps of scientific method (i) Selection of study problem (ii) Formation of working hypothesis (iii) Observation and collection of facts (iv) Plotting of facts (v) Classification of facts (vi) Scientific generalization .

Avalbernen has discussed the five levels of the scientific method (1) the choice of problem and the formulation of hypotheses. (ii) Collection of accurate facts (iii) Classification and tabulation. (iv) Drawing of conclusions (v) Examination and verification of findings.

Some major levels can be mentioned on the basis of different stages of scientific method given by different scholars. That is, different scholars have explained the steps of the scientific method from their own point of view. Following are the major steps of the scientific method keeping in view the views of all the scholars.




(i) Choice of problem

(ii) Formation of hypothesis

(iii) Determination of study area

(iv) Selection of study instruments Restau demand

(v) Overview and Facts Compilation Shah

(vi) Classification and Analysis Home

(vii) Generalization and formulation of rules



Selection of Problem – Under the scientific method, the first step is the selection of the problem. First of all, the researcher selects the subject on the basis of current importance, practical utility and curiosity. This subject forms the first basis of scientific research. The selection of the problem is done on the basis of related literature and information. For this, as many articles, descriptions or ideas related to the problem can be found from books, reference books or periodicals, it is collected. The persons concerned are also questioned in this regard. Goode and Hatt have written “Many events are included in the whole related to any study, but science confines itself to some of these events.” Studyer. Selects the problem on the basis of awareness and interest.


Formulation of Hypothesis – After selecting the problem, the researcher constructs the hypothesis related to the problem. Hypothesis is such a statement made before the study, whose authenticity is checked on the basis of the facts to be collected. Lundberg has said, “A hypothesis is a tentative generalization, the truth of which remains to be tested.” Hypothesis provides direction to scientific study. Constructing a hypothesis saves time, energy and money. On the basis of this, the facts are compiled and through these facts the authenticity of the hypothesis is checked. The hypothesis is formed by the researcher on the basis of his guesses, understanding, imagination and experiences. Common culture, literature, kindness and philosophy also become sources of fiction.


Determination of the study area (Determination of Universe) – Study area refers to the area which is marked to collect the facts related to the study. That is, the student himself decides which field he wants to study. Studyer if the study area is fixed. The effort is within a limit, it avoids unnecessary efforts. If the study area is large, then the facts are collected from representative units. Sampling method is used to select representative units.



. Selection of Tools and Techniques – The selection of instruments and techniques is done keeping in mind the hypothesis and study area. The selection of the above mentioned instruments and methods is very important for studying through scientific method. For the calculation of trust tax, the researcher chooses various methods and instruments. That is, it decides by which observation, questionnaire, schedule, personal study method, interview or other methods will collect the facts. Prepares an outline in relation to these instruments and techniques. For example, preparation of interview guide, questionnaire and schedule etc.


. Observation and Data Collection – Scientific study also begins with observation. In general, observation means to see. But observation in the scientific method means to observe and test any object and phenomenon from an objective point of view. In observation all the human senses are used as far as possible, after that the facts are collected. facts

In addition to observation, facts are also collected through other methods such as interview, questionnaire, schedule and personal study method. The data related to checking the authenticity of the hypothesis is collected. On the basis of these, causal relationship is established and the truth of the hypothesis is checked.


Classification and Interpretation – After collecting the facts under the scientific method, those facts are classified. That is, the facts are divided into different classes or categories on the basis of their similarity, dissimilarity and other characteristics. Through this process the collected facts become simple, clear and meaningful. When the facts are divided into different categories, then they are analyzed. The collected facts are analyzed in a fair and unbiased manner so that the causal relationship is known.


Generalization and Formation of Law – Generalization is done on the basis of analysis of obtained facts. That is, general conclusions are drawn. On the basis of these conclusions the hypotheses are verified or disproved. It is necessary to note here that in both these cases (verified or unproven) the conclusion is scientific. If the hypotheses are not verified, the scientific importance of the study is not diminished. The conclusions drawn by the classification, analysis and generalization of facts form the basis of general rules and principles. That is, on the basis of conclusions, rules and principles are formulated. There is an interrelationship in the various stages of the scientific method. Therefore, real knowledge is attained only after passing through various stages. In this context, Carl Pearson said, “There is no short path to truth; there is no other way to gain knowledge of the universe than through the scientific method.”




Leave a Comment

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.