Social stratification

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Social stratification


The term stratification is derived from geology and refers to the classification of individuals into different levels in society, which is believed to be arranged vertically in the same way as the Earth’s surface. The layers are arranged vertically one above or below the other. But this geoscientific metaphor also has its limits. As Andre Beite (1985) says, “The arrangement of individuals in society is much more complex than the arrangement of layers/layers on the earth and social layers cannot be seen with the naked eye in the same way as we can see the layers of the earth.” Huh . When we talk about social stratification, we are in a way focusing on the inequalities prevailing in the society. In a broad sense, social stratification refers to the classification of society into different strata. This stratification refers to classes arranged on the basis of hierarchy. Many historical and cultural diversities and disparities are found in these classes, in which castes, power class (estate) and class are the most important. Year 1960 Since then, attention is also being paid towards ethnic and gender stratification. Some of the important definitions are as follows

In the words of Gisbert, “Social stratification is the division of society into permanent groups or categories which are related to each other by relations of superiority and subordination. It is clear from this statement that social stratification is a system. By this system the society is divided into different permanent groups or categories. Also, these different groups are bound to each other by the relations of superiority and subordination.
According to Sutherland and Woodward, “Stratification is simply a process of interaction or differentiation by which some individuals acquire a higher status than others.” This definition suggests that social stratification is a It is a process. Through this process, the society is divided into different parts. In this division, some get higher status and others get lower status.
Parsons (T. Parsons) has written, “By social stratification is meant the division of individuals into higher and lower hierarchy in a social system.” It is clear from this statement that social stratification is a system of division of society into higher and lower class. Is .

Sorokin has written, ‘Social stratification means the differentiation of a population into stratified superimposed classes of high and low. It is clear from this definition that the society is divided into different classes by social stratification. These classes are below and above each other. That is, stratification is found between these classes.
It is clear from the above definitions that social stratification is such a system through which the society is divided into several groups and classes. Each class has a certain status which is higher or lower than each other. But, these classes and groups are related to each other.

Characteristics of Social Stratification

Universality: Social stratification is a universal process. It has been found in some form or the other in every society. Whether it is backward society or civilized, ancient society or modern simple society or complex, form of social stratification can be seen. This process is found even in communist societies which claim to be classless societies.
Conscious Process: Social stratification is a conscious process. It is produced in a planned manner in the conscious state. Generally this work is done by the elite class of the society.
Division of Society: Social stratification is the system of dividing the society into different classes. Through this, the society is divided into many high to low classes and each class has a certain status. Along with this, the work and facilities related to this position are also available.
Horizontal Division: There is horizontal division of society through social stratification. Horizontal division refers to that division where the society is divided into different classes and equality is found in the condition of the people of each class. For example, under caste stratification equality is found in the status of people belonging to one caste.
Relationship of Superiority and Subordination: Social stratification divides the society into high and low classes. But these classes are not separate from each other, but are related. In the absence of one the other cannot be imagined. For example, one form of social stratification, class stratification, has several classes of upper and lower classes on the basis of occupation, but they are linked by social relations. Similarly, on the basis of meaning, there are capitalist class and working class and they are linked in relation of superiority and subordination.
Individual Process: Olsen has mentioned this feature. He says that stratification is an individual process. Under this system, one level person competes with another level person.

ries to do and sometimes opposes too. Class-struggle and caste-struggle are the gift of this system.
Determination of Attitude: One of the features of social stratification is that it makes it possible to determine the attitude of a person. The caste, class and status group of which a person is a member, his thoughts and attitudes also become favorable to him. This is the reason why difference is found in the attitudes of two different classes of people.
Many Bases: There are many bases of social stratification. Prominent among these are gender, age, property, religion, physical and intellectual skills, race, caste etc. It is up to the society and the social system to recognize whom in stratification and whom not.

Distinction between Caste and Class

‘ (1) The caste system is a closed class while the class system is an open or free class. The social status in a caste is determined by birth and there is no opportunity to join any other caste. On the contrary, the inequalities of man are recognized in the class system. In this, a person is given equal opportunities for progress. A person can enter from one category to another on the basis of his merit.

Individual ability and ability are neglected in caste. The situation in class is just the opposite. On the strength of his ability, a person can reach the upper class of the society.
3. Caste is seen as a closed system of stratification and class as an open system. Generally, the nature of classes is understood to be open, but in reality each class prevents the member of lower class from coming into its class and generally establishes relations only with the members of its class. Practically, the policy of class-endmarriage is also adopted between different classes. This is the reason why some scholars have not accepted any fundamental distinction between caste and class. Nevertheless, it is certain that there are different concepts of caste and class in their nature, functions and prohibitions which can be understood as follows

4. Caste is a closed form of social stratification while class is open. No person except one caste can accept the membership of another caste. The rules of each caste are also different from other castes. On the contrary, the door of class membership is open to all. A person can become a member of any class according to his wealth, ability, skill.

5. The basis of caste membership is birth. The caste in which a person is born once, remains a member of that caste for life. But the membership of the class is based on the actions and efforts of the individual and he can change his class by his ability.

6. A person does not have to try to get the membership of the caste, rather it is given by the society. This is the reason why there is stability in caste. On the other hand, the membership of the class is entirely the result of the individual’s personal efforts and with the change in these efforts, the membership of the class also changes.

, 7. Every caste has a certain occupation and it is the moral duty of the members of that caste to earn their livelihood through that. But in the class system, a member can choose any occupation according to his interest and means.

, 8. Every caste necessarily compels its members to establish marriage relations within their own caste. On the contrary, there is no fixed rule of this type in class. Despite this, members of a class try to establish marriage relations within their own class. 6. The basis of elevation in class is economic whereas the status of caste is determined by the society. The basis of formation of castes are many religious and cultural beliefs. From this point of view, caste is a system of many rules related to purity and impurity. The class-system does not include any kind of beliefs related to purity or impurity.

9. In the caste-system, the profession is decided by birth. In the class-system, there is freedom to choose an occupation according to one’s will. ,

10. Membership of a caste is innate. He gets it automatically from the society. In contrast, class membership is earned. A person can enter from one class to another by his own efforts.



Bases of Social Stratification

Caste: One of the major zoological basis of social stratification is ‘caste’. India is a shining example of this. In this caste stratification, ‘Brahmin’ has the highest position and ‘Shudra’ has the lowest position. There are many castes between these two extremes respectively. This stratification is very stable and firm.
Wealth: Since ancient times, wealth has been a major basis of social stratification. The people who have more wealth in the society, their status is considered to be higher. They are successful in gathering many facilities of life. On the contrary, the people who have less property, their status is lower. This is the reason why poverty is positionless.
Occupation: Occupation is also a major basis of social stratification. On the basis of the high and low status of the business in the society, the status of the people associated with it should be decided.

For example, some profession is considered high and prestigious in the society. Administrators, doctors, professors etc. come in this. On the other hand, some occupations are considered low, such as barbering, shoe making, etc. In this way, those who are associated with administration, medicine and education, their status is high. Then the status of the people associated with the work of making shoes is low.

Sex: The most ancient basis of social stratification is sex discrimination. In most societies, the status of men is considered higher than that of women. The more facilities and freedom men get in different areas of life, the more women are not.
Age: Age has been considered as the second zoological basis of social stratification. Age often reflects the mental maturity and experience of a person. That is why in most of the societies, more respect, respect and special facilities are given to the people of older age.
Race: On the basis of racial differences, high-low stratification is seen in the society. It is believed that the white race (Caucasian) is the best among species because its color is white, blood is of high level, high mental ability and disseminator of civilization. After this, according to merit respectively, the yellow race (Mongoloid) and the dark race (Negroid) are at the bottom.
Religion: Religion has been the basis of stratification in religious-dominated societies. The people who are more attached to religion, religious knowledge, religious rituals and faith, their status is higher than the common people. religious leaders in India. The main reason for the high status of priests and religious scholars etc. is their association with religion.
Politics: An important basis of social stratification is called politics. Who has the reins of government in his hands. His status is high. Along with this, stratification of high and low is seen on the basis of political power under the governance system. For example, the President has the highest position in the governance system in India. Then after that, respectively, the Vice-President, Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Minister, Cabinet level ministers and Ministers of State etc. come. Thus it is clear that there are many bases of social stratification.



Forms of social stratification

Closed Stratification: Closed stratification is that stratification in which the status of a person is determined on the basis of birth. Also, there is no mobility found in it. According to this system, a person’s work, status and convenience and inconvenience are determined by birth. The best example of this type of stratification is the Indian caste system. Caste of a person is determined by birth. But the status and position of one caste is higher or lower than that of another caste. For example, the status of Brahmin is lower than the highest. There are many castes and sub-castes between these two extremes. Then there is a change in their condition. That is why caste is defined as a closed class. Closed stratification is known as caste stratification. ,
(2) Open Stratification: Open stratification is that stratification in which the status of a person is determined on the basis of their ability, ability and efficiency. Mobility is a natal feature of such stratification. According to this system, a person can attain high or low status through his own efforts. Also, once the status is achieved, it is not necessary that that status will remain. Change is possible in that. The best example of such stratification is the class system. The basis of class is karma, by karma a person can be an industrialist, laborer, professor and student. According to this the class of a person is determined. Also class is open group. A person can change his class membership. With birth a person gets the class status of his family. But on the basis of his ability and ability, he can increase his status. In this way, it is possible to reach from high group to low group, from low to high group under the class system. That is why some people also call open stratification as class stratification.


significance or function of social stratification
` (Importance or Functions of Social Stratification)

Simplify the Work: Under the system of social stratification, the ability of a person is determined. For example, through the caste system, a particular caste gets special qualification and work which it has to fulfill. In the same way, under the class system, a particular class has a special qualification and style of work which it has to fulfill. In this way, through social stratification, a person gets information about what work to do and how to do it. This makes things easy.
Determine the Attitudes: A special importance of social stratification is to determine human attitudes. According to the caste, class or status-group a person is a member of, his attitudes are developed and determined accordingly. From this point of view, social stratification makes a person aware of his attitudes and motivates him to do his own development.
Helpful in Maintaining Social Order:

One of the importance of social abstraction is that it helps in maintaining order in the society. By this, the society is divided into different classes on the basis of birth and qualification and the behavior and manner of the individuals of each class is fixed.

Along with this, such arrangements are made that the person adopts his certain style of work. This maintains the social order.
Helpful in Social Integration: The system of social stratification divides people and groups into different classes. The functions of the people of each class are fixed. One person is dependent on another in the context of other tasks after completing his tasks. Because a person’s needs cannot be met only by K. Due to this mutual dependence is maintained among individuals and groups. This dependence helps in social integration.
Helpful in Social Progress: Social stratification is helpful in progress. The basis of the system, whether it is birth (caste system) or ability (class system), both inspire a person to act according to social recognition in their own way. Caste-religion is talked about under the caste system. According to this principle, the deeds of this birth have been determined on the basis of the deeds of a person’s previous birth, so it is mandatory to follow them. As a result, a person voluntarily performs his duty. Then a person tries to increase the maximum qualification in the class system so that he can achieve a higher position. Both these conditions are helpful in social progress. Thus, it is clear from the above description that social stratification shows its importance both at the individual and group level.
Helpful in Fulfillment of Needs: Individuals have many needs. No person can fulfill all his needs by himself. Through the system of social stratification, the work of individuals is divided. Each person is helpful in fulfilling the needs of the people by doing his specific work efficiently.
Determination of Status: A special importance of social stratification is that by this individuals get proper place in the society which is called its status. The ability, capacity and work efficiency of every person in the society is not the same. It is necessary for a healthy society that status is attained according to the merit of the individual. This need is met by social stratification.



A group of people who have the same social status. Many situations are found in every society. As a result, many classes are also found according to them. When the society is divided into different groups on the basis of some other than birth, then each group is called class. Some important definitions are as follows
Maclver and Page have defined class as, ‘Social class is that part of the community which is separated from the rest on the basis of social status. It is clear from this definition that the basis of class is social status. That is, people of the same status form a class which is different from other classes.
In the words of Ginsberg, “Class can be called such a group of persons who are similar on the basis of occupation, wealth, education, lifestyle, thoughts, feelings, attitude and behavior or on one or two of these grounds.” But they should have the consciousness of equality which makes them aware of their own group or class.” Three things are clear from this definition that class is a group of persons, (ii) There are many bases of class formation – business, money, education. , life-style and attitude etc. and (iii) class consciousness, which is called class consciousness.
Mavers and Engels have written, “The coming together of different individuals forms a class only when they struggle as one class against another class, otherwise they, being mutual competitors, are opposed to a single ideology.” Or remain enemies. “It is clear from this definition that the basis of class is struggle. That is, it cannot be imagined without struggle. This struggle happens on the basis of economic interests. On the basis of the above definitions, it can be said that – It is a group which is based on social elements and which has the qualities of class-consciousness.

Characteristics of Class

Definite Hierarchy – Social classes are divided into certain categories. Some of these categories are high and some are low. Those who are members of the upper class have the least number of members but have the highest prestige. On the contrary, those who are members of the lower class, their number of members is more, but their importance and respect is the least. It is a natural consequence of this type of situation that the members of the upper class often take pride in staying away from the members of the lower class. In other words, social distancing is encouraged.

Achieved System: The basis of class is karma. A person becomes rich or poor, industrialist or laborer, expert, on the strength of his work.

Could be professor, doctor, engineer or farmer. According to that his class is formed. This is how class is acquired. A person gets it through his own efforts.
Class Conflict: This feature has been mentioned by Marx. Marx says that the struggle between classes is the only element, which makes sense of the existence of classes in the society. Class cannot be imagined without struggle and this struggle takes place on the basis of economic interests. Thus, on the basis of the concept and characteristics of class, it is clear that class is a prevalent basis of social stratification.
Hierarchy: One of the main features of the class is called ‘hierarchy’. This means that there is a hierarchy of classes in the society in which there are several classes from the highest to the lowest. The stratification of high and low is clearly seen in these classes. According to this stratification, difference is seen in position, prestige and facilities.
Feeling of Superiority – Inferiority: The feeling of superiority and inferiority is seen in classes. Members of one class have a feeling of superiority or inferiority towards the members of other classes. For example, this feeling towards each other is clearly seen between the rich class and the poor class.

Common Life – Members of different sections of the society live their lives in their own special way. The way of living of the rich class is different from the middle class and lower class. The rich class takes pride in spending more and more. The middle class is often stuck in the customs and practices and the way of the lower class is completely different from both of these.

Importance of Economic Basis Economic status is the most important task of class formation. Modern society is capitalist or technological. In these societies, gender, age, etc. do not have a special relationship with class membership. Economically, prosperity or inferiority divides people into upper class, middle and lower class.

Openness and Shifting – Classes are open in nature. It means that if a person is specially qualified or skilled, then he can take membership of any class or can be a member of many classes simultaneously on different bases. Reflecting this position, Bottomore wrote that “whether social classes are relatively free or not, their basis is unquestionably economic, but they are more than economic groups.” It is also normal for social classes to fluctuate. Any poor person can join the rich class by becoming financially prosperous. Similarly, if the economic condition of a rich person falls completely, then he can slip from that class and go to the middle or lower class. This change in class status automatically happens according to the economic status.

Achieved Membership It is clear from the above mentioned fourth and fifth characteristics of a social class that the membership of the class depends not only on birth but on merit, skill and economic prosperity. One has to strive for the membership of the class. If a person belongs to a lower class, he has to prove his worth to enter the higher class. Permanently a person is able to live in the same class according to which he has merit.

Essentiality of Classes – The presence of classes in the society is essential. All people are not equal in terms of ability, functionality, interest, intelligence etc. So it is natural that individuals should Get position and respect according to merit. Only then can the social order be sustained. Classless society has been imagined in Marxism. But it is certain that such a society can never be established. ,

Less Stability – Money, education, business are of provincial and temporary nature, so the class-system based on them is also a stable concept. One who is rich today may be poor tomorrow.

Sub-classes – There are sub-classes under each class in the social class. For example, potti-varga on the basis of right over money in the rich class. Lakhpati-class Many sub-classes etc. Various sub-classes are found.

Life Chances – Max Weber has pointed out a characteristic of class called ‘Life Chance’. Accordingly, “We can call a group a class when its members have some specific opportunities of life in common.”

Class-Situation: Max Weaver has also drawn attention to this feature, which is related to life opportunity. The presence or absence of property in the possession of a class gives rise to a specific situation in which the class resides. If the members of the class have property, then naturally they will get opportunities to earn more money, buy more and maintain a higher standard of living etc. Combined, these opportunities will constitute the typical environment in which the members of that class must live. This is the Class Situation.

Common Life Style: Commonality is seen in the life style of the members of a class which on the other hand is also different from other classes. clothes of a class of people, Khan

There is mostly similarity in food, form of house, living-tolerance and manners. Along with this, the family and matrimonial relations of the members of a class are also limited to their class-groups.

Class-Consciousness: Class-consciousness is the basic characteristic of class. This means that the members of each class have a sense of how their socio-economic-political position and prestige are in comparison to other classes. This is the feeling that binds the members of a class together.
Restricted Social Relations: The social relations of the members of a class are usually limited to their own class. Their eating-drinking, getting up-sitting and other interactive relations are with the people of their class. Also, they maintain a certain social distance from other classes. This is the limitation of social relations, which is a special feature of class.
Mobility: A special feature of the class is mobility. It is not based on birth, but it is based on ability, ability, that is, action. As a result, a member of a lower class can join the upper class on the strength of his ability and ability. In the same way a person can go down to the lower class through failure. Thus there is emptiness in the nature of classes. ,


The word caste is the Hindi version of the English word ‘caste’. It was first used by Gracia de Orta in 1563. In his words, “People do not change their ancestral occupation. Thus the people who make shoes are of the same type (caste). It is in this sense that Abbe Dubois has used it. He is of the opinion that the word ‘caste’ has been used in Europe to denote a clan and class. A.R.Wadia ) is of the opinion that the word ‘caste’ is a word similar to the Latin language ‘castus’ which means pure race or breed. Some people believe that the origin of this word is from the Latin language ‘casta’ (casta). It is believed that the meaning is complete with racial elements, race, or ancestral qualities. The word ‘caste’ in Hindi is derived from the root ‘jana’ of the Sanskrit language, which means ‘to arise’ and ‘to generate’. From this point of view, the meaning of caste is Is from things with similar qualities by birth. But in sociology the word ‘caste’ is used in a specific sense. The definitions of caste given by prominent scholars are as follows (1) According to Risley- “This family or several a collection of families bearing a common name that traces their origin to a fictitious man or deity

Regarding the concept or definition of caste, it can be said that it is mainly a lesson of people whose membership is based on heredity. It gets a certain place in caste-stratification. A caste is not a community or society itself, but a group of community or society whose society has a predetermined place and it is related to a certain occupation. Some important definitions are as follows
Herbert Risley, while giving the definition of caste, wrote, “A caste is a collection of families or groups of families bearing a common name, which trace their lineage from an imaginary ancestor, who may be a human or a deity.” claims origin, carries on the same ancestral occupation and is regarded as a homogeneous community by those who are entitled to make such decisions or votes. This definition makes 5 things clear – (i (i) a caste is a collective organization of several families, (ii) it has a name, (iii) each caste has an imaginary ancestor, (iv) it has a definite occupation and (v) it exists as a homogeneous community. Is known .
According to Majumdar and Madan (D. N. Majumdar and T. N. Madan), “caste is a closed class. It is clear from this definition that caste is based on birth. One has to live till the end. Membership of caste cannot be changed in any case. In this sense, caste is a closed class.
Dutta (N. K. Dutta) has written defining caste by including the maximum characteristics of caste, “Caste is a type of social group, whose members do not marry outside their caste, restriction on food, profession, are certain, stratigraphic division is found, change from one caste to another is not possible. This definition reveals 6 characteristics of caste – (i) caste is a social group, (ii) caste is endogamous group, (iii) there are restrictions on food and drink in caste, (iv) occupation of caste is fixed, (v) stratification is found in castes and (vi) membership of caste is not possible to change. Based on the above facts, it can be said that there is a dynamic system of caste stratification which is based on birth and imposes restrictions on food, marriage, profession etc.

Characteristics of Caste

G. S. Ghuryehas discussed 6 characteristics of caste, on the basis of which it has been said to be more useful to understand caste. These features are as follows
Segmental Division of Society: Caste system

divided into certain sections. The position, position and work of the members of each section is determined by birth. And they have a sense of community. Following caste rules is a moral duty.
Hierarchy: Under the caste-system, the status of each caste is a dance of searching for each other. At the top of this stratum are the Brahmins and the lowest are the untouchable castes. These two people are of no caste. Not only this . There are many sub-castes within a caste and there is a distinction between high and low.
Hereditary Nature of Occupation: The occupation of a person is determined on the basis of caste-occupation. Therefore, the caste in which a person is born, he has to adopt the personality of that caste. There is no scope for any change in it. Thus it can be said that the main feature of caste is traditional occupation.
Endogamous: According to the caste system, the members of the caste can establish marriage relations within their own caste or sub-caste. Almost no one dares to violate this rule. Westermark has considered the specialty as the ‘essence of the caste system’. The endogamous rule is still found in castes. Thus, on the basis of above description, it becomes clear that caste system has been a clear and important basis of social stratification in Indian society.
Restrictions on Fooding and Social IntereCHISE: There are restrictions related to food-drinking, social interaction and social interaction in the caste system. Often people of one caste do not accept food from the hands of lower castes. Along with this, many restrictions related to raw and pucca food are observed. Similarly, the feeling of untouchability is found in the context of social contact and interaction.
Social and Religious Disabilities: Special differences are seen in the caste-system among the poplars. On the one hand, as many facilities and rights are available to the higher castes in the areas of life, the lower castes do not have that much. Brahmin is full of many rights in social, religious, economic and other fields. On the other hand, untouchable castes are deprived of even public facilities and rights. Even in rural areas its glimpse is seen.


Species is a biological concept. Members of each species have their own physical characteristics. These traits are basically hereditary. On the basis of these characteristics one species can be separated from other species. Some of the major definitions are as follows
a . Ale . Kroeber (A. L. Kroeber) has written while defining species, “A species is a certified, zoological concept. It is a group related by heredity, race or racial character or subspecies.” It is clear from this definition – (1) Species is used in the zoological sense. (2) It is related to physical traits and characteristics arising from birth.
J. Bisanj and M. Bies (J. Biesanz and M. Biesanz) have written, “A species is a large group of individuals that are identified by innate physical characteristics.” It is clear from this statement – (1) Some specific physical characteristics of each species There are (2) When these specific physical characteristics are found in a large group, that group will be called a species.
E . a . In the words of E. A. Hoebel, “A species is a natural zoological group possessing distinct physical characters. These characters are inherited from one generation to another in a pure form.” This explains – ( 1) Species is a zoological group. (2) A racial group is the owner of specific physical characteristics. (3) These traits are passed on from one generation to another. , On the basis of the above description, it can be said that species is such a large human group whose members have some similar physical characteristics. These characteristics are transmitted from one generation to another and on the basis of this one racial group can be separated from others.

Characteristics of Race
A Particular Physical Type: Certain physical characteristics or features are common to a species. This does not mean that all the physical characteristics of the members of a species are exactly the same. Common physical features simply mean resemblance to the ‘body type’ of one’s own species. One species can be distinguished from another on the basis of physical appearance.
Transmission of Inherited Traits: The physical traits or characteristics of a species are passed on from one generation to another by the process of inheritance. Genes have great importance in transferring the characteristics of a species. Those whose carriers are identical will belong to the same species.
Large Size of Group: A species is a large human group. Its members are spread over a wide area instead of living in a small area. In this way, only when common physical characteristics or characteristics are found in a large group of people, that group will be called a species. The number of its members can be up to crores.
Race Endogamy: Each species mates with its own species.

Adopts the policy of marrying Dasyas. For this reason, the same physical characteristics are found in their children, which belong to that group. Through endogamy, each group also protects its progress from external influences and through this policy, efforts are made to reduce the possibility of mixing blood from other species.
Stratification: Stratification is seen in the society on the basis of racial differences. It is believed that the white species (Calesian) is the best among the species because its color is white, blood is of high level, high mental ability and spreader of civilization. After this there is Yellow race (Mongoloid) and at the bottom there is Shyam race (Negroid).
Biological Concept Species is a biological concept. It is closely related to heredity. considered to be associated with. Merrill wrote, “species is a biological term that refers to the physical similarities of a large human group that are transmitted through heredity.”



Gender and Stratification

The oldest basis of social stratification is gender discrimination. Man and woman are the foundation stones of human society. Society cannot be imagined in the absence of any one. Despite this, in most societies the status of men is considered higher than that of women. The more facilities and freedom men get in different areas of life, the more women are not. The basic function of women was considered to be reproduction, taking care of the home and being subservient to men.
When a high-low status is given in a society on the basis of sex, then this condition is known as gender inequality. In Indian society, from the very beginning, men have dominated women as a group and kept their status low in the family and society. The problem of gender inequality is basically a problem related to women. From the theoretical point of view, the status of women in the Indian society has been presented as ideal, but from the practical point of view, discriminatory attitude towards them and their contempt. The humiliation and harassment continues even today. Even now seriousness is not shown to know their opinion, they are not considered equal to men and they are not given due respect. This is gender inequality. In the relations between men and women, only a person with a strong personality attains an influential position. Normally, the man feels the right to command the woman, although in some cases the woman is also in a position to exercise control over the man. In India, from the very beginning, the status of women has not been equal to that of men, but has remained low. Their participation in family and social decisions is found less.
Scientists have explained gender inequality through different approaches. For example, biologists believe that women lack intelligence and power in comparison to biological point of view. That’s why women are subordinate to men and they cannot achieve the same status as men. Anthropologists believe that the earliest form of social evolution was patriarchal. Men dominated the family. Women remained subordinate to men, this is where gender inequality exists even today. Psychologists believe that psychologically women are weaker than men. As a result, their status in the family and society is lower than that of men and it is natural for them to be subservient to men. Sociologists believe that the status of women being less than that of men is the gift of society and culture. Our thinking and behavior are determined by social values and norms. Social value patterns give special importance to men. This is the reason why the status of women is lower than that of men. As a result, a problem like gender inequality developed. In this way, it can be said that when the status of women is determined on the basis of gender considering them as subservient to men, then it is known as gender inequality.

Problems of gender inequality
Economic Dependency: One of the major problems of gender inequality is the economic dependence of women on men. A man can spend his income as per his wish. On the one hand, women are financially dependent on men. As a result, she cannot spend her husband’s income as per her wish. On the other hand, women who are financially independent also spend according to the wishes of their parents before marriage and husband after marriage.
Role Conflict: One of the major problems of gender inequality is the role conflict associated with women. Today’s working women work in office or other places for 8-10 hours, due to which they have to face innumerable problems. Home life has to be adjusted with the routine of the office, then it has to be arranged at different points from the housework and traditional routine. This gives rise to the problem of role conflict.
Problem Regarding Property Right: One of the major problems of gender inequality is the property rights related to women. Legally, the daughter should have the right in the property of the parents, the wife in the property of the husband and the mother in the property of the son.

But in practice it is not so. Even today the property of parents is divided among their sons. Even mentally, the letter does not accept its rights. In rural areas, women are even less aware of these rights.
Political Inequality: A major problem of gender inequality is seen in the political participation of women. Most of the women vote for the desired person as per the wish of their husband or other men in the family. The participation of women in the political field is less. According to the Panchayati Raj system, the influence of their husbands or other male members is seen on the decisions taken by the women who have been elected on the reserved seat.
Marital Inequality: Man and woman enter into family life through the process of marriage. But there is a clear disparity between the two in the marriage process. As per tradition, even today, girls do not get as much freedom as boys have in the choice of life-partner. Even today there is a practice of giving dowry to the boys from the side of the girl.
Inequality in Family: The forms of inequality between men and women can be clearly seen in the family. Inside the family – the responsibility of fulfilling the responsibilities of food-drinking, cleanliness, guest hospitality etc. – is considered only for women. Domestic violence – dowry deaths, wife beating, sexual abuse, ill-treatment of widows and the elderly, etc. – is the result of inequality.
Educational Inequality: Although there is a considerable increase in the education of women after the attainment of independence, but as much awareness is seen in the context of boys’ education, not so much in the context of girls. Where boys are exempted for all types of education, there is talk of giving a special kind of education in the context of girls. Even today, there is talk of giving a special kind of education in the context of girls in rural areas. Even today the percentage of education of girls in rural areas is low.
Social-Violence: The exploitation and violence that is happening with women is basically a sign of inequality. In today’s society, forcing wife, daughter, daughter-in-law to commit female foeticide, molestation of women, denial of share to women in property, torture of son-daughter-in-law for dowry, junior working by senior officers Incidents of misbehavior with women are common

Forms of Stratification

Stratification is that form of inequality in which the members of the society are divided into higher and lower positions or positions. The bases on which this height-lowness of status is determined, these also determine the form or type of stratification. Two basic forms of stratification have been mentioned by the early social scientists. One form of stratification is normative and the other is realistic. Normative stratification is concerned with the nature of stratification, such as open stratification and restricted stratification or the norm of ascribed status and earned status, or the institutional degree and nature of stratification. Actual stratification is concerned with the factors by which members of a society are stratified, such as economic stratification, status quo or power stratification. The dichotomous explanation of the forms of stratification by which the members of the society are divided into two upper and lower groups such as the elite and the common, the elite and the masses, the free and the dependent, the rich and the poor, the rulers and the governed and productive and unproductive groups. In the modern era, the three-class form of stratification is prevalent in which there are upper class, middle class and lower class. Sociologists have mainly mentioned the following five forms of stratification

1. Slavery – Slavery is that form of stratification in which society is divided into two classes called masters and slaves. Keeping other person or persons as slaves as a custom or trend by a person or persons expresses the slavery-form of stratification. Slaves are the property of the master. There was also stratification among the masters on the basis of their ability to keep slaves and the number of slaves. The slaves also attained higher or lower positions depending on the nature of the work. There was a difference of status between domestic slaves and field slaves. Two major examples of slavery are found in human history. Ancient slavery, which was prevalent in the societies of Greece and Rome, was a well-known form of slavery. Another form of slavery existed in the southern part of the United States of America. It has been prevalent for centuries. Slavery has also been prevalent in China in the form of domestic slave system, but here the slave was not considered as private property to the extent that it was considered in Rome.

2 . Estate – Estate is a form of social stratification that developed in the feudal era after slavery. Estate is also a political concept and a social status symbol. A group with special rights in the political field is called Estate or Jagirdari. on the other hand manor or est

The class is that part of the population that occupies a high position in the stratification and enjoys special social rights and privileges. These rights and facilities get legal recognition. Under the estate system, the feudal society was divided into three upper and lower groups. The first place in the social stratification was that of the priests who performed the rituals. In the second place were the noble men or noble persons who were responsible for security during war etc., and in the third place were the common people who labored. The basis of estate was birth and property. The estate form of stratification began at the end of the eleventh century when many slaves were becoming free. The elite people were not ready to include him in their group. The definition of this elite became related to wealth, power and social habits. The aristocracy became a kind of master class and the laborers became subordinate to it. Military instinct also made his nature full of commandment. The distinctive lifestyle became his identity. He lived in a rural area away from the general public but did not do farming. The descendants of the elite group became eligible for special privileges. In India it became associated with the estate system. Here luxury and labor groups were not formed, but this form of stratification based on rural agriculture was of economic and military nature. There was no feudal form of Europe here, and neither was its exploitative system. The estate system was also based on law. In short, the estate was a form of restricted stratification. The rules of stratification were supported by custom and tradition and formal laws were also helpful in these rules and norms.

3. Caste – The direction of social life and thinking in India has been determined by the caste system. The caste system is a rigid form of stratification typical of the Indian social structure, examples of which are not found elsewhere. It is a form of restricted stratification in which a person’s status is determined at birth and remains in that status throughout life. An infinite fund of wealth, or the intensity of talent cannot change his position. Religious belief has been linked with caste. Caste has also been interpreted as a rigid class and also as a status group. Though the caste system appears to be an immutable fixed system, yet it is a dynamic fact. This Indian form of stratification is an adaptation to the circumstances. The development of the democratic system has brought many changes. Changes are taking place in its cultural form and there are also changes in the rank and hierarchy. Caste is an innate group which cannot be changed. It is also an endogamous group. The occupations of castes are pre-determined and cannot be changed. Restrictions on food and social contact or delimitation make the caste system a form of highly restricted stratification. Due to these restrictions, the disabilities of the lower castes gradually developed till the middle ages and they became the victim of the exploitation of the upper castes. They were considered worse than animals. In independent India, the processes of industrialization, urbanization, secularization, Sanskritization, democratization and westernization etc. have brought many changes in the caste system, but the basic form of caste stratification has not changed due to these changes. There has to be a change in the statuses of different castes, but the continuity of the status hierarchy and the basis of caste-membership have not changed. Caste stratification exists in the face of many religious and political conflicts.

4. Class – Social class is the type of stratification that is more prevalent in the modern era. Classes can be understood as economic groups of high-low status that do not receive any religious or legal connotation. Class stratification is a free form of loan. Class members treat other groups as superior or inferior according to their status. Class consciousness is a special feature of class. Marx recognized two classes in social stratification. The bourgeois class owns the means of production. He is the ruler as well as the exploiter. This is upper class. The proletariat labors, is exploited and poor. Mars Weber has also divided the society into two classes, propertyless and propertyless. Class is a specific form of stratification in modern society. Economic status is the main basis of class-determination. Therefore, property, income and occupation are specially associated with the concept of class. In some areas like America, it has become a helpful factor in determining species class. The members of a class maintain the same lifestyle and the opportunities for advancement in life are also the same for them. Ability, hard work and aspiration provide opportunities for class-change. High, middle and low are the three prevalent classes in modern class stratification. Classes play an important political role in democratic countries. Political classes have developed in totalitarian structures.

5, Status Groups – Subdivision has become the main basis of stratification in modern societies. Max Weber has tried to determine the upper-lower social level by considering the quantity of consumption as the basis. People who spend more are in higher status. Briefly explain the following forms of social stratification
economic status

Economic Stratification – The basis of religious stratification is wealth and income. The moral status of a person does not always remain the same. There are ups and downs in this, there are gains. 12 Ups and downs can also change the economic status of the entire group if it can also change the economic conditions of different sections within the group. The average wealth and frequency of each group is different, which increases from time to time. Economic stratification is the ranking of different members and groups of the society on the basis of their economic status i.e. wealth and income.
Political Stratification Societies have become extremely complex due to the expansion of population and development of civilization. Ancient societies were small and simple. Therefore, people were not high or low on political grounds in it. The king, the headman or chieftain was the supreme person and all the rest were subordinate to him. In the modern era, different types of political structures have been developed, under which the division of political situations has started. President, Prime Minister, etc. have become a step-by-step sequence of many positions in a democracy. Political conditions keep changing, as a result of which the political stratification also changes. As the size of a political organization increases or decreases, the stratification also changes. If the variation among its members increases, then the stratification expands and if the variation decreases, then the stratification becomes narrow. Even in the state of war, revolution or rebellion, reversal takes place. Opposing political forces also affect social stratification.
Occupational Stratification Sarokin has described two types of occupational stratification. Intra-occupational stratification is that in which there is inequality in the status of persons engaged in the same occupation. At the highest position are those people who are the owners of businesses, administrators etc. and have control over the employees. The second situation is that of managers or other high officials, who, despite not being the owners themselves, are persons with significant authority. At the last level, the salary earners are ordinary employees and labourers. Generally, customary, occupational and political stratification mutually influence each other. The person who occupies a high position in one field, attains a high position in other fields also.

4. Other Types – In the modern era, on the basis of education, art etc.
Inequality is found in the status of the members. Race has also been the main form of stratification. In stratification, caste pattern and caste pattern are particularly noteworthy. Thus social stratification appears in many forms. According to sociologists, distinct forms of social stratification have developed in different eras of human history. Slavery was a form of stratification in ancient times, then estate system developed in the feudal era. Caste has been the main form of stratification in Indian society and class system has been recognized as the main form of stratification in the modern world. Out of the appropriate forms of social stratification in India, two forms are very important, so we will discuss them in detail here – 1. Caste System 2. Class System








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