Reasons of Reduction in Death Rate

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Reasons of Reduction in Death Rate

There are many reasons for the reduction in mortality rate in India, but the main ones are- 1. Reduction in famines and epidemics, 2. Expansion of medical and health reform programs, 3. Increase in education of women, 4. Increase in marriage age, 5. Expansion of entertainment resources, 6. Decrease in superstition, 7. Urbanization, 8 lives level increase.

Occupational Distribution of Population

Occupational distribution of population refers to the proportion of the total population in which the population is engaged in different types of occupations. In other words, the proportion in which the total population is engaged in different types of occupations is called occupational distribution of population. The ratio of the working population to the total population varies from country to country and varies from country to country at different times. The main reasons for this are – expected age, achievement of employment opportunities, public attitude towards work, etc. The working population of India is currently 39.2 percent.

This percentage has been increasing and decreasing over the last decades. The working population was 46.6 percent in 1901, while it was 42.4 percent in 1931, 43 percent in 1961.

If we compare India’s working population with other countries, we find that our percentage, which is 39.2, is very less; For example, 73 percent of Germany, 50 percent of Japan, 45 percent of England and 43 percent of France’s population are working. , trade, commerce and other services, etc.).

According to the 2001 Census of India, 31.7% are tenants, 26.5% agricultural laborers, 4.2% family industrial workers and 37.6% other workers in the country.

Occupational distribution and economic development- If a large percentage of the total population of a country is dependent on agriculture, then that country is considered to be in a low stage of economic development. Conversely, if a country depends on agriculture at a very low percentage, then that country is considered developed.

Similarly, if a country progresses towards development, then the percentage of its population on agriculture and other primary occupations decreases. In the initial stage of economic development, the highest proportion of the working population is engaged in the primary sector due to many reasons, such as-

(i) In underdeveloped or under-developed countries, the production of food items is low, so most of the population here is forced to engage in agricultural work to meet the minimum food requirement.

(ii) Export of raw materials to pay for essential imports – Many under-developed countries have to export agricultural produce and minerals to pay for their imports. For this reason also, most of the population there remains engaged in the primary sectors.

(iii) Lack of employment in non-agricultural sectors – It is also a fact that due to lack of employment in non-agricultural sectors, people have to depend on agriculture because there is lack of employment facilities in non-agricultural sectors. Is . But along with economic development the conditions start changing. Production starts increasing in the primary sector. Workers start moving towards construction industries because their income increases along with development. Due to this, the demand for industrial-made goods also increases rapidly, due to which employment opportunities increase by expanding industries. Along with the progress of the construction sector, the sectors like banking, insurance, transportation, etc. also start developing rapidly, as a result the proportion of working population engaged in this sector starts increasing.

Some scholars say that in India, workers should be removed from the agricultural sector and employed in industries and services because about one-fourth of the people in agriculture are surplus who do not make any significant contribution to agricultural production. Due to this per capita income will increase, national income will increase, production will increase, standard of living will increase, poverty and unemployment will be reduced in the country. The population in India is growing rapidly and it is estimated that about 6 million persons enter the labor market every year.

The expected life expectancy of the country is increasing. The number of these job seekers is increasing. Therefore, there should be expansion in the field of industries and services. This will gradually reduce the proportion of workers in the agricultural sector.
, Lack of entertainment means – Most of the population lives in villages where there are no means of entertainment, so people consider sexual contact as entertainment, it increases the population. comparison

Low income and low standard of living The per capita income in India is much lower than that of other countries. For this reason the standard of living here is also low. Having more children increases the income and improves the standard of living because in India even a child of 7-8 years of age starts helping his father in his work.

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