Process of Schedule Preparing 

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Process of Schedule Preparing 

Creating a schedule is a difficult task. It is created because it is designed to collect proven, necessary and systematic information about various aspects of the research problem. Therefore, before formulating it, it is necessary to have complete knowledge about the nature of the problem and its various aspects so that the questions related to the problem can be included in it. For our convenience, we can divide the entire process of Anaschi’s creation into the following steps:

1. Knowledge about the problem of Saha – The first step of the construction of Anaschi is to get information about the problem of Anurasal. If different aspects of the problem itself are not clear, then many important questions may be missed. And before compiling a list, the researcher should know that what is the nature of or, that is, what are its different sides and which side has to be given more or less importance.

2. Construction of questions – The second stage of the schedule is to formulate actual questions about different aspects of the research problem. If the various aspects are not clear, then the researcher should decide from which questions about these aspects information can be obtained. In this step, each aspect should be divided into as many parts and sub-sections as possible to construct as many questions about them. If there are some aspects about which it is difficult to collect information by direct questions, then indirect questions should be created about them so that the questions which do not seem right can be removed at this stage.

3 Language and sequence of questions The third phase of schedule construction is related to the clarity of questions and their order. The language of the questions should be kept as simple as possible so that the informant can understand them in a common sense. Also, the questions should be written in a certain order. The sequence of questions should be so arranged that there is an internal connection in it so that the informant, while responding, feels that information is gradually being gathered from him about the problem of research.

4 Testing the validity of questions – After clearly constructing the questions and writing them in a systematic order, the fourth step is to check the validity of the questions. These can be checked by selecting some informants from the whole being studied. The language should be corrected for the questions which informers are facing any kind of difficulty in understanding them. Ambiguous questions should be removed from the schedule and after evaluating the information gathered from the questions, it should be seen whether the necessary information about various aspects is being obtained from these questions or not.

5 Lay-out of schedule – While preparing the schedule, its external shape should also be taken care of. After taking the credit of the questions, the questions which are to be included in the schedule should be printed on the paper. The size of the schedule is normally 8. 5 x 11 inches but it can be increased or decreased as per convenience. Along with paper, printing should also be good.




Contents of a Schedule

While preparing the schedule, special care should be taken about its external shape as well as its content. The contents of the schedule can be divided into three parts

(1) Introductory part – It contains all the information about the investigation and some questions about obtaining general information about the informant, from which his name, age, gender, caste, education, family life and family Information can be obtained about the financial status etc. The initial part of all the schedules in sociological investigations is almost the same.

(2) Main body – It consists of questions about different aspects of the problem. This is the most important part of the schedule. Therefore, its construction should be done with special care. If it is necessary to write titles or subheadings of various aspects, they can also be written. .

(3) General instructions for interviewers – It contains general instructions for interviewers to obtain additional information. Although training is given to the interviewer before compiling the information through the schedule, general instructions may be given in this part so that he can record the additional information obtained by observation.


Precautions in Schedule Formation

If some general precautions are taken while preparing the schedule, then a balanced and good schedule can be prepared. While making a good schedule, the following points must be kept in mind

1. Emotional or challenging questions should not be included in the schedule as far as possible.

2. Questions giving the impression of guiding and answering should also not be included in the schedule as far as possible.

Yes. (3. Unnecessary questions should not be included in the schedule. It should contain only essential questions.

Questions about hypothetical circumstances, personal life and mysterious circumstances of the informants or questions which create any doubt in the mind of the informant should not be asked in the Schedule, unless absolutely necessary.

4 Obscene, objectionable and sensitive words should not be used in the composition of the questions.

5. Questions should be such that they can be answered without any bias.

6. Such questions as possible should be included in the schedule for which comparative data are available.

7. The language of the questions should be simple, that is, the questions should be designed in such a way that the informant understands them in one sense and at the same time can understand them easily.

8. The size of the questions should be limited, that is, the questions should not be made for too long. should be placed in a systematic order so that the entire schedule has a satirical linkage.

9. The questions should be related to each other so that it appears that they complement each other or at the same time are such that the authenticity of the answers can be checked.

10. Most of the questions should be structured i.e. their optional seventy should also be accompanied so that the informant can answer them easily.
(6) The questions should be clear and direct, that is, instead of twisting something, it should be asked clearly and directly.


 Types of Schedule 

Various types of schedules are used in social research. The schedules mainly used in social research can be divided into the following categories or types:

(1) Observation Schedule – Under this type of schedule, the observer himself keeps the schedule with him at the time of inspection and after inspecting himself, fills the facts in it.

(2) Rating Schedule – – This list is used to know the attitude, preference and opinion of the respondents related to the subject.

(3) Interview Schedule – This list is used for conducting interviews in a sequential manner.

(4) Documentary Schedule – This type of schedule is used when information is to be collected from written documents like diaries, letters, biographies etc.

(5) Institution-survey schedule – This type of schedule, as its name suggests, is used to survey the institution or study its various problems. This type of schedule is actually a long list of questions to get complete information related to the organization. P . v . According to Young, organization survey schedule is used to find out the problems arising before an organization. Such schedules are mainly useful for studying about government institutions. Many types of questions are composed in the schedule and what type of questions should be in a schedule depends on the problem and nature of the research and the nature of the respondents. The questions asked in the schedule can be divided into the following categories

a. Unrestricted or open-ended questions – These are those questions whose possible answers are not written with the question, but which the respondents have complete freedom to answer. The answers to such questions can be short as well as long. Some examples of such questions are as follows.

b.Closed or structured questions

In these questions, the respondents do not have the freedom to answer because alternative answers to each question are also written with the question and the informant gives any of these answers. restricted question
There can be double answers (Dichotomous) or multiple choice. Generally, only double answer questions are formed, in which the respondent has to answer only ‘yes’ or ‘no’. Some examples of such questions are as follows

c. Mixed questions – These types of questions, as the name suggests, are a mixture of restricted and unrestricted questions. In these types of questions, some alternative answers are given, but at the same time the informant has the freedom to give any other answer. Today mixed questions are used in most of the schedules. Questions can be divided into different categories only on the basis of their nature and purpose and number of answers.

There are three types of questions on the basis of nature and purpose.
(1) Informative questions – These questions are designed to elicit the opinion or opinion of the informant;
( 2 ) Advice seeking questions – These questions are designed to solicit the advice of informants about a problem ; And
(3) Explanatory questions – These questions are used to get detailed information.




The questions are divided into four categories based on the number of possible answers to the questions.
( 1 ) Dichotomous questions – their possible answers are only two ;
(2) Multiple choice questions – they have many possible answers.
(3) Ranking questions – In these the answers given are asked to be rewritten on the basis of priority or the number of priority in brackets in front of them (1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , . . . . . . . are asked to write . . . ) etc. and
(4) Check mark Question – In this, the respondent has to put a check mark or tick (V) in front of the answer of his opinion or a cross (4) in front of the answer of the opposing opinion.
The process of data collection by schedule can be divided into the following steps:

Selection of Respondents – After preparing the schedule, the first task is to select the respondents from whom information is to be collected with the help of this. The stage of informants is done by suitable sampling system. _ _ _

Pre-testing of schedule – After selecting the informants and establishing contact with some of these informants, pre-testing of the schedule is the second main phase of the schedule experiment. The list of final questions is prepared by correcting the questions or items which the informant does not understand or understands in different meanings. It is essential to remove the gaps left in the pre-test schedule. This step is not required if the schedule has already been pre-tested.

Selection and training of imestigators – If the study is being carried out on a large scale, there is a need for many workers because a single person cannot establish a direct relationship with all the informants. Therefore, the third step is to select and train the workers. While imparting training, it is important to note that all the workers can understand the instructions well and equally so that the possibility of personal bias is minimized. It is also necessary for the workers to have complete knowledge of the problem of research so that the opportunity of observation they get can also be utilized. If some observational instructions are to be given to the workers, they should also be well explained at the time of training.

Contacting Respondents – After selecting the informants and workers, the next step is by establishing contact with the respondents and persuading them for the interview by telling them about themselves, their organization and the purpose of the investigation. The time and place should also be determined in the initial contact itself. Efficiency, politeness and effective language are helpful in establishing good contact with the respondents.

Interview – After reaching the prescribed time and place, according to the age and status of the respondent, the process of formally asking questions can be started. Before the interview, if any doubt remains in the mind of the respondent, it should be cleared so that he can answer the questions without any hesitation. It is also necessary to take care of all the usual precautions of the interview.

Checking schedules – In comprehensive surveys because many workers perform the task of gathering information through schedules. Therefore, it is necessary to check some selected schedules by the chief researcher himself. He himself can go to the study area and supervise the work of the workers or by establishing himself contact with some informants, he can re-check the information given by them. If some questions are left to be answered (although it is less likely in the schedule, then the schedule can be completed by asking them.




Utility or Merits of a Schedule 

1. Collection of correct information – in the schedule because the researcher also gets the opportunity of observation. Therefore, by this method the information is more accurate or real. In fact, the researcher through close contact creates such an environment in which the informant himself gives accurate information.

2. Facility for noting the information – In this because questions are asked formally. Therefore, their answers are also written by the researcher himself at the same time or the option which the informant is telling about the multiple choice is ticked (1). Due to this facility the information in the schedule
The possibility of forgetting the information given by Ta is completely eliminated.

3. Facility for observation – In the schedule, the researcher collects the information through formal interview by establishing a direct relationship with the informant, due to which he also gets the opportunity of observation. This would have simplified the task of verifying the authenticity of the collected information – O REDMI NOTE 8 UARY

4. Without hesitation, Collection of data without hesitation – Many times the informant does not want to answer many questions, but in the schedule researcher and informant

It helps in obtaining information without hesitation by providing opportunities for personal contact and by eliminating doubts created by the researcher in his mind.

5. Easy statistical analysis – In most of the schedules the notation is already done i.e. alternative answers are also written along with the question. The informants have to give answers from these options so that the process of classification, tabulation and interpretation becomes very easy. Therefore, the earlier structure of questions in the schedule makes statistical analysis more convenient.

6. Direct contact – Schedule method provides opportunity to the researcher to establish direct contact with the informant. Due to this, close contact is established with the investigators of the investigators and hence they do not try to hide the information.

7. High response – Because in this, sitting face-to-face, the researcher asks questions to the informant and if the contact is done properly, then he gets the answer to all the questions easily. Therefore, there is a high (almost 100%) chance of a response in this.

8. Clear and accurate responses to questions – In this, if there is any difficulty in understanding the question, then the informant can get its explanation from the researcher. Therefore, there is a high probability of getting correct and clear answers to all the questions by this method.


Limitations or Demerits of a Schedule 


1.More expensive and time consuming – Establishing personal contact with each informant, determining the time and place for the interview and then meeting several times to conduct the interview, which will cost more time and money it happens .

2. Problem of universal restions – There are different types of informants. There is a huge difference in their education, economic and social level. Therefore, it becomes a difficult task to formulate such universal questions which are understood by all informants in the same sense. It is indeed possible to understand the questions alike due to individual differences.

3. Bias by informants – Sometimes informers. Gets so much influenced by the personality of the researcher that he starts exaggerating everything or if he has a feeling of inferiority, then tries to hide many things and gives such answers that his feelings of inferiority could not appear. This leads to bias in the information given by the informants.

4. Difficulty in the selection and training of interviewers (workers) – If the study is being done on a large scale, there is a need for many workers who can establish contact with the informants and collect the information according to the schedule. . It is a difficult task to select good workers, who are loyal to their duty and subject.

5. Study of limited area – The biggest drawback of the schedule is that it can be used only for the study of limited area. If the informants are spread over a wider area then establishing personal contact with everyone becomes a difficult task. If more workers are employed to fill it, there is a greater possibility of personal bias by them.

6. Problem of contacting Respondents – Direct contact has to be established with each and every informant in the schedule, which is really a difficult task. If the life of the informant is very busy or he is engaged in such business that it is difficult to establish contact with him easily, then a lot of time and money is wasted in this.

An Example of a Schedule In order to understand the schedule more thoroughly, here as a sample a real schedule has been constructed to study the political consciousness in different sections of the society. Study of political consciousness in different sections of society
1. Introductory material 1 . 1 age group : 1 . up to 25 years
2 . 26 to 34 years 3. 35 to 44 years 4. 45 to 54 years 5. 55 to 65 years

3 1 . 2 Marital Status : 1 . are unmarried 2. Married 3. Other 1. 3 Information about the members of the family : Serial No. | Relationship | Age. Marital Status | Education business 1.

4 Are you the head of the family? : 1. yes 2. No 1.

5 Religions (Which religion do you follow?): 1 . Hindu 2. Muslim 3. other . . . . . 1.

6 caste ( what is your caste ? ) : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.

7 Education ( How far have you studied ? ) : 1 . Primary 2. Middle 3. High School 4. College 1.

8 Occupation (What business do you do?): . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.

9 What is the approximate monthly income of your family? 1.

10 Do you live here or you live here for your business or job:
1. Yes, the people living here 2. For business purposes 3. for the sake of job. 1.

11. Do you go to temple / mosque / church? : 2 . No 1.

12 Do you carry out traditional rituals in your family? : | 1. yes all versions

Let’s do it 2. Do most of the rituals. 3. Sometimes they do rituals. 4. never do 2.

Political consciousness 2. 1 Who is the Member of State Legislative Assembly (M. L. A.) from your Constituency? . . . 2 . 2 Who are the members of Lok Sabha ( M. P. ) from your constituency? : 2 . 3 What is the name of the Chief Minister of your state (by giving the name of the state)? : 3.

Which parties have governments in these states? : 1. Punjab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . Tamil Nadu 2. When the state assembly is dissolved, under whose supervision the state is governed? : 1. Prime Minister 2. Chief Minister 3. Governor 7. Do not know . 2 .

6 When were the last Lok Sabha elections held? : 1. 2004 2. 1999 3 . 1989 0 . Don’t know 2. 7 Who is the constitutional head of the Government of India? : 1.

. Prime Minister 3. Chief Justice (0. Not Known 2. 8. Who is the National President of Indian National Congress? : 1. Dr. Manmohan Singh 2. Smt. Sonia Gandhi 3. Mr. Pranab Mukherjee 0. Not Known. 2. 9 Recognized Opposition Leader in the current Lok Sabha Who is it? : 1. Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee 2. Shri Lalu Prasad Yadav 3. Shri Pramod Mahajan 4. None 0. Don’t know 2. 10 Name any country with which our country has good or not good relations are ? : – 1. are not good 2. are good . . . 2.

11 Where is the headquarters of the United Nations (U. N. O.)? : 1. New York 2. Washington 3. Paris 0. Not Known Name of the informant. Address of the Informer * Interview Venue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . interview time. . . . . . . . . . . other details . . .



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