Population Theory of Malthus

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Population Theory of Malthus

Prior to Malthus, the clear thinking of Malthus and Malthus in the post-modern era is sufficiently clear in relation to population, but organized systematic and clear ideas of scholars are not accessible in ancient and medieval times. In ancient literary and religious texts, Vedas, Puranas, Upanishads and Smritis, many instances of a large family are described. But this does not mean that there was an incentive to have large families in these texts, encouraging uncontrolled and free breeding was not considered welfare in the society. Glimpses of the ideas of the modern era are scattered everywhere in these literature. The Varnashrama system of ancient India indicates enough in this direction. Explains the systematic development of life in four stages of 25-25 years of man.

In Malat, in 1798, in a book titled ‘An Aise on Principals of Population’, he presented his theory of population. Malthus was a clergyman and he made a deep study of the population growth of many countries of Europe. There are three bases of Malthus’s theory:

(I) Growth rate in population – You were of the opinion that the growth of population occurs in a geometrical order, that is, its order is in the form of 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64. In this way, if there is no barrier, then the population of any country doubles in 25 years.

The rate of production of food items Malthus is of the opinion that the production of food items is very slow compared to the rate of population growth. The growth of food items is in the order of mathematical ratio i.e. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, etc. In this way, during the period in which the population of a country will increase 16 times, in the same period the production of food items only 5 times the rapidly increasing population gives rise to starvation, unemployment, conflict, war, crime and many other evils in the country.

(3) Population control – According to Malthus, there are two ways to control the increasing population –

(a) Natural Restrictions (Positive Check),
(b) Preventive Check.

(a) Natural restriction – This type of restriction is imposed by nature. In this type of restriction the death rate increases. When the population in a country increases excessively as compared to the food material, then nature brings flood, earthquake, plague, epidemic, famine, drought, starvation, natural outbreak and war etc. to stop it, due to which the additional population is destroyed and desired. Population is maintained in quantity.
It includes copy which applies on its own for the increasing population. In this, the artificial birth rate is low. The inspector is a ban on income, progeny – detention, family planning, celibacy and the use of agriculture, etc. It is valid that if people try to stop the increase by imposing restrictions.


Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834)

Thomas Robert Malthus was born in England in 1786 AD. He was a follower of Adam Smith, the founder of economics and a well-known scholar of traditional economics. His father’s name was Binile Malthus, who belonged to a wealthy family. Education of Malthus – After receiving education at Cambridge University, he was appointed pastor in the local church.

It was from here that he wrote an article in 1798 informing the world about the dire consequences of population growth. An essay on the Principle of Population as it effects the future improvement of the society with remarks on the speculation of Mr. Godwin …. and other writers clarified the basis in which the population is increasing faster than the food grains, the consequences of which will be dire. Maltus had to face criticism with a pessimistic viewpoint. He had to travel several times to collect data from countries in Europe to support his account. On the basis of which a revised revised edition of his essay was published in 1803 AD. His six essays related to population theory were published. Malbhas in 1807 AD
He was a professor of History and Political Science in a college. He died in 1834.

Influencing Factors If you study the texts and articles related to Malthus, then it will become clear to you that the ideas of Malthus were influenced by the then economic, social, political conditions and the ideas of his contemporary and predecessor thinkers. Let us see, who are the factors which influenced and inspired Malthus in writing his ideas related to population and what is their form?

Economic condition of England
At the time when Malthus’s ideas of population were maturing, it was a time in which the economic condition of England was deteriorating day by day. Famine, diseases, poverty, filth and unemployment were rife all around in England and nearby places. The agricultural economy of England, which was in an advanced stage in the first half of the 18th century, was deteriorating day by day in the latter half. On the one hand, due to the increase of population, additional pressure was increasing on the society, while the deteriorating condition of agriculture had filled the social life with problems giving rise to many crises. Ireland

There was a terrible famine. The pressure of population on the land was increasing. Crops were getting damaged for many years in a row. Due to the threat of war, the increase in the prices of food grains had increased due to the stoppage of imports. Due to the lack of food, England passed the corn laws. Still, due to the inaction of the government, he was finding himself compelled to handle the situation. Thomas Green has described this situation in England in this way. Along with the curse of misgovernance, the curse of poverty was also added and this poverty increased with the rapid growth of the population of the country, as a result of which famine converted the countries into a hell pool. Malthus visited many countries. And came to the conclusion that sufficient quantity of food material is not being produced for the population.This deteriorating situation compelled Malthus to think on the cause and prevention of increasing population.

Industrial Revolution
The era of death was the era of industrial revolution. At the time when Malthus was opening his eyes of knowledge, the Industrial Revolution had begun. The deteriorating condition of the agricultural sector and the growth in industries had made the economic imbalance and the situation in a more disparate state. All the defects of the Industrial Revolution and the capitalist system were exposed in the society. The capitalist class was exploiting the workers. Industrial development increased the dominance of the bourgeoisie, the rich classes and the powerful people of the society, but on the other hand, instead of reducing the problem of unemployment, disease, unequal distribution of wealth and poverty among the poor and workers, they increased. These conditions had a profound effect on Malthus. Malthus realized that the people of the country were suffering from the imbalance of population and food supply. Instead of resolving it, the industrial revolution is deepening and widening the gap between poverty and wealth. All those problems were contemplated and resolved by Malyar in his writings.

Thoughts of Merchantist and Naturalist Economists Many mercantile economists of the 18th century justified the growing population as beneficial from economic, political and military point of view. Scholars like Kentillon Stuart and William Petty had described population growth as beneficial without considering its consequences. Similarly, naturalist economists considered it unfair and invention to limit the natural movement of population. The idea of ​​Prof. Malthus was a result of the reaction of these optimistic thinkers.

William Gadwin Among the scholars who have most influenced the ideas of the inspirational Malthus, William Gadwin is prominent. Malthus himself has accepted this truth. Gadwin’s book ‘Inquiry concerning political justice and its influence on morals and happiness’ was published in 1793. In this book, Gadwin considered the government to be the root cause of all the sufferings and miseries of the people of that time. He did not consider the increasing population to be the cause of suffering because he believed that the society itself keeps the population to the extent it has the resources. Increasing population is an indicator of the progress of mankind. He himself admits that there is only possibility of profit from increasing population and not loss. The French thinker Condercet also strongly supported Gadwin’s ideas, not considering the increasing population as harmful under any circumstances. In fact, Gadwin’s aim was to establish complete equality and anarchic communism. For this reason he was opposed to personal property. Gadwin’s ideas are actually related to the imaginary ideal world. Malthus opposed these various imaginary and optimistic views of Gaddin and told in his views that Gadwin’s ideas are imaginary. It is the nature of nature to maintain the balance between population and food.

Influence of Other Contemporary Thinkers Contemporary thinkers who have had an impact on Malthus are Sir Matthew Hale, David Hume, Joseph Towne Synd, Sarbalter Rayleigh and Robert Bellas. These thinkers were of the opinion that usually the increase in population is more than the death rate. Therefore, if this excess of population is not controlled, then the increasing increase in it will give rise to many troubles. “These thinkers have also had a great influence on Malthus’s population theory. The above immediate circumstances and optimistic views of population were challenging for Malthus. These challenges inspired Malthus to write articles. Although many optimistic thinkers, Malthus’s population related to Thoughts are neglected as personal observation and pessimistic, but we should not forget that Malthus’s essay is the starting and fundamental point of population science.

Some scholars have also called Malthus’ essay as Adam Smith’s answer because Adam Smith named his book “An Inquiry into the nature and causes of wealth of jnations”. In fact, Malthus’s book was a challenge to Adam Smith’s ideas.


Thomas Wright’s theory of population of Malthus explains the relationship between increase in population and supply of food. In 1798, Malthus wrote an article on the Principle of Population (An Essay on the Principle of Population, 1798) in his Jan. Propounded the theory of numbers. He had propounded this theory after studying many immediate circumstances, prevailing optimistic views, development of population of different countries during his visit to European countries. This theory states that population has a tendency to grow at a faster rate than the means of subsistence. “(Population tends to out run susbsistence). Thus this theory makes it clear that population increases more rapidly than food supply and if this population growth is not stopped, it will result in malpractices or misery. Thus in his essay he demolished optimistic thoughts and imagined a troubled society.

Malthus’s population theory is based on the following basic assumptions
There is a natural desire for sex between a man and a woman. In this way the male’s fecundity and the desire to produce children remain as constant.

It is unaffected by the progress of education and civilization. Food is essential for survival and in agriculture, the law of depletion is applicable.

, Along with the increase in economic prosperity, the desire to produce children also increases in man and it decreases when the standard of living decreases. From the point of view of convenience of study, we can study Malthus’s theory by keeping it under the following heads.


Population grows geometrically
Malthus says that “the uncontrolled population grows at a geometrical rate.” He believes that there has always been and will always be sexual attraction between women and men. Sexual desire is natural and very strong, so the production of children is also a natural result. If the population is not controlled then it will happen every 25 years. As he himself wrote – if the population is not stopped (by doubling the restraint) then the population tends to double every 25 years. “The geometrical ratio of population can be shown as 2.4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 256 etc. Increases in this order. This ratio of population growth can also be called geometrical growth. Malthus made this conclusion several times. On the basis of the study of population growth during the tour of European countries, according to you “the power of population growth is infinite compared to the power of the land which provides sustenance”. ,

Food content increases by an arithmetic ratio
“Food is necessary for the life and existence of human beings, but the rate at which the population increases, the food content does not increase at that rate. The food content increases in a mathematical proportion only because ‘origin’ in agricultural produce – Depreciation law is applicable i.e. as the order of growing crops in the field increases, the agricultural production decreases accordingly. The mathematical ratio of food items can be kept as 1,2,3,4,5, 6,7,8 , 9 etc. In order of order. In Malthus’s words # If other things remain the same, then human food by nature gradually increases in arithmetical ratio and man himself grows rapidly in geometrical ratio. In the diagram The increase in food grains is being shown at an uncountable rate.


imbalance between population and food

Although there is an increase in both the population and the food content. But due to the difference in the growth rate, a situation of imbalance arises between the two. Since the increase in population occurs at a geometric rate, in comparison, food growing at a mathematical rate lags behind. For example, where in 5 years the food content is increased by 5 times, the population increases by 1 , 2 , 4 , 8 18 i.e. 16 times in the same period by the geometric ratio 5 and 16 (16-5-11) ) indicates an imbalance between food and population. Malthus said that this imbalance produces dire consequences. The population increases with the increase in the food supply and standard of living. He himself wrote, ” Prosperity was not to depend on population but population was to depend on prosperity . “


Population restriction or restriction
Thomas Robert Malthy has mentioned two types of restrictions on population control.

Positive or Natural checks
And . Preventive checks

.1 Positive or Natural checks
These are the restrictions imposed by nature. Due to this, the death rate increases, as a result of which the extra population load from food becomes equal to it. Malthus has also included bad work, unsatisfactory upbringing of children and adverse conditions of civilian life etc. According to Malthus – Nature’s table is only for limited guests, so whoever comes without invitation will have to starve to death. “He has called the natural barrier very sad and painful. Although due to the increase in death rate, the population comes down to a balanced proportion of the food supply. But this balance is not permanent but is short-lived. After some time again the population increases and the balance is disturbed, regenerated propounded.

A balanced population is achieved by This situation continues like a cycle, which some scholars have addressed as Malthusian cycle. This situation is shown in the figure. According to Malthus, “Due to the difficulty of livelihood, there is a force and constant control over population growth.” Figure Balance in population Overpopulation Natural barrier Over population (i) Although these natural forces exert control over population, they There are miseries, they should be avoided. (ii) Malthus was of the opinion that if natural barriers become active in a country, then it is a sign that in that country the population is more than the food supply, that is, the situation of population is present.

Preventive checks –
Malthus considered the second restriction of population control as human effort. Since natural restrictions are very sad and painful for human beings, therefore man should maintain control over the population by restrictive constraints. These barriers can also be divided into two parts- “
(i) Moral Restriction- In fact, Malthus has recognized moral restriction as a restrictive constraint. All these restrictions (measures) are included. What a person does with his conscience to stop the birth rate, such as, celibacy and delayed marriage etc.
Malthus has considered only moral restrictions as appropriate and has advised to control the birth rate by adopting them. According to him, moral restriction (brahmacharya) is the only way by which mankind can escape from the ravages of natural hindrances (suffering). Malthus, considering men to be more sensual, appealed to women not to be seduced by men, but to remain a quarry for 28 years with restraint.
(ii) Inhibition by artificial means – Under these, all those man-made means of birth control are included, which today are called means of progeny control. But Malthus has considered them as unrighteous sins. He was vehemently opposed to their use. Thus, being a priest, Malthus suggested reducing the population (birth rate) only by adopting moral restrictions. He suggested that in increasing the population people should be discouraged to act judiciously, not to rush into marriage without seriously considering the future. Now that you have become familiar with Malthus’s population theory, then by summarizing his theory as follows, Malthus’s population theory can be more familiar with the geometric rate of growth in population. ; 128 ; In 256 food grains in arithmetic rate 1 : 2 : 3 : 4 ;5 ;6 ; 7 : 8 : 9 The imbalance in population and food supply as a result, the way to overcome it, two natural or natural request restrictions of population control (artificial barriers, war diseases, famine, post-earthquake etc. Moral restrictions restraint, artificial delays, artificial means of property control, these painful It is through these that the great Malthus of the population considers them a sin.

Marshall’s Explanation of Malthus’ Theory
Prof. Marshall believed that the initial credit for the systematic interpretation and study of population related ideas is to Malthus. Only after that systematic study of this subject started.
Prof. Marshall, in his book ‘Principles of Economics’, while explaining Malthus’s theory of population, has written that Malthus states that the demand for labor is determined by the quantity of food available. Since this rule of origin in agriculture would have been active, as a result, the increase in the demand for labor is less than the supply of labour. Elaborating on the idea of ​​demand for labor, Marshall says that nature provides man with production in addition to his work, which is the demand for the population. The demand for labor will not increase proportionately even if there is a rapid increase in population. “They believe that if the means of subsistence were not limited and the population was not controlled by pestilence, disease, war, infanticide and restraint, the population would have increased very rapidly because man has been more fertile. Thus Prof. Marshall also accepts that the past history of population growth will repeat itself in future and the population will be controlled by poverty, starvation and other very painful natural constraints if it is not stopped by voluntary and moral means like restraint, late marriage. Gone .

Criticism of Malthus’s theory

From the analysis so far, you must have become familiar with the whole theory of Malthus. Here is a critical evaluation of Malthus’s theory, which you can understand further. Critical Analysis of Malthus’s Population Theory (Oppenheim), Nicholson of Malthusian Theory of Population) attracted the attention of people as soon as Malthus’s famous essay was published. On the one hand where Cossa , Marshall , Ellie ( Ely ) , Taussig , Carbar ( Carvar ) , Patten , Price ( Price ) , Wolf ( Clark ) , and Walker He got the support of scholars and thinkers like Walker, on the other hand Godwin, Mombart, Oppenheim (Nikolson).

), Gray and Canon, etc. had to fall prey to bitter criticism. Gadwin, in response to the publication of the essay, said, “This dark terrible monster is always ready to choke the hopes of mankind. Thus a fierce controversy arose about his theory. People criticized him for good and bad.” Said. Prof. Alexander Gray went so far as to write that, “It can be clearly said that no honorable citizen has so far been so slandered and criticized as the views of any of the first-class writers of Malthus. Not so much refuted. From this it can be inferred that Malthus’s ideas were contrary to the social and religious beliefs prevailing in the then circumstances. Nicholson wrote that just as Darwin had broken the ancient religious beliefs about the origin of mankind, Malthus completely changed the beliefs about the future nature of mankind. “There is no doubt that Malthus brought a revolutionary change in the ideology of the time, yet he was not the subject of such harsh criticism. The person who made the world aware by being so sensitive to the problems arising out of population growth, where to call him an enemy of mankind? In this context, Zeed and Rist have written that Malthus has given the same kind of advice as a friendly and outspoken uncle gives to his nephew Matijians. Alerted to the ill-effects of lust. In support of its theory, Clarke writes that “the refutation of Malthus’ theory so much is a confirmation of its validity. ,

Similarly, while expressing his view, Prof. 0 says that in fact some errors have been made in understanding Malthus, their meaning was to indicate population growth, while their study is done by assuming concrete conclusions. Some of the main things that are said by economists against the population theory expressed by Malthus are:

(1) The basic belief of Malthus is the view of the unreal critics that the basic belief of Malthus that the sexual feeling of man remains as constant and both sex and procreation are the same thing, is unreal. In fact, Malthus did not fully understand the difference between the libido and the desire for reproduction. The origin of lust is natural and it is found in every human being that it is probably almost not in the control of man to stop it. The desire for procreation is influenced by social, religious and economic reasons and man can prevent it by artificial means and thus can restrict population growth. It is also not proper to consider the sexual desire of man to be stable because with the increase in the standard of living, the means of entertainment increase. Due to which his libido decreases. Thus, there is no positive relationship between economic prosperity and child production. Hence, it suggests that the poor have more children than the rich. agriculture and

(2) Recognition of this law of origin in agriculture Malthus’ theory of faulty Malthus is based on the fact that there is a decrease in food grains due to the introduction of the law of origin in agriculture. In fact, Malthus could not predict scientific progress even after seeing the results of the Industrial Revolution, which could not accurately estimate the future. He did not think that with the help of scientific inventions, mechanical system, chemical fertilizers, improved seeds and pesticides, etc., by using chemical fertilizers, the law of degradation could be postponed and the growing population could be fed by scientific farming. Malthus also disregarded the increment return rule, otherwise there was no need to be so disappointed. Due to the tremendous progress made in the means of transport and transport, food items can be transported from one country to another in a very short time and easily. Apart from this, meat and fish can also cure the hunger of a large part of the population by becoming a food item. This fact did not go unnoticed by Malthus. In his theory, Malthus had presented the example of Europe and North America, where man has developed the means of subsistence more rapidly than his rate of reproduction.

(3) The mathematical form of the theory The mathematical form used in the theory of the unrealistic Malthus is also criticized. On the basis of empirical evidence, it could not be proved that the population increases in a geometric series and doubles after every 25 years and the increase in food grains is in a parallel series. The fact is that it does not seem possible to give any mathematical form of population or food growth, but it is outside the scope of criticism because Malthus used this mathematical form to explain his law well in the first edition of his essay. and in his revised version, he dropped the words implying that Malthus used the mathematical form only to illustrate that population tends to grow more rapidly than food grains.

(4) Overpopulation is not the cause of natural calamities; Malthus’ pessimism and religious teachings led him to believe that When the situation of population arises, then natural restrictions become functional and due to the activity of famine, flood, drought, disease epidemic, famine and war, etc., the increased population automatically gets balanced by decreasing, but this concept of Malthus is not true. . These natural calamities are also found where the population is low or stable.

(5) The increase in population also occurs due to the decrease in the death rate, Malthus’s theory is one-sided. He considers the growth of population as the result of increasing birth rate. He forgot that the increase in population is also due to the decreasing death rate. Malthus could not foresee the unprecedented progress made in the field of medical science, which, along with the common man, has overcome deadly diseases and extended the life of man.

(6) Malthus could not foresee new areas – Malthus’s outlook was narrow. He was particularly influenced by the local conditions of England. He could not foresee the newly opened areas of Australia, America and Argentina, where intensive agriculture of virgin lands has led to a substantial increase in the quantity of food, which resulted in the supply of abundant food items to countries like England, etc. at cheap rates. become available . This became possible only when the means of transport improved rapidly. On this side, even if a country could not produce for the growing population today, Malthus ignored it for being afraid of starvation and calamity. Not enough food needed

(7) Malthus neglected the aspect of manpower arising from population growth Malthus’s theory was also the subject of criticism from the fact that he neglected the aspect of manpower arising from population growth. He was pessimistic and fearful of every increase in population. Pro . , Pro . According to Cannon, “He forgot that a child comes to the world with not only a mouth and a stomach, but also two hands.” (He forgot that comes to the world not only with a mouth and a stomach) but also with a pair of hands ” ) This means that increase in population means increase in manpower which can increase not only industrial production but also agricultural production and thus the country by equitable distribution of income and wealth. Thus, the problem of population is not only a problem of size but also of efficient production and equitable distribution.

(8) Malthus’ theory of being static is also accused of being static, on the basis that it is based on the limitation of natural resources (land). The quantity of resources may be fixed for a certain period of time, but not for the eternal. With the passage of time in western countries, there has been a lot of development in knowledge and technology. There has also been a substantial increase in the acquired land and other resources. It is worth noting that the increase in the amount of arable land is not important, but the importance of additional land is measured by the degree to which additional production is obtained from it. Some economists hold the view that Malthus ‘s view is static . do not agree . They consider it dynamic on the ground that it studies the process of population growth within a given time period.

(9) Malthus’s population theory based on weak relationship between population growth and food supply rests on the basis of weak relationship between population growth and food supply. According to modern economists, the population of a country should be compared with the total national income of that country, not only with food grains. This is the basis of Optimum Theory of Population. The argument is presented that if a country is not able to produce enough food for its population, but if it is materially rich and industrially advanced, then it can exchange food items for its manufactured goods or money. By importing from agrarian countries, he can feed his people well. England is the best example of this, where only food is produced to support 1/6 of the population, yet the wrath of nature described by Malthus has not been found there.

(10) Every increase in population is not harmful, Malthus considered every increase in population to be harmful, but his view is not correct. If the population of a country is less than the natural resources of that country, then the increase in population will be beneficial. National income and per capita income can be increased by exploiting natural resources properly. Thus, if the population is below the optimum point, the increase in population will lead to an increase in the annual per capita income. Therefore, increase in population will be in the interest of the nation.

(11) Defect of inductive system In Malthus’s theory, there is also a defect in inductive system. He visited some countries of Europe and presented his theory on the basis of general observation. It is not necessary that what is true in some places may be true everywhere. There is a lack of universality in the theory of Malthus.

(12) There is no positive relationship between population growth and increase in per capita income – in fact, population growth per capita income, The desire to have more children decreases with the increase in . When people become accustomed to a high standard of living, they want to keep the family limited due to costly maintenance of a large family because there is a possibility of a decline in the standard of living and people do not want to reduce their standard of living, as a result the population starts stagnating. Examples are Japan, France, England and other western countries.

(13) It is not proper to impose the responsibility of population growth on the poor – some critics say that Malthus’s theory is to impose the responsibility of population growth on the poor. According to him, Malthus has described the poor as the cause of poverty. Malthus was of the view that by making a law, the marriage of the poor should be banned. If the poor get married, they will produce a hundred more children, resulting in an increase in population and unemployment. It is logical that all this can be possible in the absence of means of entertainment, lack of education and lack of foresight, but poverty is not the main reason for having more population but it is the result of unequal distribution of wealth and policies of the government. If the workers get proper rewards and there is proper arrangement for their entertainment, education, etc., then there will be no possibility of such result.

(14) Malthus’s suggestion is not practical The self-restraint, morality and restrained life that Malthus has suggested for population control is not practical. It is a difficult task for an ordinary person to follow them. In its theoretical point of view, these ideas are perfect ideals, but their practicality is equally flawed.

(15) Malthus proved to be a false prophet In fact, Malthus proved to be a false prophet. This principle did not apply even to the countries for which it was made, history is a witness to this fact. Malthus’ fear and pessimism have been overcome in Western European countries. His prediction has been proved wrong by the reduction in birth rate, adequacy in food supply, agricultural and industrial production that these countries will be unable to stop population growth through artificial barriers. Disaster will catch them. In this way, Malthus’s prediction proved to be false. Despite this, there is enough truth in Malthus’s theory. Due to the horror of the population attitude towards Malthus, the countries of Europe became aware in time and started adopting methods to stop the population growth and could save their country from facing the problem of overpopulation.

Evaluation of Theory

The above criticisms made against the theory of Malthus, however, explain the theory to many workers. But this does not mean that all his thoughts are imaginary or meaningless, but if we look deeply, there is so much accuracy in his thoughts even today that his errors are forgivable on the basis of them. As Prof. Hayne wrote, “No doubt some of Malthus’s shortcomings are forgivable because they have been made in the context of making the statement clear and effective. There is evidence of significance. Prof. Walker has written that Malthus’s theory stands firm even in the midst of bitter debate. The more perseverance has come in him.

Despite so many criticisms of the theory by critics in different parts of the world, this theory is still invincible today especially in relation to underdeveloped countries and is as axiom as it was in the past. It has not been proven false. Referring to the ideas of Kenneth Rimay, Jan Bewen wrote about Kimya
Whatever arguments may be made against the theory have been publicly, and always very sharply, expressed by Hejlitz, Booth Plains, Greya Welland and others. But today instead of his criticisms, we remember the theory of Malthus, the truth of the theory of Malthus.
In short, the truth found in Malthus’s theory can be clarified in the following points:
(1) The prediction of population growth proves true even today in semi-developed countries. The growing population of India is a clear proof of this. According to Bertrand Russell, “Malthus’s idea of ​​population was very correct till the time of his writing, but it is true even today for the low-ranking human beings in the wild-semi-civilized and civilized race.”

( 2 ) . This theory has proved its accuracy even in progressive and advanced countries. The increasing use of family planning and progeny by advanced countries like France, England and America explains the effectiveness of Malthus’ theory in these countries.

(3) This conclusion of Malthus is true even today that if the restrictions are not used by humans, then the population will increase at a rapid pace which will give rise to many problems. does.

(4) The statement that if the population is more in comparison to food grains and the imbalance is not done, then along with the increase in the birth rate, the death rate will also increase, is true.

 by Samuelson’s restrictive deterrence the action of barriers away from “in India, China and other parts of the world where the imbalance between food supply and population is an important problem, today in Malthus’s theory to understand the behavior of population”. The elements of truth are also important.

(5) If we think of the food of the whole world keeping in mind the fact that this statement is absolutely true, then Malthus’s total production of the material is definite. Edward East has written that, “If the population continues to grow like this, then the cultivable area of ​​the world will be insufficient to supply the food items of the growing population.

(6) In relation to the less developed countries, this principle of the theory is true even today that the population grows at a fast rate and if left unrestricted, it doubles soon. Even if the period of doubling of population is not 25 years but 30 or 35 years. From this it becomes clear that the theory of Malthus is very important. In this context, Walker’s statement is of noteworthy shortcomings that “Malthusism in the midst of all the controversies raised against Malthus is invincible and in spite of the above facts, it still stands uninterrupted”.

Nature of Demography

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