Main Steps of Interview Method 

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Main Steps of Interview Method 


Interviewing is an art. Its operation requires great care and vigilance. In order for its results to be reliable and useful, it must be ‘duly planned and organized. Efforts have been made from time to time to give it a scientific form. Much literature has also been written on this. Herbert Hyman, Bingham, Walter and Moore, Proldfield etc. are famous for writing on the interview method. How interviews are conducted with these famous writers, the psychology of interviewing, interviews in social research, etc. have been highlighted in detail. To make the process of interview easy it is conducted on certain steps, they are as follows


Preparation of Interview: Before doing the interview, it is necessary to consider all the achievements of the interview. Four things are important in this context –

1 The initial crux of the problem – on the subject to be interviewed, think enough about all the aspects of that subject.

2. Construction of the interview machine – After the preliminary information, the student has to construct the interview machine. These instruments are mainly of two types (a) Interview Schedule and (b) Interview Guide. Who or where the instrument will be used, it depends on the choice of interview method. Usually interview schedule is used in structured interview and interview guide is used in effective interview.

Selection of interviewers – The researcher has to search about the people with whom he has to interview. It is necessary to get enough information about the interviewer. By getting information about the nature, occupation, routine, cultural characteristics of the interviewer, special convenience becomes available in the conduct of the interview.

Determination of time and place – To determine the time and place through telephone or self contact with the interviewer.


(2) Main Part of Interview: This part is most important in the whole process of interview. That’s why this stage is called the main part of the interview. It comes under –

(1) Contact Establishment – The interviewer arrives for the interview at the predetermined time and place. Her dress should be gentle and serious. Introduce yourself with a proper greeting.

(I) Explanation of the purpose – After establishing the contact of the interviewees, the purpose of the interview should be explained. So that the interviewer does not have any doubts about the interview.

(II) Request for co-operation – After explanation of the purpose, cooperation should be requested from the interviewer. He should be assured that the information given by him will be kept strictly confidential.

(IV) Asking Questions – The interview should be started with simple and simple questions. Serious and personal questions should be asked later. Use of double and multiple meaning questions should be avoided.

(v) Listening sympathetically – Whatever the interviewer wants to tell, he should listen with great patience and sympathy. If the interviewer deviates from the original topic, he should very carefully bring it to his topic.

(VI) Encouragement – The interviewer should be impressed with a few persuasive sentences every now and then. As you have told a very important thing, you have brought many new facts to light. etc etc .

(VII CONTROL AND CERTIFICATION OF THE INTERVIEW – Controlling the interview means that care should be taken that the interviewers do not give wrong answers and contradictory things etc. By doing this the interview becomes authentic and human level.



(3) Closing of Interview: The interview should end in a pleasant atmosphere. The interviewer should feel happy during the interview. If it is necessary to re-interview in future, then the original interview should be stopped at that time while there is still some important matter to be discussed, so that in the next interview, it can be started from there. Gratitude to the respondent must be expressed at the end of the interview.


(4) Recording: In a structured interview, the interviewer writes down the information in an immediate schedule. In an unstructured interview, information can be briefly noted. In this context, the knowledge of sign script is important. Nowadays scientific instruments – tape recorders are being used. The interviewer should try to give the answers of the respondents exactly as they are in the report. He should always try that the report is true and without bias.

Objectives of Interview

. Various scholars have expressed their opinion on the purpose of interview as a method in social research. Lundberg has given two basic objectives of interview –

(1) Fact-collection and (2) Emotional aspects of the life of the Respondent.

Study of cells.

Maccoby and Maccoby have mentioned three objectives – (1) investigation of hypothesis, (2) fact collection and (3) verification of information obtained from other sources.

Young has given four objectives of interview – (1) obtaining information about the personality of the respondents, (2) formation of hypothesis, (3) obtaining personal information and (4) collection of secondary facts. According to Black and Champion, two objectives are stated – (i) to describe the subject and (i) to investigate. Based on the opinion of various scholars, the basic objectives of the interview can be understood as follows:


Receiving Information Through Face To Face Contact: The first objective of the interview is to collect information through face-to-face contact. Huh . Then have a casual conversation. The researcher motivates the respondent to give information. As a result of this type of contact, the respondent gets information about the inner feelings, emotions and perceptions etc.

Source of Hypothesis: Through interview, the researcher gets information about the thoughts, feelings and attitudes of different persons. It gives knowledge of valuable aspects of personal and collective life. On the basis of this knowledge, many new hypotheses are successful in making.

Collection of Qualitative Facts: Social facts are basically qualitative which are spread in the form of thoughts, feelings and beliefs etc. They can be individual as well as collective. It can be collected only through interview method. Because the researcher, because of his presence, induces the respondent to give information.




Opportunity for Observation: The purpose of the interview is to provide an opportunity for observation as well. When the researcher reaches a person for an interview, he not only takes the interview, but also keeps observing the gesture of the informant.

Descriptive Purpose: The main objective of the interview is to collect the primary facts related to the problem and the topic. Based on this, the details of the subject are presented. For this, personal data, background information, internal facts of the person’s life and attachments etc., information are collected through interview so that different aspects of the problem and subject can be described.

Supplementary Method: The interview method is sometimes used as an auxiliary method to other methods as well. The purpose of interview as an auxiliary method is to combine the material obtained from other methods and to check their authenticity.

Verification: The purpose of the interview is verification. Interview is also used for verification of information received from other sources.




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