Postmodernity by Michael Foucault and Jacques Derrida

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Leslie Fielder and Ihab Hastan used the term postmodernity in 1960. It was widely used by dance, music and sciences related to society and culture. Two meanings of postmodernity are clearly stated. First, it presents a specific perspective of the study as an approach or theory. In another sense, postmodernity presents a form of alternative social order. Efforts have been made to abstract construction of the ideal form of this arrangement.


Postmodernity is associated with the way of life of capitalist countries. Its sole purpose is to destroy the facts and principles of modernity. Six scholars are of the opinion that postmodernity is a kind of anarchy which is associated with the industrial production consumerism of the society, in which human goals and standards are denied and the ideology of postmodernity tramples on what comes in the way of postmodernity. Is .


Critics of postmodernity are of the opinion that it is not a theory but it is just an idea. In the present time postmodernity in social science is becoming popular as a fashion term postmodernity. Experimentation makes a person modern, so postmodernity is like -1 which can be applied to any object. The reality is that postmodernity is a kind of fashion, on the other hand such a sham. There is an illusion that does not allow a person to live anywhere. The ideology in postmodernity is that which destroys all the social forms associated with modernity, in this way postmodernity accepts modernity. The thinkers are of the opinion that postmodernity is a synthesis theory which has been rendered in sociology.

While expressing postmodernity, Kellner has said that there is no unified social theory of postmodernism, yet it includes many different theories of level modernity. The definitions given by the Kelinics postmodernist theorists have more mutual incompatibility and internal conflicts and are vague theories.




Thoughts of Madan Swaroop


Madan Swarup has expressed postmodernity in the following way.

Art is not different from day to day life. Nor is art an imaginary world, art and social science are related to everyday life.
Postmodernity does not accept hierarchical ideology. It believes that culture is culture. It cannot be divided into classes. In its view, aristocratic or middle-class culture is equivalent to a culture of expression.
Lyotard and his supporters are of the view that it rejects the modernity of thought. 4. Postmodernity is spread in all walks of life.
Postmodernity is opposed to the principles which are traditionally considered grand and grand.


Characteristics of postmodernity:



Opponent of scientific knowledge


Postmodernists oppose the Enlightenment. He is of the opinion that scientific opinion does not represent complete knowledge. Scientific knowledge gives legitimacy to the government like myth.


preponderance of commercial knowledge

In postmodernity, commercial knowledge prevails. The purpose of science in the present day is not to discover the truth. Rather it aims to establish the equation of production vis–vis investment.

opponent of narrative knowledge

Postmodernity is the antithesis of narrative knowledge. Postmodernists are of the opinion that great or true stories should be thrown in the dustbin. The postmodernists do not like the narrative knowledge, so they oppose them. There are stories, myths, popular stories in the knowledge of accounts. Postmodernity says that these accounts reinforce the stereotypes, traditions and evils of the society.




The study of language through linguistics

Postmodernists are of the view that language is a medium that gives expression to ideas. Therefore, the study of language should be done through scientific method i.e. linguistics. Postmodernists take their meaning from linguistic theories, then consider the problems related to communication. In the present context, language is mostly related to computer, which is a modern technology, they store the information that comes from communication. Computers have had a great impact on knowledge. In the present time, due to computers, the way of acquiring knowledge and the classification of knowledge is being done by machines. This is a revolutionary change in the field of transformation of knowledge.


Marxism and opposition to action


Postmodernism is the opponent of Marxism and functionalism. Lyotard believes that in modern society Marx’s ideas about the liberation of workers, the idea of ​​classless society, etc. have ended in the postmodernist era. Like Marx, the theories of Parsons, Merton and Homans are also mere accounts today. The mind can neither be established in the classless mass society as propounded by the postmodernist thinker Marx, nor can there be a consensus expected by Parsons. Lyotard and other postmodernist thinkers are of the view that the present society is individualistic and fragmented.


destructive nature


Postmodernity is also destructive in nature and the birth of postmodernism is reactionary, hence various social sciences, tomorrow

Postmodernists do not accept the limitations and sub-limitations of literature, philosophy etc. Postmodernism presents Marxism, feminism and traditional theories in a new form and postmodernism eliminates all these artificial limitations and expresses them in contemporary perspective.


rejection of prevailing theories


Postmodernity rejects the prevailing theory in different branches of knowledge. The postmodernists are of the opinion that the prevailing theories of these social sciences are mere illusions of words. Those who want to maintain the conservatism of the thinkers.




Postmodernism rejects modern art. many forms of art; Such as – choreography, painting, music, literature etc. Lyotard saw the whole of art, painting, choreography, literary art in the context of postmodernity. anti-scientific postmodernism





Georg Ritzer has formulated four types of synthesis of postmodernism in the theoretical field.

(i) Postmodernism rejects grand and grand theories

(ii) Postmodernism attempts to synthesize small ideas at the local level.

(iii) Postmodernism defies the boundaries created by different branches of knowledge and generates new ideas.



difference between postmodernity and modernity


The postmodernist ideology has arisen as a reaction to the modernist ideology. Some scholars are of the opinion that it is the sequel of postmodernity itself.
Specialization is given importance under modernity, whereas importance is given to totalism in modernity.
In modernity importance is given to individualism, whereas in postmodernity importance is given to collectivism. Individualism is self-centred and selfish.
Postmodernity builds the society on the basis of different characteristics, these characteristics are different and opposite from modernity.
In modernity logic has been given priority. Whereas postmodernity has given primacy to emotion.
Modernity gave importance to science, whereas postmodernity gave importance to humanism.


Modernity is associated with rationality, whereas postmodernity is discretionary and has flexibility.


Competition was given importance in modernity, whereas postmodernity gives importance to cooperation.




Michael Foucault


Michel Foucault is a French thinker, he did empirical studies of structuralism and post-structure.


Major works

The Birth of Clinic ( 1963 )
Madness and Civilization ( 1965 ) – The Order of Things ( 1966 ) –

The Archeology of Knowledge ( 1969 ) – Discipline and Punishment ( 1975 )

The History of Sexuality, S2 Volts. ( 1976 )
The Care of Self ( 1986 ) Phone Bhi




Postmodernism is a rapid change. Its belief is that by breaking the prevailing theoretical works, new compositions or new principles should be made.


The aim of postmodernism is to develop more good ideas about society.


Postmodernism presents the synthesis theory in place of the prevailing theory in sociology.


Foucault wanted to know how people govern themselves and others along with the origin of knowledge.


He said that people rule on the basis of knowledge. Foucault was interested in the relationship between knowledge and power.


He says that the more knowledge a person has, the more power he has to rule.




Do not completely agree with the economic determinism of Weber’s logic on Foucault’s views. Nevertheless Foucault was several boats, especially on post structuralism.


Foucault’s post structuralist Foucault did a lot of work in the field of sociology of knowledge. He did many exploratory works on thought, knowledge, conversation, conversation, discourse, and speech etc.


He also worked on the origin and development of Shakti, which is known as the lineage of Shakti.


Foucault’s answer Structuralism adopts objectivity by abandoning subjectivity. Hence it is different from the structuralism of Levi Strauss.



In his theories of structural and postmodernity, Foucault rejected Weber’s idea of ​​the iron cage, where Marx talked about power structure at the level of the whole society, while Foucault’s interest has been in the study of the micro-level politics of power.




Jacques Derrida


In contrast to the structuralists in particular those who attempted to explain this approach on the basis of the structure of language.


French sociologist Jacques Derrida expressed his important ideas about post structuralism and post modernity. He pioneered this approach in 1966.


Derrida limited the language to writing. Derrida produced a great deal of literature on a wide variety of subjects, but his post-structuralist and fragmentary philosophies caused a stir in Western ideology.


Post structuralism is believed to have originated from a lecture given by Derrida in 1966. In this interpretation Derrida represented the transition to structuralism and marked the rise of a new post-structuralist period. Actually Derrida’s origin

And the modernist analysis is based on his fragmentationist concept.


Major works


Speech and Phenomena ( 1973 ) )

Of Grammatology (1976).

Writing and Difference ( 1978 )

Margins of Philosophy ( 1981 )

.Circumsfession ( 1993 )

Specters of Marx ( 1994 ) .




Regarding postmodernity, Derrida writes that the relationship between the old and the new cannot be continuous. It is an idea in which both the old and the new perspectives change.


Postmodernism based on fragmentation is actually a phenomenonalism, which started with literature, art, film etc., but later it influenced the aspects of sociological theory.


Derrida’s fragmentation has struck the most on the pre-established traditional texts of various fields and subjects.

According to fragmentation, sociological texts do not reveal social reality. Therefore, fragmentation emphasizes on finding and interpreting the meaning contained in these social texts.




Foucault’s studies in various fields are related to structuralism. Structuralism introduced theories in sociology which are related to linguistics and anthropology.


(Jacques Derrida) Derrida says that fissionism is neither a method nor a well thought out decision. This is the typical nomenclature of unconstructed, vulgar expression and openness. which derives its importance from context.


Derrida, in his post-structuralism, states that the meaning of language cannot be discovered in any concrete reality, but in the context of language, which is socially constructed.


By the method of fragmentation, it can be clarified that which language is used for oppression-exploitation.




Critics say that Derrida’s fragmentationist analysis denies Marxism. In this way, many times Derrida was called anti-Marx, but Derrida’s view is that the purpose of fragmentation is to reach Marxism, he has a positive attitude towards Marxism.


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