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Another method of collecting fact-materials is the use of schedules. Schedule is a written list of questions prepared by the learner keeping in mind the subject of study. In this, the researcher himself goes from house to house and gets answers to the questions through schedules. M . NS . In the words of Gopal, “Schedule is a method used to collect field material especially under the survey method.” Is . It is a list of questions which the researcher takes to the informant and after asking him to answer the questions, he himself marks them in the schedule. Because in this interview and observation or observation serve as supplementary methods, so it is helpful in the collection of more reliable data. This method is most used in social research happening in Indian society because data can be collected from both educated and uneducated informants. Schedule is a list of questions i.e. it is a table of questions designed to collect data related to the research problem, which the researcher takes to each informant and after getting answers to those questions by interview, he himself marks them on that form. , on which the question is marked. In this, the researcher has to establish a direct relationship with each informant, often people consider the schedule and the questionnaire to be the same because the questionnaire is also a list of questions. But the researcher himself does not go to the informant about the questionnaire, but sends it by post, due to which it is called a mailed questionnarire. If the informants are available at one place, the researcher gives a questionnaire to each informant, whose answers are filled by the informants themselves. Therefore, schedule and questionnaire are not the same, but there are fundamental differences in the method of obtaining answers and marking the answers. Prominent scholars have given the definitions of schedule in the following words
Goode and Hot – “Schedule” is often the name of a set of questions that an interviewer asks another person in a face-to-face situation and fills in the answers himself.

According to Goode and Hott, “Schedule is the name of a set of questions which are asked and filled in by the interviewer in a face-to-face situation with another person.” Represents a formal method which is subject in nature and which is easily traceable. The schedule is to be filled by the investigator himself.

C . a . According to Moser, “Since it is conducted by the interviewers, it may clearly be a formal document with a working idea of ​​the efficiency of field operations rather than attractiveness.”

The “Bogardus-” schedule represents a formal system for collecting facts which are objective and easily perceptible. . . . . . The schedule is filled by the researcher himself. “

P . v . Young – “Schedule is a tool used in formal and standard research whose main purpose is to assist in the collection of multilevel computational data.

“Mecormick – “Schedule is nothing more than a list of questions which appear necessary to be answered for the purpose of examining hypotheses or hypotheses.” On the basis of appropriate definitions, it can be said that a schedule is a form or forms on which Various questions related to the problem of research are written in a certain order and with which the researcher goes to the informant and after getting answers to these questions through formal interview fills the answers himself.



 Characteristics of Schedule 

The following characteristics of a good schedule are clear from the definitions of schedule.

1. Proper sequence of questions – Schedule is a form or form. On which the questions related to the research problem are written (printed) i.e. it is a list of questions. What will be the number of questions. It depends on the research problem and the informants.

2.Easy and clear questions – In the schedule, the researcher (or interviewer) has to establish contact with each informant himself and get his answers by asking the questions formally.

(3) Major field research method (Limited size) – Schedule is a major method of collecting information in field research and in most social research, facts are collected by this method.

(4) Use of other methods (Accurate communication) – Two other methods under the Schedule – observation or observation and interview – are used as auxiliary or supplementary techniques. Therefore, the main features of observation and interview are also found in it. In a way it has three

The terms are used together.

5. Proper sequence of questions – The first feature of a good schedule is the proper sequence of questions. The questions are written in such a systematic manner that there is internal consistency in the questions, that is, the questions are related to each other so that the informant feels that the information about the various aspects related to the problem is systematically being received.

6. Easy and clear questions – Another important feature of a good schedule is to structure the questions in such a way that they are simple as well as clear so that the informant can understand them well. Although in this method, the researcher himself asks the question in front of the informant, yet the effort should be made to formulate simple and clear questions which can be understood by different informants in the same sense.

7. Limited size – The number of questions should be: Although it depends on the nature of the problem, still a good schedule should have a limited size. Only questions related to the problem of research should be included in it.

8. Accurate communication – In a good schedule, it is necessary to structure the questions in such a way that no misconception is developed in the mind of the informant and he can understand the questions in the right sense.

9. Accurate response – Another important feature of a good schedule is that questions should be constructed in such a way that only necessary, useful and accurate data can be collected from them.
10. Provision of cross-questions – A good schedule is said to have the arrangement of asking cross-questions in different aspects related to the problem so that the information given by the informant can be checked against different questions. Questions can be written on the basis only. c – Form and printing should also be fine. Although it is kept by the researcher himself, yet an educated person may wish to see it once. Therefore, the physical form of the schedule should be as follows





Objectives of the Schedule

1. Valid Study – To get the authentic answer, the researcher himself establishes a relationship with the individuals personally. The researcher tries to get only those answers which are useful and meaningful in his view. Therefore, the respondents did not get a chance to put different meanings. get. This gives authenticity to the study.
2. Guard Against Useless Collection The purpose of unlist is to get systematic answers to the questions related to the subject. In the absence of a schedule, information about redundant things is also possible because the memory power cannot be fully trusted that only those questions which have already been decided in the mind will be asked. There can be no such mistake in the schedule as the question is written and ordered. So he will compile only the relevant facts.

3. Useful in Collecting Numerical Facts – This method is useful in collecting numerical information (NCES) – This method is more useful in collecting numerical information and data. This method is not suitable for thinking information or emotional information.

4. Helpful in observation – The purpose of the schedule is to increase the observation ability of the observer and to make the observation more scientific because this method is specially designed for objective recording and collection of essential information. Assistance makes the study more reliable by providing an opportunity to observe various aspects. Therefore, it contributes to observation in the following ways (i) This method helps in increasing the observation ability of the observer; ( ii ) this method aligns the inspection with the objectives ; (iii) This method makes inspection more objective; and (iv) this method helps in standardization of inspection results.
5. To make study deeper and more meaningful (To make study into sive and more meaningful) – Schedule because it also incorporates observation and interview methods. Therefore, it is helpful in making the study more thorough and meaningful than other methods.

6. Helpful in evaluation studies – The purpose of the schedule is to provide assistance in evaluation studies. With this we can find out the differences and similarities found in the opinions, opinions, interests, attitudes and opinions of the informants, that is, we can evaluate their values.

7. Helpful in collection of all types of data – Schedule is not only helpful in collecting primary data, but also in collection of documentary or historical data. Institution Survey Schedule or Document Schedule II

It helps in the collection of data.



Necessary Sages 

The above schedules are used for compilation of facts. In order to get the material by the schedule one has to pass through certain stages, which we can present as follows

(1) Selection of Respondents – In using the schedule, first of all the respondents are selected from whom the information is to be collected. Under this, two types of systems can be adopted – Census Method and Sampling Method. Where the schedule is filled after interviewing the individuals of the group, the method of computation is adopted. Before adopting the method of computation, the researcher sees that what is the nature of the study-problem. He can also divide the group into several sub-groups. Despite this, if all the answers cannot be given a place in the list, then the sampling method is used. Tax respondents are selected and interviewed by the sampling method and the questionnaires received from them are filled in the questionnaires. The details of the selected persons, that is, the pertinent information about them, should be written down immediately. Care should also be taken whether the respondents will be available or not. Keep in touch with them.

(2) The Selection and Training of Investigators – Where some people are to be interviewed, the researcher himself can go and get the desired information from them and fill it in the schedule. If the number of interviewees is more, then the researcher can select some such investigators who can fill the information in the schedule by interview with great skill, understanding, patience and intelligence. In their selection, the researcher has to be very careful because the investigators who are being selected without experience, if they prove to be unsuitable, then the research work cannot be conducted properly. Therefore, they should be specially trained. There should be preliminary training camps for them so that they can have complete knowledge about the nature of study, field, objectives, methods of filling the schedules, methods of interview, which information to give priority etc.

(3) Collection of data – For the collection of fact-material, the researcher or investigator has to reach a certain place to conduct the interview. After obtaining information from the respondents, it has to be filled in the schedule, but for this a gradual process has to be followed which is as follows –

4) Contact with Informants – Before getting information through interview, informants have to be contacted. In establishing this connection, the field workers have to work with skill, cleverness, patience and calmness. If the worker is not able to influence the informant in the beginning, then it becomes difficult to get information from him. If in the mind of the informant, some misconceptions have arisen about the worker or some doubt has arisen, then in such a situation it is absolutely impossible to get the information. Therefore, the worker should introduce himself very effectively, winning his heart with his sweet voice and gentle nature. He should be greeted in a very polite manner and establish harmony with his nature, habits and behavior. Therefore, he should create such a situation that the informer himself gets excited. Should be taken The worker should take care that questions are asked to him. If the informant is busy in some work, then his work should not be disturbed. He should be patient and ask questions only in a time-appropriate situation.

5) Interview – After establishing contact with the informant, the work of interview is started. Interviewing is as difficult as establishing contact with the informants. While conducting the interview, the researcher should take special care that he does not throw questions at once. Its objective is to obtain as much reliable information as possible from the interviewer, this can be possible only when the researcher receives the information in a natural environment, keeping in mind the feelings of the informant. After stopping for a while, some things should be done here and there so that the interest of the informer remains. To make the interview interesting, some laughs and jokes should also be made or some suitable illustration should be given so that the informant considers the interview as an ‘interesting visit’ without considering it as a burden.

(6) Getting information (To Obtam Information) – While doing the interview, the problem arises that how to get relevant and reliable information from the informant. The interviewer should get the information by asking questions from the schedule one by one. But there should not be any apprehension in the mind of the interviewer that the researcher is getting secret information from him or is confusing him. If the respondent deviates from the main topic while giving the information, then in such a situation his attention should be carefully focused on the main subject or he should stop by doing some other things in the middle of the interview. also possible

And it may be that due to the lack of clarity of questions, the information would have understood its meaning in some other way, due to which it gets distracted from the main subject. Therefore, the researcher or researcher should formulate precise and clear questions.





Editing of Schedules 

When all the schedules are received from the investigators, they are edited, the process of which is as follows

(i) Checking the Schedules – First of all, the schedules sent by the workers are checked. There it is taken care of whether all the schedules have been received or not. After this the classification of the lists is done. This classification is done on the basis of workers or investigators. A separate file of the schedules sent by each investigator is prepared and the name of the worker, area, number of information reports etc. are written on that file by chitting.

(ii) Checking the Entries – The researcher checks all the entries. If any field is not filled or the answer has been written in the wrong box, then by finding out the reason, tries to remove that error. If he can rectify the mistake himself, he corrects it at the same time, otherwise the schedule is returned to the worker, which he can either amend himself or get the correct information again after meeting with the respondent.

(ii i) Dirty Schedules – The researcher separates the ‘dirty’ schedules. Those which are not readable or torn or not reportable due to any other reason are sent to the worker so that accurate information can be obtained.

iv) Coding – The researcher does the work of notation to remove the convenience in the task of tabulation. He categorizes all the answers into fixed parts, each category is given a number indicating.


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